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Vol.  I. 

DECEMBER,  1913 

No.  12 

Teutopolis,  111. 


Christmas  at  Greccio  (Poem) .  _       _  383 

Fr.  V.  H.,  O.  F.  M. 
Blessed  Nicholas  Factor,  of  the  First  Order    _  _  384-386 

Fr.  Silas,  O.  F.  M. 
Glories  of  the  Third  Order 387-389 

From  the  German,  by  Fr.  E.  O.  Lunney,  O.  F.  M. 
Little  Catechism  of  the  Third  Order 389-390 

From  the  French,  by  Fr.  Ferdinand,  O.  F.  M. 
Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among  the  Indians  of 

the  Early  Days 391-393 

Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  6.  F.  M. 
Lost  and  Found  (Story) _______     _     ___  _  393-397 

Fr.  B.  S.,  O.  F.  M. 
Current  Comment:     (To    Friends    of    the    "Herald"— Tertiaries 
and  the  Press  Propaganda— Go  and  Do  Likewise— The  Mis- 
sionary Congress— Smut  and   Smut) 398-401 

Anita  (Story) 402-405 

Alice  Hammond. 
Fr.  Junipero  Serra,  O.  F.  M __406-409 

The  Masterpiece __409-411 

Elizabeth  Wilkinson 

Franciscan  News __412-416 

Our  Colleges _  .416-417 

Obituary 417 

Franciscan  Calendar 418 

Notice  to  Our  Subscribers. 

The  subscription  price  for  the  Franciscan  Herald  is  $1.00  a  year,  to  foreign 
countries  $1.25  a  year,  payable  in  advance. 

Every  business  letter  should  contain  the  writer's  full  name  and  address,  including 
title  Mr.,  Mrs.,  or  Miss.  In  case  the  address  is  changed,  both  the  old  and  new 
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date  after  your  name  tells  you  when  your  subscription  expires.  For  instance: 
John  Anderson,  Dec.  13,  signifies  that  John  Anderson  has  paid  his  subscription 
until  December,  1913,  inclusively. 

For  further  information  apply  to  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart 

Literary    contributions   should    be    sent    to 


Teutopolis,  111. 

Letters  relating  to  subscriptions,  renewals,  change  of  address,  and  all  pay- 
ments, address  to 

Teutopolis,  111. 
Entered   as   second-class   matter   January   7,    1913,    at   the   post-office   of   Teu- 
topolis, 111.,  under  the  Act  of   March  3,   1879. 





Jfranctgcan  Heralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the 
Sacred  Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  III.  Order  and  the  Franciscan  Missions 

Vol.  I  JANUARY,  1913  Xo.  1 

Greeting  and    Introduction 

"The  Lord  give  thee  peace." — St  Francis  of  Assisi. 

THIS  greeting,"  says  St.  Francis,  "the  Lord  has  revealed  to  me  that  we 
should  say,  'The  Lord  give  thee  peace. '  "  In  accordance  with  the  express 
wish  of  the  Seraphic  Father,  therefore,  the  Franciscan  Herald,  on  its  first 
appearance,  addresses  to  you,  kind  reader,  the  words,  "The  Lord  give  thee  peace." 
Strange  and  antiquated  as  this  form  of  salutation  may  seem,  yet,  in  these  times  of 
social  strife,  unrest,  agitation,  and  revolution,  what  greeting  could  be  more  appro- 
priate? How  many  thousands  of  homes,  Catholic  homes,  though  blessed  with 
affluence,  are  yet  sadly  in  need  of  the  one  thing  that  makes  life  enjoyable — 
domestic  peace?  Besides,  what  greater  boon  could  you  desire  for  yourself  than 
peace  with  God,  with  your  fellowmen,  and  with  yourself?  Indeed,  it  is  the  very 
essence  of  happiness,  allotted  to  man  to  enjoy  here  or  hereafter.  It  was  of 
peace,  therefore,  that  the  angels  sang  when  the  Prince  of  Peace  was  born;  it 
was  peace  that  the  "Herald  of  the  great  King,"  as  St.  Francis  styled  himself, 
proclaimed  to  the  world;  it  is  peace  that  the  Franciscan  Herald  wishes  to  you, 
kind  reader,  and  desires  to  foster  in  your  home. 

The  Herald  may  be  a  stranger  to  you,  but  it  is  not  an  altogether  new  pub- 
lication. It  is  the  Messenger  of  the  Holy  Childhood  under  a  new  name  and 
guise.  In  order  that  the  last-named  periodical  might  exert  a  greater  influence 
for  good,  it  was  decided  to  give  it  a  wider  scope.  This  naturally  demanded  a 
change  of  name,  as  well  as  an  increase  in  volume,  and  the  latter  in  turn  demanded 
an  advance  in  price.  It  was  likewise  deemed  advisable  to  remove  the  publica- 
tion office  from  Harbor  Springs,  Michigan,  to  Teutopolis,  Illinois.  This  was 
done  principally  for  the  reason  that  the  latter  place  is  more  favorably  situated 
for  prompt  delivery  and  quick  communication.  Moreover,  the  new  publica- 
tion, being  wider  in  scope  and  larger  in  volume,  it  became  necessary  to  enlist 
the  services  of  a  larger  number  of  Fathers  ae  collaborators.  Hence  St.  Joseph 's 
College,  Teutopolis,  was  decided  on  as  the  place  of  future  publication.     The 


former  subscribers  may,  perhaps,  not  be  in  sympathy  with  these  changes,  but 
ail  that  the  Franciscan  Herald  asks  of  them,  is  that  they  take  it  as  it  is,  for 
better,  for  worse,  and  judge  for  themselves  whether  they  are  the  losers  in  the 

It  may  be  asked,  however,  is  there  any  need  of  a  new  publication  of  this 
sort?  Are  there  not  Catholic  papers  and  periodicals  enough — nay,  more  than 
people  have  time  or  taste  to  read?  Indeed,  it  can  hardly  be  said  that  there  is  a 
dearth  of  Catholic  publications,  pursuing  a  variety  of  good  aims  and  containing 
an  abundance  of  excellent  reading-matter.  The  Franciscan  Herald,  therefore, 
was  not  founded  to  meet  "a  crying  need"  or  to  fill  a  "long-felt  want."  Why 
then  was  it  founded?  An  explanation,  or,  if  need  be,  an  apology  may  best  be 
given  by  stating  the  purpose  of  this  publication. 

The  Franciscan  Herald  is  devoted  primarify  to  the  interest  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions.  Its  puprose,  therefore, 
is  to  foster  the  spirit  of  St.  Francis  among  Tertiaries  and  to  promote  interest  in 
the  heroic  labors  of  Franciscan  missionaries,  engaged  among  those  "that  sit  in 
darkness,  and  in  the  shadow  of  death:  to  direct  their  feet  into  the  way  of 
peace. "  In  pursuing  this  twofold  purpose,  the  Herald  thinks  that  it  is  following 
in  the  footsteps  of  the  Seraphic  Father  whom  the  Church  designates  as  "an 
apostolic' and  wholly  Catholic  man" — his  love  embracing  not  only  the  sheep 
of  the  house  of  Israel,  but  all  those  that  have  not  as  yet  been  gathered  into  the 

As  regards  the  first  of  these  purposes,  it  is  needless  to  recall  the  many  strong 
statements  of  Leo  XIII.  and  Pius  X.  concerning  the  effect,  which  a  widespread 
revival  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis  would  have  on  the  Church  and  on  so- 
ciety. The  Franciscan  Herald,  therefore,  in  undertaking  to  spread  the  Third 
Order  by  making  it  better  known  and  loved,  by  reminding  Tertiaries  of  their 
duties  and  by  animating  them  to  persevere  in  their  noble  calling,  is  doing  a  work 
that  will  surely  have  the  approval  and  blessing  of  the  Holy  Father. 

Again,  both  Pontiffs  have  at  various  times  expressed  the  desire  that  Ter- 
tiaries should  be  everywhere  united  into  brotherhoods,  in  order  that  their  strength 
might  be  multiplied  and  they  themselves  more  easily  employed  in  all  manner  of 
parochial  good  works  that  are  destined  to  promote  the  great  Catholic  Brother- 
hood which  should  include  Catholics  of  every  class  and  degree.  The  Herald 
is,  therefore,  designed  to  bring  isolated  members  of  the  Third  Order  in  closer 
touch  with  one  another  by  promoting  unity  of  aims  and  interests. 

Moreover,  a  special  appeal  is  being  made  at  present  to  Catholics  of  this 
country  to  organize  in  order  to  work  the  more  effectively  for  the  spiritual  re- 
generation of  the  masses  of  people  that  have  been  estranged  from  Christ  and 
from  all  things  Christian.  While  there  is  certainly  great  need  of  organization 
and  federation,  it  must  be  borne  in  mind  that  societies,  in  order  to  be  a  power 
for  the  Christian  regeneration  of  the  people,  must  be  composed  of  members 
who   are    themselves    fully    conscious    of    their    Christian    duties,    who    are 


thoroughly  filled  with  the  spirit  of  Christ,  who  in  all  things  feel,  think,  and 
act  with  the  Church.  Now  the  Herald  cherishes  the  hope  that  through  the 
Tertiaries  it  may  exert  some  influence  also  on  the  other  members  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan parishes  that  are  in  charge  of  the  Fathers  of  the  Sacred  Heart  province, 
and  gradually  mold  them  into  one  effective  body,  by  striving  to  imbue  in- 
dividuals and  families  with  the  spirit  of  St.  Francis,  which  is  in  reality  the  spirit 
of  Christ.  Even  if  this  hope  should  be  only  partially  realized,  the  Herald  is 
confident  that  its  efforts  for  the  betterment  of  society  will  not  be  altogether  lost 
on  those  who  may  chance  to  come  within  the  little  sphere  of  its  influence. 

This,  however,  is  only  part  of  the  mission  the  Franciscan  Herald  devoutly 
wishes  to  accomplish.  Like  the  Church,  the  Seraphic  Order  also  has  a  twofold 
mission — an  inner  and  an  outer  one.  From  its  very  birth  the  Order  has  not  ceased 
to  send  out  great  numbers  of  its  members  to  christianize  heathen  nations. 
Indeed,  no  people  so  barbarous,  no  country  so  little  explored,  no  clime  so  severe, . 
but  the  sons  of  St.  Francis  have  carried  thither  the  light  of  faith,  and  many  and 
glorious  are  the  triumphs  that  the  cross  of  Christ  has  achieved,  through  their 
untiring  zeal,  over  the  powers  of  darkness.  Those  that  have  shed  their  blood 
for  the  faith  they  preached,  number  thousands,  and  even  at  the  present  time 
hundreds  of  Franciscans  are  sacrificing  their  health  and  life  on  the  mission- 
fields,  amid  untold  labors  and  hardships. 

Many  there  are,  however,  that  know  little  of  the  deeds  of  heroism  and  self- 
sacrifice  of  the  valiant  propagators  of  the  faith.  Still  a  work  so  important  as 
that  of  extending  the  benefits  of  our  holy  religion  and  bearing  the  truth  to  peo- 
ples that  are  buired  in  the  shadow  of  death,  ought  not  to  remain  indifferent  to 
those  who  have  the  salvation  of  souls  and  the  glory  of  their  Divine  Master 
at  heart.  Yet,  ever  and  anon  missionaries  are  heard  to  complain  that  not 
sufficient  interest  is  shown  in  their  work  by  those  of  their  own  household.  While 
for  themselves  these  followers  of  the  Apostles  ask  no  human  praise  or  earthly 
remuneration,  yet  it  is  evident  that  if  they  are  to  succeed  in  their  arduous  under- 
taking, they  need  encouragement  and  support;  for  their  task  is  extremely  diffi- 
cult, and  the  obstacles  confronting  them  are  well-nigh  insurmountable.  Alas, 
many  a  noble  enterprise,  auspiciously  begun,  has  failed  dismally  for  lack  of 
interest  and  support  on  the  part  of  those  whose  duty  it  was  to  assist  their  strug- 
gling brethren. 

Now,  the  Herald  purposes  to  arouse  and  promote  interest  in  Franciscan 
missions,  and  to  keep  its  readers  in  touch  with  the  labors  of  missionaries  in  our 
own  and  foreign  countries.  It  will,  therefore,  bring  accounts  of  the  missionary 
activity  of  the  Order,  of  the  triumphs  and  failures  of  missionaries,  and  will  also 
serve  as  a  means  of  communication  for  them. 

As  already  stated,  the  wider  scope  given  to  the  publication,  seemed  to  demand 
a  more  comprehensive  and  expressive  appellation.  The  reasons  why  Franciscan 
Herald  was  selected,  are  the  following:  first,  because  the  periodical  intends  to 
herald  news  of  the  Order  and  to  carry  the  so-called  Franciscan  spirit  to  the  homes 


of  its  readers;  second,  because  the  title  is  to  remind  Tertiaries  that,  according 
to  their  vocation,  they  too  are  Franciscan  heralds,  inasmuch  as  they  should 
help  to  diffuse  the  spirit  of  St.  Francis,  which  is  nothing  but  the  good  odor  of 
Christ;  third,  because  the  magazine  is  devoted  to  Franciscan  missions,  and 
every  missionary  is  a  herald  in  the  strict  sense  of  the  term,  according  to  the  words 
of  Holy  Scripture,  "  How  beautiful  are  the  feet  of  him  that  bringeth  good  tidings, 
and  that  preacheth  peace;"  fourth,  because  St.  Francis  himself  used  this  title 
when,  being  asked  one  day  who  he  was,  he  replied,  "I  am  the  herald  of  the 
Great  King." 

Of  the  contents  it  remains  for  the  readers  to  judge.  The  selection  of  the 
subjects  and  the  nature  of  the  articles,  were,  of  course,  largely  determined  by  the 
scope  of  the  publication.  In  order  to  satisfy,  however,  as  far  as  possible,  the 
divergent  tastes  of  readers,  care  has  been  taken  to  allow  liberal  space  for  extra- 
neous matter. 

In  the  hope  that  on  its  first  appearance  it  will  so  recommend  itself  to  you, 
kind  reader,  as  to  meet  with  a  friendly  reception  in  future,  the  Franciscan 
Herald  implores  on  you  the  blessing  of  God,  in  the  words  of  holy  Father  Francis, 
"  May  the  Lord  bless  thee  and  keep  thee.  May  He  show  His  face  to  thee  and  have 
mercy  on  thee.     May  He  turn  his  countenance  to  thee  and  give  thee  peace." 


A  Tertiary 

Too  true  it  is,  in  days  of  old, 
I  loved  the  dross  which  men  call  gold; 
But  now,  from  all  its  fetters  free, 
I  am  a  lowly  Tertiary. 

Whom  may  I  thank?     The  glorious  Saint 
Whose  soul  was  void  of  sinful  taint; 
Whose  heart  was  burning  with  such  love 
As  Seraphs  feel  in  bliss  above! 

This  one  drew  up  a  Rule  of  Life, 
To  save  men  in  the  deadly  strife 
They  have  to  wage,  for  God's  dear  sake, 
'Gainst  demons  cast  in  hell's  dread  lake. 

And  passing  through  this  world  along, 
I  have  found  it  a  bulwark  strong, 
Protecting  me  in  evil's  hour 
Frome  shafts  aimed  by  Satanic  power! 

And  when  from  God  a  boon  I  claim, 
I  ask  it  in  the  cherished  name 
Of  Francis,  who,  in  heaven  now, 
Has  Glory's  rays  around  his  brow! 

Him  I  have  never  asked  in  vain 
For  grace  to  keep  my  soul  from  stain; 
God  hears  his  prayer  and  pities  me, 
His  lowly,  humble  Tertiary! 

Better  and  wiser  far  to  be 

With  Francis  in  his  poverty, 

Than  act  like  those  who  seek  but  greed 

And  pay  to  conscience'  voice  no  heed. 

I,  casting  earthly  dross  aside, 
Take  dear  St.  Francis  for  my  guide; 
And,  well  I  know,  he  ne'er  can  be 
Forgetful  of  his  Tertiary. 

— Fr.  John  Jackman,  O.  F.  M. 


Feast  of  the  Triumph  of  the  Holy  Name 

of   Jesus 
January  14th. 

THE  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  cen- 
turies were  trying  times  for  the 
Church  of  God.  The  residence 
of  the  Popes  at  Avignon  and  the  Great 
Schism  had  caused  a  great  confusion 
and  a  weakening  of  faith,  accompanied 
by  a  sad  relaxation  of  morals,  pervad- 
ing all  classes.  A  growing  spirit  of 
independence  in  temporal  as  well  as  in 
spiritual  matters,  together  with  an  ex- 

aggerated admiration  and  love  of  pagan 
antiquity,  struck  deep  roots  in  the  un- 
settled minds  of  many.  And  the 
results  were  what  might  have  been  ex- 
pected. Unbelief,  superstition,  and 
the  greatest  disregard  for  the  laws  of 
God  and  of  the  Church  were  spread 
among  all  classes  of  society,  particu- 

larly of  Italy.  "Italy  was  so  com- 
pletely deluged  by  a  flood  of  corruption 
and  iniquity,  dissensions,  and  crimes, 
as  in  appearance  to  have  wholly  lost  its 
former  aspect  of  piety  and  Christian 
manners. " 

But  God,  according  to  his  promise, 
did  not  forsake  his  Church.  He  raised 
up  saintly  men  who,  by  the  example  of 
their  holy  lives  and  by  their  apostolic 
labors,  succeeded  in  stemming  the  tide 
of  religious  indifference  and  of  im- 
morality, and  in  leading  men  back  to  a 
life  of  righteousness  and  virtue.  Among 
these  men  of  God  we  find  not  a  few  of 
the  sons  of  the  Seraphic  Father;  the 
best  known  of  whom  are:  St.  Bern- 
ardine  of  Sienna,  St.  John  Capistran, 
St.  James  of  the  March,  and  Bl.  Mat- 
thew of  Girgenti. 

These  saintly  men  traversed  Italy, 
Germany,  Austria,  Poland,  and  Hun- 
gary, preaching  the  word  of  God  with 
wonderful  success.  Abuses  were  every- 
where corrected,  indifference,  infidelity, 
and  immorality  disappeared  to  give  way 
to  a  fervent  practice  of  piety.  This 
wonderful  fruit  of  their  labors  was  in 
part  due,  no  doubt,  to  the  holiness  of 
their  lives,  but  they  themselves  attri- 
buted it  to  the  pious  practice  which 
they  unceasingly  urged  upon  their 
hearers;  that  is,  the  veneration  of  the 
Holy  Name  of  Jesus. 

Not  as  if  the  worship  of  the  Holy 
Name  had  been  unknown  to  Christians 
up  to  this  time.  Ever  since  the  Angel 
Gabriel  spoke  the  solemn  words  to  the 
Blessed  Virgin  Mary,  "Thou  shalt 
call  his  name  Jesus,"  this  Name  was 
an  object  of  veneration  for  all  true 
Christians.  But  these  Saints,  filled  with 
a  burning  love  for  the  sacred  humanity 
of  Christ  and  all  that  pertains  to  it, 
— a  love  bequeathed  to  them  as  a 
precious    heritage    by    the    Seraphic 


Father, — strove  to  spread  and  popu- 
larize this  love  and  veneration  of  the 
Holy  Name  as  a  means  of  inducing  men 
to  return  to  the  knowledge  and  love  of 
their  Savior. 

St.  Bernardine  and  his  disciples  made 
the  Sacred  Name  of  Jesus  their  rally- 
ing-cry,  their  standard,  their  weapon 
against  the  powers  of  darkness.  When- 
ever the  Saint  entered  a  city  to  preach, 
he  had  a  banner  carried  before  him  on 
which  was  represented  the  Holy  Name 
surrounded  with  a  halo.  This  banner 
occupied  a  conspicuous  place  near  the 
pulpit  while  he  was  preaching.  He 
often  held  up  to  view  a  tablet  on  which 
the  monogram  I.  H..  S.  was  painted  in 
large  letters  of  gold,  discoursing,  at  the 
same  time,  with  the  greatest  fervor  on 
the  glory  and  power  of  the  Holy  Name, 
and  beseeching  his  hearers  by  the  love 
of  Jesus,  their  Redeemer,  to  desist 
from  bloody  strifes  and  to  banish  from 
their  hearts  hatred,  infidelity,  avarice, 
injustice,  and  sensuality.  He  exhorted 
them  to  do  all  things  in  this  Holy  Name 
and,  in  order  to  have  it  always  before 
their  eyes,  to  have  similar  tablets 
made  and  to  place  them  in  the  churches 
and  over  the  doors  of  their  homes. 

The  exhortations  of  the  Saint  were 
not  in  vain.  The  devotion  he  so  earn- 
estly recommended  soon  spread  for 
and  wide.  The  Holy  Name  could  be 
seen  not  only  exposed  and  venerated 
in  the  churches,  but  also  affixed  to  the 
front  of  homes  and  of  public  buildings. 
And,  what  was  of  greater  consequence, 
the  fruits  of  the  holy  devotion  were  not 
wanting.  The  bloody  strife  of  parties 
ceased,  enmities  of  long  standing  were 
put  aside,  and  religious  fervor  and  the 
practice  of  Christian  virtue  took  the 
place  of  irreligion,  indifference,  and 

But  now,  when  the  fame  of  his  holy 
life  and  the  wonderful  success  of  his 
labors  were  earning  for  the  Saint  the 
title  "Apostle  of  Italy,"  he  had  to 
undergo  a  painful  trial; — a  trial,  that 
for  a  time  caused  many  well-meaning 
souls  to  turn  against  him,  and  that 

put  his  virtue  to  a  severe  test.  Yet  it 
only  served  to  make  his  sanctity  still 
more  manifest,  and  to  bring  about  the 
triumph  of  the  devotion  which  he  was 
continually  impressing  upon  the  hearts 
of  his  hearers. 

While  zealously  engaged  in  correct- 
ing abuses  and  in  combatting  sin  and 
vice,  Bernardine  also  found  it  neces- 
sary to  preach  against  some  extra- 
vagant and  false  religious  ideas  which 
were  being  spread  by  certain  persons 
whom  an  imprudent  zeal  had  led 
astray.  This  aroused  the  anger  of  these 
preachers  and  of  their  followers.  In- 
stead of  listening  to  the  words  of  cor- 
rection, directed  to  them  in  the  spirit 
of  charity,  they  regarded  the  Saint 
with  feelings  of  hatred,  and  determined 
to  do  everything  in  their  power  to  put 
an  end  to  his  apostolic  labors. 

As  these  men  could  find  nothing  in 
the  life  of  the  Saint  that  might  serve 
as  a  matter  of  accusation,  they  at- 
tacked the  devotion  to  the  Holy  Name 
preached  by  him.  They  tried  to  con- 
vince the  people,  and  even  the  eccle- 
siastical superiors,  that  the  devotion 
was  something  new,  that  it  was  con- 
trary to  the  spirit  and  teaching  of  the 
Church,  and  that  it  led  to  idolatry. 
They  even  went  so  far  as  to  accuse 
Bernardine  of  heresy  to  Pope  Martin 
V.  Thereupon  the  Pope  summoned 
him  to  Rome  to  answer  the  charges  of 
his  opponents,  and  forbade  him  to 
preach  until  a  decision  had  been  ren- 
dered in  the  matter  of  ^the  devotion 
which  he  so  ardently  propagated. 

On  the  appointed  day  St.  Bernardine 
appeared  before  the  Pope,  the  College 
of  Cardinals,  -and  a  large  assembly  of 
prelates,  theologians,  and  religious  of 
every  Order.  His  opponents,  sup- 
ported by  no  fewer  than  sixty-two 
doctors  of  theology,  strove  with  the 
greatest  passion  to  show  that  the 
Saint 's  teaching  was  a  dangerous  her- 
esy, contrary  to  the  Scriptures,  to  the 
teaching  of  the  Councils,  and  of  the 
Fathers  of  the  Church.  The  array  of 
seemingly     unanswerable     arugments 



which  they  produced,  and  the  vigor 
with  which  they  defended  their  side  of 
the  question,  made  a  deep  impression 
on  those  present,  so  that  it  seemed  for 
a  time  that  the  cause  of  St.  Bernardine 
and  his  disciples  could  not  escape  the 
censure  of  the  Church.  But  when  his 
turn  to  speak  came,  the  Saint  rose  and 
showed  so  convincingly  that  the  ven- 
eration of  the  Holy  Name,  as  he 
preached  it,  was  entirely  in  accordance 
with  the  doctrine  of  the  Church  from 
the  earliest  times,  that  the  Pope  and 
the  Cardinals  dismissed  the  charges  of 
the  opponents  as  unfounded  and  ca- 
lumnious. To  complete  the  victory 
of  Bernardine,  his  faithful  disciple,  St. 
John  Capistran,  who  had  hurried  to 
Rome  to  defend  his  master,  and  who 
was  present  in  the  assembly,  rose  and 
asked  the  Pope's  permission  to  speak. 
He  then  took  up  the  objections  of  the 
opponents,  no  less  than  eighty-five  in 
number,  one  by  one,  and  refuted  them 
with  a  learning  and  eloquence  so  con- 
vincing, that  the  Pope  and  his  advisers 
at  once  declared  that  the  devotion  to 
the  Holy  Name,  as  preached  by  St. 
Bernardine  and  his  disciples,  was  not 
only  free  from  the  slightest  suspicion 
of  heresy,  but  also  most  pleasing  to 
God,  and  therefore  to  be  recommended 
to  the  faithful.  The  Pope  then  blessed 
St.  Bernardine  and  encouraged  him  to 
continue  his  apostolic  labors  and  to 
propagate  everywhere  the  devotion 
to  the  Holy  Name.  By  his  orders  a 
solemn  procession  was  held  through  the 
streets  of  Rome,  in  which  St.  John 
Capistran  carried  a  banner  with  the 
Name  of  Jesus  emblazoned  on  it, 
similar  to  the  one  used  by  St.  Ber- 
nardine. An  immense  multitude  took 
part  in  the  procession,  singing  hymns 
of  joy  and  praise. 

This  event  is  commemorated  as  the 
Triumph  of  the  Holy  Name  of  Jesus. 
From  this  time  the  devotion,  which 
had  been  preached  in  the  face  of 
so  much  opposition,  spread  rapidly 
throughout  the  Church.  The  feast  of 
the  Triumph  of  the  Holy  Name  was 

established  in  the  Orders  of  the  Friars 
Minor  in  1530  with  the  permission  of 
Pope  Clement  VII.  Pope  Innocent 
XIII.  extended  the  feast  to  the  uni- 
versal Church,  and  ordered  it  to  be 
kept  on  the  second  Sunday  after 
Epiphany.  In  the  Order  of  the  Friars 
Minor  it  has  always  been  kept  on  the 
14th  of  January. 


How  weighty  are  not  the  reasons 
that  should  impel  us  to  love  and  ven- 
erate the  Holy  Name  of  Jesus!  It  is 
a  holy  name.  It  is  the  name  of  the 
second  Person  of  the  Blessed  Trinity, 
the  Son  of  God,  made  man; — a  name 
given  by  the  Heavenly  Father  him- 
self, as  announced  by  the  Arch  angle 
Gabriel,  "Thou  shalt  call  his  name 
Jesus."  (Luc.  I.  31.)  There  can, 
therefore,  be  no  name  in  heaven  or  on 
earth  so  holy  and  venerable  as  the 
Name  of  Jesus.  The  Son  of  God, 
says  St.  Paul,  "emptied  himself,  taking 
the  form  of  a  servant, — for  which 
cause  God  also  hath  exalted  him,  and 
hath  given  him  a  name  which  is  above 
all  names:  That  in  the  Name  of 
Jesus  every  knee  should  bow,  of  those 
that  are  in  heaven,  on  earth,  and  under 
the  earth."    (Philip.  II.  7,  9,  10.) 

It  is  also  a  holy  name  on  account  of 
its  signification.  Jesus  signifies  Savior, 
Redeemer.  Several  persons  of  the  Old 
Law  bore  the  name  of  Jesus,  it  is  true, 
but  in  their  case  it  was  either  an 
appellation  without  any  special  mean- 
ing, or  they  were  but  weak  figures  of 
the  Promised  One.  Jesus,  the  Son  of 
God,  is  really  our  Savior.  He  has 
freed  us  from  the  bonds  of  sin, — from 
the  slavery  of  the  devil,  and  restored 
to  us  all  blessings  and  goods  which  we 
had  lost  through  the  sin  of  our  first 
parents.  "Thou  shalt  call  his  name 
Jesus,"  said  the  Angel  to  St.  Joseph. 
"  For  he  shall  save  his  people  from  their 
sins".    (Matth.  I.  31.) 

Jesus-Savior!  What  sublime,  what 
consoling  thoughts  are  not  awakened 
in  our  hearts  when  we  pronounce  this 


name!  It  reveals  to  us  all  the  love, 
condescension,  goodness  and  mercy, 
shown  to  us,  children  of  Adam,  by  the 
Son  of  God.  "The  name  of  Jesus  is  a 
short  word  and  is  easily  spoken,"  says 
St.  Bernardine  of  Sienna,  "but  full  of 
meaning  and  full  of  the  greatest 
mysteries.  All  that  God  has  ordained 
for  the  salvation  of  mankind  is  con- 
tained in  this  name."  Hence,  all  the 
appellations  which  the  Prophets  used 
to  describe  the  greatness  and  holiness 
of  the  coming  Messias,  are  comprised 
in  the  one  name,  Jesus.  He,  the 
Savior,  is  the  powerful  God,  who  has 
overcome  the  powers  of  darkness;  he 
is  the  wonderful  God,  whose  life  and 
doctrines  are  full  of  the  sublimest 
mysteries;  he  is  the  Father  of  the 
world  to  come,  for  his  grace  produces 
the  Saints,  the  members  of  his  Church; 
he  is  the  Prince  of  Peace,  for  he  has 
reconciled  fallen  mankind  with  the 
offended  Father.  He  is  the  Anointed 
One,  the  Messiah,  the  true  Emmanuel, 
the  Prophet  greater  than  all  the 
Prophets,  for  all  have  foretold  of  him 
and  through  him. 

In  the  Sacred  Name  of  Jesus,  there- 
fore, we  have  been  again  made  children 
of  God  and  heirs  of  the  eternal  king- 
dom. And  this  Name  is  also  a  pledge 
of  an  undying  love,  of  a  constant  pro- 
tection and  assistance.  We  are  assured 
that  Jesus  will  at  all  times  show  him- 
self our  Savior.  When  we  are  weighed 
down  with  poverty,  sickness,  or  any 
affliction;  when  we  are  disturbed  by 
temptations  or  the  reproaches  of  a 
guilty  conscience,  we  need  but  look  up 
to  our  Savior  and  with  confidence  in- 
voke his  Holy  Name,  and  we  will  find 
relief.  He,  our  Savior,  will  not  fosake 
us;  his  love  will  embrace  us,  and  we 
will  be  filled  with  consolation,  courage, 
and  strength. 

If,  therefore,  the  name  of  Jesus  is 
the  holiest  of  names,  how  shameful, 
how  displeasing  to  God,  is  it  not  to 
abuse  it,  to  use  it  without  reverence, 
in  surprise  or  anger,  or,  what  is  worse, 
to    use    it    in    cursing?       The    angels 

pronounce  it  with  the  greatest  rever- 
ence; in  it  every  knee  must  bow, 
"of  those  that  are  in  heaven,  on  earth, 
and  under  the  earth, " — and  a  Christian 
should  think  it  a  matter  of  little  or  no 
consequence  to  use  it  with  irreverence? 
Let  us  be  on  our  guard  against  this 
fault;  for  "holy  and  terrible  is  his 
name."    (Ps.  CX.  9.) 

Finally,  the  name  of  Jesus  is  a 
powerful  name.  All  graces  and  bless- 
ings are  communicated  to  us  in  the 
power  of  this  Sacred  Name.  Our 
Divine  Savior  tell  us:  "Amen,  amen 
I  say  to  you:  if  you  ask  the  Father 
anything  in  my  name,  he  will  give  it 
you. "  (Joh.  XVI.  23.)  How  could  the 
Father  refuse  us  anything,  when  we 
remind  him  of  the  love  which  his  Son 
has  borne  us?  In  the  power  of  the 
Holy  Name  the  evil  spirits  are  over- 
come and  put  to  flight.  "  In  my  name, " 
says  our  Divine  Savior,  "they  shall 
cast  out  devils."  (Marc.  XVI.  17.) 
The  demons  fear  the  name  of  him  who 
has  overthrown  their  kingdom.  St. 
Athanasius  writes:  "When  we  struggle 
against  the  devil  in  the  name  of  Jesus, 
our  Savior  fights  for  us,  with  us,  and 
in  us;  and  the  enemy  flees  as  soon  as 
he  hears  the  name  of  Jesus."  In  the 
power  of  the  Holy  Name  the  Apostles 
preached  the  Gospel,  worked  miracles, 
and  confounded  the  wise  of  this  world. 
This  Holy  Name  was  the  strength  of 
the  martyrs,  the  light  of  confessors, 
the  sustaining  power  of  virgins,  and 
the  support  and  consolation  of  the 
faithful  in  the  difficulties  and  dangers 
of  life.  Hence  it  is  that  the  Church 
urges  her  children  to  pronounce  the 
Holy  Name  frequently  and  devoutly, 
especially  in  time  of  danger  and  of 
affliction.  If  we  often  call  upon  the 
Sacred  Name  of  Jesus  during  life,  we 
shall  more  readily  and  efficaciously  do 
so  in  that  dread  moment  when  our 
soul  is  about  to  pass  into  eternity. 
And  in  the  power  of  the  Holy  Name, 
we  shall  then  successfully  withstand 
the  attacks  of  our  enemy  and  be  en- 



abled  to  look  to  the  coming  judgment 
with  hope  and  confidence. 


0  God,  who  hast  appointed  thy 
only  begotten  Son  the  Savior  of  man- 
kind,  and  hast   commanded  that   He 

should  be  called  Jesus,  mercifully  grant 
that  we  may  enjoy  in  heaven  the 
happy  visions  of  Him  whose  holy  name 
we  venerate  upon  earth;  who,  with 
thee  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  livest  and 
reigneth  one  God,  world  without  end. 

— Fr.  Silas,  O.  F.  M. 

Tribute  To  Padres 

"In  the  whole  history  of  the  United 
States  there  is  no  more  inspiring  chap- 
ter than  the  work  of  the  Missionary 
Fathers  in  the  Southwest,"  said 
Professor  Bolton  of  the  State  Univer- 
sity, speaking  at  Newman  Hall  re- 
cently. "They  came  to  America 
inspired  by  the  highest  ideals.  Many 
were  college  men  of  the  old  world, 
learned  in  the  arts  and  sciences ;  many 
were  of  noble  blood ;  all  of  them  might 
have  had  brilliant  careers  in  Europe. 
Instead  they  came  to  the  new  world 
where  they  endured  toil,  exile,  ex- 
treme suffering,  and  even  death  at 
the  hand  of  the  natives  they  were 
trying  to  save.  The  list  of  missionaries 
who  were  martyrs  to  the  Indians  in 
the  Southwest  is  over  two  hundred." 

Prof.  Bolton  went  on  to  explain 
that,  contrary  to  the  popular  idea, 
the  mission  did  not  consist  of  a  church 
alone,  but  was  a  definitely  planned 
and  carefully  executed  religious,  edu- 
cational and  industrial  plant.  While 
always  the  salvation  of  souls  was  the 
supreme  aim  of  the  Fathers,  yet  their 
greatest  labor  was  along  educational 
lines.  The  Indians  were  taught  to  settle 
in  the  mission  pueblo,  where  instruction 
was  given  them  in  the  secrets  of  agricul- 
ture; they  were  taught  to  sew,  spin, 
weave  and  card;  the  men  learned 
mechanical  arts,  their  carving,  metal 
work  and  masonry  enduring  to  the 
present  day.  Nor  did  the  education 
stop  here.  The  training  in  the  practical 
science  of  government  afforded  the 
Indians  is  yet  visible  in  the  more  civil- 
ized tribes  of  New  Mexico  and  Ari- 
zona. "Records  show,"  said  Prof. 
Bolton,  "that  the  mission  pueblo  was 

almost  entirely  governed  and  policed 
by  the  Indians  themselves.  The  Mis- 
sion pueblo  of  San  Gabriel  in  Los 
Angeles  at  one  time  consisted  of  three 
thousand  five  Indians,  self-governing 
and  self-supporting,  guided  only  by 
half  a  dozen  Padras  and  guardsmen." 

As  outposts  of  civilization  the  mis- 
sions were  most  valuable;  thus  it  was 
that  they  received  the  support  of 
the  Spanish  Government.  The  -mar- 
velous foresight  of  the  Superiors  at 
the  Mission  Headquarters  of  San 
Ilfonso,  Mexico,  is  shown  in  the  ef- 
ficient distribution  of  the  centers  of 
Christianity.  From  eastern  Texas, 
throughout  New  Mexico,  Arizona  and 
along  the  camino  real  of  California 
were  scattered  a  chain  of  missions,  all 
contributing  to  the  spiritual  and  edu- 
cational uplift  of  the  native  Indians. 

Prof.  Bolton  paid  glowing  tribute 
to  the  efficiency  of  the  educational 
work  of  the  Padres  and  showed  the 
disastrous  results  both  from  the  view- 
point of  the  Government  and  Indian 
of  the  secularization  of  the  Mission- 
ary plants. 

— Monitor. 

"The  colored  sunsets  and  the  starry 
heavens,  the  beautiful  mountains  and 
the  shining  seas,  the  fragrant  woods, 
and  the  painted  flowers — they  are  not 
half  so  beautiful  as  a  soul  that  is  serv- 
ing Jesus  out  of  love,  in  the  wear  and 
tear  of  common  unpeotic  life." — 
Father  Faber. 

"The  best  of  all  reform  bills  is  that 
which  each  citizen  passes  in  his  own 
breast,  where  it  is  pretty  sure  to  meet 
with  strenuous  opposition." —  Carlyle. 

Pope  Leo  XIII.   and    The  Third  Order  of 
St.    Francis 

By  Fr.  Ulric  Petri,  0.  F.  M. 

THE  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis, 
called  by  its  holy  Founder  the 
Order  of  Penance,  is  now  in 
existence  for  almost  seven  hundred 
years.  During  this  time  it  has  been  a 
source  of  many  blessings  to  numberless 
Christians  who  received  the  habit  of 
penance  and,  in  conformity  with  the 
Rule  of  the  Third  Order,  led  a  life  in 
close  imitation  of  our  Divine  Lord. 
The  popes,  the  promoters  of  everything 
good  and  holy,  have  from  time  to  time 
warmly  recommended  this  institution 
of  St.  Francis,  and  have  always  vigor- 
ously defended  it  against  the  attacks  of 
its  enemies. 

Next  to  Gregory  IX.,  the  friend  and 
adviser  of  St.  Francis,  no  pope  has 
been  more  enthusiastic  about  the 
Third  Order,  or  has  done  more  to  make 
it  known  to  the  faithful,  than  Leo 
XIII.,  of  blessed  memory. 

His  love  and  admiration  for  St. 
Francis  of  Assisi  and  everything  Fran- 
ciscan, and  in  particular  for  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis,  was  manifest 
long  before  he  was  chosen  to  be  the 
successor  of  St.  Peter.  Being  fully  con- 
vinced that  the  Third  Order  is  a  source 
of  many  and  great  spiritual  benefits 
to  its  members,  he  decided  to  received 
the  cord  and  scapular,  the  insignia  of 
purity  and  penance;  and  he  continued 
to  wear  them  as  Sovereign  Pontiff,  to 
the  last  day  of  his  life.  On  more  than 
one  occasion  he  prided  himself  with 
the  privilege  of  being  a  son  of  St. 

As  bishop  of  Perugia  and  cardinal, 
in  a  Pastoral  Letter  dated  December 

20,  1871,  he  admonished  the  parish 
priests  of  his  diocese  to  work  for  the 
propagation  and  increase  of  the  Third 
Order.  In  1875  he  was  appointed 
Protector  of  all  the  Congregations  of 
the  Third  Order  existing  in  Italy  by 
Pope  Pius  IX.,  of  saintly  memory. 
As  such,  he  pointed  out  in  an  address 
to  the  Tertiaries,  both  eloquent  and 
impressive,  the  benefits  which  the 
Third  Order  conferred  on  religion, 
morals,  and  society. 

Again,  in  a  Pastoral  Letter,  dated 
December  20,  1877,  he  exhorted  the 
parish  priests  of  his  diocese  to  preach 
to  their  flock  on  the  excellence  and  the 
great  advantages  of  the  Secular  Third 
Order,  adding  by  way  of  confirmation 
the  testimony  of  illustrious  personages 
and  his  own  experience  during  the 
visitation  of  his  diocese. 

When,  on  February  20,  1878,  he 
succeeded  Pius  IX.  as  Sovereign 
Pontiff,  his  deep  affection  for  the 
Third  Order  Secular  of  St.  Francis 
became  more  manifest  to  the  Christian 
world.  Scarcely  had  he  ascended  the 
throne  of  St.  Peter,  when  he  spoke  of 
the  Third  Order  of  Penance  in  terms 
of  the  highest  praise  and  commenda- 
tion, pointing  to  it  as  to  "the  means 
best  adapted  to  bring  about  the  true 
and  perfect  observance  of  the  Gospel." 
March  29,  1878. 

In  the  following  year,  1879,  in  an 
allocution  addressed  to  some  Terti- 
aries, he  emphasizes  that  the  Third 
Order  is  "a  remedy  intended  by 
Divine  Providence  to  counteract  the 
evils  of  the  present  day."    In  1881,  on 



January  9,  he  addressed  the  following 
words  to  the  Minister  General  and  his 
Definitors:  "The  Franciscan  Order  is 
a  great  power  in  the  Church,  an  is  one 
of  the  supports  on  which  the  Roman 
Pontiffs  have  rested  for  seven  centur- 
ies. I,  too,  wish  to  find  in  it  a  vigilant 
and  powerful  helper  to  assist  me  in 
defending  the  rights  of  the  Church  and 
bringing  about  the  reformation  of 
society.  And  when  I  speak  of  the  social 
reformation,  I  refer  especially  to  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis." 

In  1882  the  Franciscan  families  of 
the  three  Orders  celebrated  the  seven 
hundredth  anniversary  of  the  birth 
of  their  holy  Father,  St.  Francis. 
Leo  XIII.  seized  this  occasion  to  send 
the  memorable  Encyclical  Letter, 
"Auspicato  Concessum,"  dated  Sep- 
tember 17,  1882,  to  all  the  bishops  of 
the  world,  in  which  he  extols  the  virtues 
and  the  greatness  of  the  Patriarch  of 
Assisi,  and  recommends  the  diffusion 
of  the  Secular  Third  Order  throughout 
the  parishes  of  the  world.  It  will  be  of 
great  interest  to  all  Tertiaries  to  read 
that  part  of  the  Encyclical  Letter, 
which  speaks  of  the  Third  Order.  After 
having  extolled  the  virtues  of  our  holy 
Patriarch  St.  Francis,  depicting  him  as 
a  man  whose  constant  aim  was  to  imi- 
tate Our  Divine  Lord  and  Savior,  he 
speaks  of  the  Third  Order,  saying: 
"It  is  impossible  to  express  the  en- 
thusiasm with  which  the  multitude 
flocked  to  St.  Francis.  Wherever  he 
went  he  was  followed  by  an  immense 
concourse;  and  in  the  largest  cities, 
as  well  as  in  the  smallest  towns,  it  was 
a  common  occurrence  for  men  of  every 
state  of  life  to  come  and  beg  of  him  to 
be  admitted  to  his  Rule.  Such  were 
the  reasons  for  which  the  Saint  deter- 
mined to  institute  the  brotherhood  of 
the  Third  Order,  which  was  to  admit 
all  ranks,  all  ages,  both  sexes,  and  yet 
in  no  way  necessitate  the  rupture'  of 
family  or  social  ties.  For  its  rules 
consist  only  in  obedience  to  God  and 
his  Church,  to  avoid  factions  and  quar- 
rels, and  in  no  way  to  defraud  our 

neighbor;  to  take  up  arms  only  for  the 
defence  of  religion  and  of  one's  coun- 
try; to  be  moderate  in  food  and  in 
clothing;  to  shun  luxury;  and  to  ab- 
stain from  the  dangerous  seductions 
of  dances  and  plays. 

"It  is  easy  to  understand  what 
immense  advantages  must  have  flowed 
from  an  institution  of  this  kind,  as 
salutary  in  itself  as  it  was  admirably 
adapted  to  the  times.  That  it  was 
opportune  is  sufficiently  established 
by  the  foundation  of  so  many  similar 
associations  which  issued  from  the 
family  of  St.  Dominic  and  from  the 
other  Religious  Orders,  and  by  the 
very  facts  of  history.  Indeed,  from  the 
lowest  ranks  to  the  highest,  there 
prevailed  an  enthusiasm  and  a  gen- 
erous and  eager  ardor  to  be  affiliated  to 
this  Franciscan  Order.  Amongst 
others,  King  Louis  IX.  of  France  and 
St.  Elizabeth  of  Hungary  sought  this 
honour;  and,  in  the  course  of  cen- 
turies, many  Sovereign  Pontiffs,  Car- 
dinals, Bishops,  Kings,  and  Princes 
have  not  deemed  the  Franciscan  livery 
derogatory  to  their  dignity.  The 
members  of  the  Third  Order  displayed 
always  as  much  courage  as  piety  in  the 
defense  of  the  Catholic  religion ;  and  if 
their  virtues  were  objects  of  hatred  to 
the  wicked,  they  never  lacked  the 
approbation  of  the  good  and  wise, 
which  is  the  greatest  and  only  desirable 
honour.  More  than  this,  our  pre- 
decessor, Gregory  IX.,  publicly  praised 
their  faith  and  courage;  nor  did  he 
hesitate  to  shelter  them  with  his 
authority,  and  to  call  them,  as  a  mark 
of  honour,  'Soldiers  of  Chirst,  new 
Machabees;'  and  deservedly  so.  For 
the  public  welfare  found  a  powerful 
safeguard  in  that  body  of  men  who. 
guided  by  the  virtues  and  rules  of  their 
Founder,  applied  themselves  to  revive 
Christian  morality  as  far  as  lay  in  their 
power,  and  to  restore  it  to  its  ancient 
place  of  honour  in  the  State.  Certain 
it  is,  that  to  them  and  their  example  it 
was  often  due  that  the  rivalries  of 
parties    were    quenched    or    softened 



down,  arms  were  torn  from  the  furious 
hands  that  grasped  them,  the  causes  of 
litigation  and  dispute  were  suppressed, 
consolation  was  brought  to  the  poor 
and  the  abandoned;  and  luxury,  the 
ruin  of  fortunes  and  instrument  of 
corruption,  was  subdued.  And  thus 
domestic  peace,  incorrupt  morality, 
gentleness  of  behaviour,  the  legitimate 
use  and  preservation  of  private  wealth, 
civilization,  and  social  stability,  spring 
as  from  a  root  from  the  Franciscan 
Third  Order;  and  it  is  in  great  measure 
to  St.  Francis  that  Europe  owes  the 
preservation  of  these  advantages." 

Leo  continues  to  speak  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan Spirit,  showing  clearly  how  it  is 
suited  to  the  present  day.  In  con- 
clusion he  exhorts  all  Christians  to  join 
the  Third  Order.  He  writes:  "For  all 
these  reasons  we  have  long  and  earn- 
estly desired  that  each  one  shall  strive 
to  the  utmost  of  his  power  to  imitate 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi.  Wherefore,  as 
we  have  in  former  times  ever  had  spec- 
ial interest  in  the  Third  Order  of  Fran- 
ciscans, so  now,  being  called  by  God 's 
great  goodness  to  the  Supreme  Pon- 
tificate, as  a  most  fitting  opportunity 
has  occurred,  we  exhort  all  Christians 
not  to  hesitate  to  enlist  in  this  sacred 
army  of  Jesus  Christ.  Many  there  are 
everywhere  of  both  sexes  who  have 
already  readily  begun  to  follow  the 
footsteps  of  the  Seraphic  Father. 
We  praise  and  warmly  commend  their 
zeal,  but  we  desire  that  it  may  be  aug- 
mented and  extended  to  many  more, 
especially,  Venerable  Brethren,  by 
your  assistance.  What  we  chiefly 
commend  is,  that  they  who  have  put 
on  the  badge  of  Penance,  should  look 
up  to  the  image  of  their  sainted 
Founder  and  strive  to  imitate  it; 
otherwise  the  good  effect  they  hope 
for  will  not  follow.  Do  your  best,  there- 
fore, that  the  people  may  know  and 
really  esteem  the  THIRD  ORDER. 
See  that  those  who  have  the  care  of 
souls  carefully  teach  what  it  is,  how 
easily  open  to  all,  how  abounding  in 
great  privileges  for  eternal  salvation, 

how  great  the  utility,  both  public  and 
private,  that  it  gives  promise  of.  We 
must  labor  in  this  direction  all  the 
more,  since  the  members  of  the  First 
and  Second  Franciscan  Orders  are 
suffering  at  present  from  severe  and 
unmerited  affliction.  May  they,  under 
the  protection  of  their  Father,  speedily 
emerge  from  the  waves,  strengthened 
and  flourishing!  And  may  Christian 
peoples  hasten  to  submit  to  the  dis- 
cipline of  the  Third  Order,  with  the 
same  alacrity  and  in  the  same  multi- 
tude as  once  they  flowed  in  eagerly 
round  St.  Francis  himself." 

In  his  great  solicitude  for  the  welfare 
and  prosperity  of  the  Third  Order, 
Leo  XIII.  became  convinced  that  the 
time  had  arrived  to  mitigate  the  origi- 
nal Rule  as  approved  by  Nicholas  IV. 
in  the  year  1289,  and  to  adapt  it  more 
closely  to  the  requirements  of  the 
present  day.  In  his  Constitution, 
"Misericors  Dei  Filius,"  of  May  30, 
1883  he  writes:  "The  Third  Order  is 
adapted  to  the  many;  and  both  the 
records  of  times  gone  by,  and  the  na- 
ture of  the  Soeiety  itself,  show  how 
great  is  its  influence  in  promoting 
justice,  honesty,  and  religion.  We 
must  render  thanks  to  the  Author  and 
'Helper  of  all  good  counsels,  that  the 
ears  of  the  Christian  people  were  not 
closed  to  our  exhortations.  From  many 
places  we  hear  that  devotion  to  Francis 
of  Assisi  has  been  aroused,  and  there  is 
everywhere  an  increase  in  the  number 
of  persons  seeking  admittance  into  the 
Third  Order.  Wherefore,  as  though 
to  give  fresh  impulse  to  men  already 
running,  We  determined  to  turn  our 
thoughts  to  all  that,  in  any  way, 
hinders  or  retards  this  salutary  race  of 
souls.  We  saw  that  the  Rule  of  the 
Third  Order,  which  Nicholas  IV., 
Our  predecessor,  approved  and  con- 
firmed in  his  Apostolic  Constitutions, 
'Supra Montem,'  on  the  18th  of  August, 
1289,  is  not  in  all  points  suited  to  the 
present  age  and  present  customs. 
Hence,  since  the  duties  prescribed 
could  not  be  fulfilled  without  excessive 



difficulty  and  inconvenience,  it  has 
hitherto  been  necessary  to  dispense 
with  a  majority  of  the  most  important 
rules  on  the  petition  of  the  associates; 
and  that  this  could  not  be  done  with- 
out injury  to  the  common  discipline 
will  be  readily  understood.  Therefore, 
for  the  good  and  happiness  of  the 
future,  for  the  increase  of  the  glory  of 
God,  the  encouragement  of  piety,  and 
zeal  for  all  virtues,  We,  by  Our  present 
letters,  in  virtue  of  Our  Apostolic 
authority,  renew  and  sanction  the 
Rule  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis, 
called  the  Secular,  according  as  it  is 
hereafter  given.  It  must  not  be 
thought,  however,  that  in  consequence 
of  this  Act,  anything  is  taken  from  the 
nature  of  the  Order,  which  We  fully 
intend  should  remain  unchanged  and 

A  year  after  this  Leo  XIII.  sent  out 
his  Encyclical  Letter  on  Freemasonry. 
In  it  he  again  warmly  recommends  the 
Third  Order  when  he  writes:  "There- 
fore, embracing  this  favorable  oppor- 
tunity, We  with  good  reason  repeat 
that  which  We  have  made  known,  that 
we  ought  most  diligently  to  propagate 
and  foster  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis,  the  rule  of  which  We  have 
tempered  a  while  ago  with  a  prudent 
lenity.  For  the  nature  of  that  society 
as  constituted  by  its  Founder  is  simply 
this :  to  call  men  to  imitate  Jesus  Christ, 
to  love  His  Church,  and  to  practice  all 
Christian  virtues.  Therefore,  it  ought 
to  be  very  powerful  in  suppressing  the 
contagion  of  those  most  wicked  socie- 
ties. May  this  holy  Society,  therefore, 
be  renewed  with  daily  increase,  whence 
much  fruit  may  be  expected,  and  es- 
pecially that  men's  minds  may  be 
drawn  to  real  liberty,  fraternity,  and 
equality.  Not,  indeed,  such  as  the 
Freemasons  absurdly  think,  but  such 
as  Jesus  Christ  purchased  for  the 
human  race,  and  St.  Francis  follows 

During  his  long  Pontificate  Leo 
XIII.  from  time  to  time  addressed 
himself  to  Tertiaries  who,  coming  from 

different  countries,  visited  the  common 
Father  of  Christendom;  each  time  he 
speaks  of  the  Third  Order  in  terms  of 
highest  praise. 

The  Holy  Year  1900  had  begun. 
Leo  XIII.  expressed  the  wish,  that 
during  this  year  a  Congress  of  Ter- 
tiaries be  held  in  Rome.  He  appointed 
His  Eminence,  Cardinal  Joseph  Vives 
y  Tuto,  as  delegate  to  preside  in  his 
name.  Thousands  of  Tertiaries  from 
the  four  quarters  of  the  globe  respond- 
ed to  the  invitation  and  hastened  to 
the  Eternal  City.  They  sent  an  ad- 
dress to  the  Holy  Father,  in  which  they 
expressed  their  sentiments  of  loyalty 
to  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  thanking  Leo 
for  all  he  had  done  for  the  Third  Order 
and  promising  to  lead  a  life  in  con- 
formity to  the  spirit  of  St.  Francis. 
Leo  was  deeply  moved  by  this  demon- 
stration of  loyalty  on  the  part  of  the 
Tertiaries,  and  in  reply  he  sent  a  letter 
which  contained  these  encouraging 
words:  "  Enrolled  for  a  long  time  in  the 
Third  Franciscan  Order  We  have,  since 
Our  being  called  to  bear  the  Supreme 
Pontificate,  in  many  ways  displayed 
in  what  esteem  We  hold  it,  and  with 
what  feelings  We  favour  it.  And  right- 
ly, for  We  are  always  persuaded  that 
this  institute  of  the  Seraphic  Father, 
St.  Francis,  if  rightly  and  properly 
followed,  is  of  a  nature  to  remedy  the 
evils  by  which  human  society  is  in 
these  times  extremely  harassed." 
"Let  the  religious  of  the  First  Order  of 
the  Seraphic  Father,  to  whom  it  be- 
longs to  govern  the  Tertiary  body, 
have  a  fixed  conviction  that  the  dif- 
fusion of  this  is  a  great  safeguard  of 
private  and  public  good." 

Leo  XIII.  is  no  more;  but  his  work 
continues  to  live.  The  good  seed  he 
has  sown  has  sprung  up  and  brought 
forth  fruit  a  hundred  fold.  There  are 
at  present  over  2,500,000  Tertiaries, 
and  their  number  increases  daily.  May 
the  fondest  hopes  of  Leo  XIII.  be 
realized,  may  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis  ever  be  "a  powerful  agent  in 
the  work  of  the  salvation  of  souls." 



Beneath  Southern  Stars 

THE  delicate  tints  of  a  golden  sun- 
set were  deepening  into  grey 
shadows :  hardly  a  breeze  stirred ; 
yet  though  the  gleaming  water  was 
hushed  in  silent  wonder  at  the  beauty 
of  the  evening,  a  soft  ripple  along  the 
beach  told  of  the  unceasing  undercur- 
rent which  stirred  its  bosom  as  the 
breathing  of  a  sleeping  child.  The 
pines  moaned  softly  as  they  stood  like 
sentinels  around  that  old  Southern 
fort,  and  seemed  to  whipser  of  troubles 
long  buried  but  now  at  last  to  be  ex- 
posed to  the  curious  gaze.  The  fort 
had  been  built  in  the  time  of  the  early 
Spanish  settlers,  and  with  its  twin- 
sister  it  guarded  the  entrance  to  the 
harbor.  It  had  protected  the  Spaniards 
from  the  tomahawks  and  poisoned 
arrows  of  the  Seminoles,  had  held  its 
own  in  the  Civil  War  and  had  witness- 
ed a  naval  skirmish  on  the  bay  in 
which  a  brave  Confererate  lost  his  life. 
The  beauty  of  the  old  yellow  fort 
guarding  the  channel  where  the  waters 
of  the  bay  flow  into  the  gulf,  and  its 
situation  on  the  borders  of  Dixie 
where  the  warm  breezes  stir  up  romance 
in  commonplace  thing,  and  where  the 
soft  green  of  the  half  tropical  forests 
blends  with  the  sea  and  with  the  ex- 
quisite southern  skies,  combined  to 
give  rise  to  the  many  legends  so  real 
to  the  inhabitants  that  in  the  tradi- 
tions of  the  place  they  have  become 
inseparably  entwined  with  fact.  Men 
whispered  of  "haunts,"  the  unearthly 
tread  of  decapitated  infantry  in  the  sub- 
terranean passages  which  are  the  real 
abode  of  bats  and  reptiles;  but  the  tale 
most  told  was  of  a  buried  treasure, 
vastly  rich,  the  hiding  of  which  had 
taken  place  during  the  Civil  War  when 
after  Sherman's  March  to  the  Sea, 
news  flashed  from  town  to  town  of  a 
Northern  army  that  was  devastating 
the  Southland.  The  fabled  treasure 
increased  in  value  with  the  age  of  the 
story;  and  the  widening  eyes  of  the 
townfolk  gave  evidence  of  their  cre- 

dulity. But  all  trace  of  the  plan  show- 
ing the  exact  spot  where  the  wealth 
lay  had  vanished.  Men  searched, 
laboring  as  long  and  as  untiringly  as 
Ponce  de  Leon  in  quest  of  the  fountain 
of  youth:  yet  after  each  fruitless  at- 
tempt they  returned  to  search  again. 
They  there  were  rumors  of  a  Yankee 
soldier  who  had  eagerly  questioned 
about  the  treasure  and  who  had 
mysteriously  disappeared.  Finally  the 
pace  slackened  and  the  legend  slept 
as  new  interests  heralded  by  motor 
cars  and  electric  lights,  dulled  the 
faculties  once  so  keen  for  local  tradi- 

One  day  an  idler  wearily  watching 
some  workmen  tearing  down  a  part 
of  an  old  fortification  which,  because 
of  an  obstruction  in  an  inner  passage, 
had  been  for  years  unfit  for  use,  noticed 
that  they  had  begun  to  clear  away  a 
pile  of  crumbled  masonry,  evidently 
the  debris  of  a  ruined  wall.  Lazily  his 
eyes  followed  the  leisurely  movements 
of  the  singing,  grinning  darkies,  when 
he  saw  them  suddenly  pause,  look 
terrified,  and  then  instinctively  recoil. 
What  caused  that  dreadful  look  of  fear 
in  their  faces,  and  the  cry  of  horror 
that  froze  on  their  lips?  Lying 
close  to  the  uncrumbled  base  of' 
the  wall  was  a  skeleton  to  which  still 
clung  some  shreds  of  an  old  Federal 
uniform,  and  on  a  small  brass  plate 
attached  to  a  remnant  of  a  soldier's 
hat,  were  the  words  "John  Gilbert." 
Between  the  bony  fingers  was  a 
mildewed  parchment,  the  lost  plan  to 
the  lost  treasure,  lost  with  the  soldier 
fortune  hunter  when  years  ago  his 
daring  step  had  clisloged  a  stone  and 
brought  the  crumbling  wall  about  him. 

Once  again  tradition  fired  men's 
hearts.  The  misty  plan  was  scrutinized 
and  explorers  scoured  the  fort.  Rumor 
was  again  busy  and  the  grandmothers 
of  the  village  recalled  the  thrilling 
tales  of  adventure:  renewed  search 
was  made  for  the  hidden  gold;    but 



the  fort  kept  its  treasure,  and  though 
the  pines  still  sigh  and  whisper  to 
the  silent  stars,  they  faithfully  guard 
the  secret  of  the  old  Southern  fort. 

The  stars  twinkle  mysteriously  and 
wink  in  delight  to  themselves,  for 
viewing  the  affairs  of  all  the  world 
and  having  besides  the  advantage  of 
perspective,  they  know  far  more  than 
the  steady  pines.  Far  down  the  Gulf 
Coast  they  shine  on  a  little  village 
of  fisher  folk,  hardly  large  enough  to 
contain  the  soul  of  romance,  and  yet 
there  in  a  tiny  hut  on  a  cliff  above  the 
sea,  lives  a  bent  old  woman  whose 
wrinkled  face  and  eyes  full  of  infinite 
pathos,  tell  of  a  great  sorrow  issuing 
in  a  life  of  self-sacrifice. 

.  In  the  early  sixties  she  was  "a  rose 
amid  thorns,"  and  was  reverenced  by 
the  simple  lads  of  the  village,  over 
whom  she  ruled  a  veritable  queen.  On 
a  day  when  the  sky  and  the  water 
seemed  to  meet  in  one  ugly  frown,  a 
northern  war  vessel  carrying  wounded 
soldiers  was  driven  crippled  towards 
the  shore.  Hurricanes  and  lack  of 
proper  instruments  for  repairs  kept 
the  ship  there  a  month.  During  that 
time  a  handsome  soldier  won  the 
village  belle  and  the  wedding  of  the 
sixteen-year-old  bride  was  a  joyous  one. 
The  next  week  the  ship  sailed  away, 
but  the  heart  of  the  young  wife  was 
consoled  by  the  promise  of  her  hus- 
band to  return  as  soon  as  the  war  was 
ended.      Later  she  learned  that  the 

young  bridegroom  had  gone  ashore  on 
some  mysterious  venture  and  had  not 
returned  in  time  to  sail  with  his  ship: 
and  never  again  had  she  news  of  him. 
The  little  bride's  week  of  bliss  has 
been  paid  for  by  years  of  pain  and 
waiting.  Yet  her  time  is  not  mis- 
spent, for  her  sorrow  has  opened  up 
great  vistas  of  usefulness.  She  re- 
joices with  the  young  and  has  words  of 
sympathy  and  comfort  for  those  upon 
whom  life's  burden  rests  heavily. 
Many  of  the  village  children  have 
learned  at  her  knee  to  lisp  the  name  of 
God  and  of  His  Holy  Mother.  No 
laughing  bride  feels  that  her  joy  is 
complete  until  she  has  been  kissed  and 
blessed  by  the  old  saint  on  the  hill. 
Many  are  the  days  and  nights  spent 
at  the  bedside  of  the  dying,  and  many 
a  hardened  sinner  has  owed  the  grace 
of  a  return  to  God's  friendship  to  her 
persistent  prayers  and  kindly  efforts. 
She  loves  the  village  folk,  but  most  of 
all  she  loves  the  little  whitewashed 
church  with  its  snowy  altar  and  its 
statue  of  her  Blessed  Mother  at  whose 
feet  she  spends  lonely  but  happy 
hours,  and  whose  shrine  it  is  her  dearest 
wish  to  have  as  beautiful  as  loving 
hands  can  make  it.  Adversity  leading 
her  to  God  has  only  sweetened  her 
character.  Yet  she  has  not  forgotton 
her  earthly  love,  and  solitude  often 
finds  her  gazing  wistfully  on  that 
band  of  gold  wherein  is  inscribed 
"John  Gilbert  to  Hannah  Lee,  May 
1,  1864." 

M.  B. 

"To  be  thought  ill  of,  worse  than  we 
deserve,  to  have  hard  speeches  said, 
cold  looks  displayed,  by  those  who 
should  have  cheered  us  when  we 
swerve,  is  one  of  Heaven's  best  lots, 
and  may  be  made  a  treasure  ere  we 
know  it." — Father  Faber. 

"Hearts  good  and  true 

Have  wishes  few 
In  narrow  circles  bounded, 
And  hope  that  lives 
On  what  God  gives 
Is  Christian  hope  well  founded." 
— Father  Faber. 

"Life  is  very  short,  and  the  world 
to  come  already  dawns  upon  us. 
Choose  boldly  a  life  devoted  to  Christ. 
Be  His  above  all,  be  His  only." — Car- 
dinal Manning. 

"Strive  to  live  in  a  perpetual  readi- 
ness to  die,  and  this  you  will  attain  if 
you  learn  to  love  Our  Lord 's  Presence 
now." — Cardinal  Manning. 

Missionary  Work  of  the  Franciscans 

By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  O.F.M 

MISSIONS  for  the  conversion  of 
pagan  nations  began  with  the 
advent  of  Christianity.  They 
are  the  result  of  Christ's  command  to 
his  Apostles:  "Go  ye  into  the  whole 
world  and  teach  all  nations  and  teach 
them  to  observe  whatever  I  have  told 
you."  These  first  missionaries  have 
passed  away,  but  the  Church  founded 
upon  the  Apostles  continued  the  work 
of  gathering  tribes  and  nations  into 
the  fold  of  Christ.  Her  messengers 
have  at  all  times  made  their  way  to 
the  most  distant  parts  of  the  earth,  in 
order  to  establish  missionary  stations 
where  all  might  learn  the  truths  of 

From  the  time  of  St.  Benedict,  the 
patriarch  of  the  monks  of  the  West, 
the  Church  discharged  her  duty  of 
converting  infidel  peoples  mainly 
through  religious  Orders  whose  mem- 
bers devote  themselves  to  missionary 
work.  To  this  class  of  zealous  men 
belong  the  Franciscans,  Dominicans, 
Augustinians,  and  Jesuits,  who  in  the 
order  named  undertook  the  Christian- 
ization  of  the  natives  of  the  NewWorld. 

The  Franciscan  Order,  which  was 
the  first  in  the  field,  was  founded  by 
Francis,  the  son  of  the  Assisian  mer- 
chant, Peter  Bernardone.  At  the  age 
of  twenty-four  years,  young  Bernar- 
done began  to  devote  himself  to  the 
exercises  of  piety,  to  the  contemplation 
of  the  Life,  Passion,  and  Death  of  his 
Divine  Savior,  and  to  weeping  for  his 
sins,  although,  as  his  biographers 
declare,  Francis  never  committed 
grievous  sin.  Others,  young  and  old, 
learned  and  unlearned,  wealthy  and 
poor,    laymen    and    ecclesiastics,    at- 

tracted by  the  wonderful  example  of 
the  youthful  penitent,  and  moved  by 
the  same  irresistible,  yet  sweet,  super- 
natural force  which  had  changed  the 
son  of  the  wealthy  Bernardone,  at- 
tached themselves  to  the  "Poor  Little 
One  of  Assisi,"  as  Francis  called  him- 
self, with  the  request  that  he  direct 
them  on  the  path  of  Christian  perfec- 

Francis  saw  that  his  youthful  dreams 
were  to  be  realized  after  all,  though  in 
a  manner  quite  different  from  what  he 
had  fancied  in  the  days  of  his  worldly 
ambition.  He  was,  indeed,  to  be  the 
leader  of  a  great  army,  but  the  foes 
should  be  the  enemies  of  immortal 
souls  rather  than  the  petty  opponents 
of  his  native  city;  the  weapons  should 
be  the  preaching  of  the  Word  of  God; 
and  the  commissary  or  quartermaster, 
none  other  than  "My  Lady  Poverty." 
Guided  by  the  light  from  above,  medi- 
tation on  the  Life  and  Death  of  the 
Divine  Master  convinced  him  that  it 
was  better  to  pray  and  labor  for  the 
conversion  of  sinners,  than  merely  to 
weep  for  their  sins ;  and  that  he  and  his 
disciples,  at  all  events,  were  chosen 
to  preach  the  Gospel.  Hence  it  was, 
instead  of  becoming  a  contemplative 
institution,  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor 
was  founded  as  a  distinctively  mission- 
ary brotherhood  of  which  the  founder 
himself    was    the     first    missionary. 

But  the  Friars  were  not  to  confine 
their  preaching  to  people  already  civ- 
ilized and  Christianized.  St.  Francis, 
therefore,  begins  the  last  chapter  of 
his  Rule  with  these  unmistakable 
works:  "If  any  one  of  the  friars  by 
divine  inspiration  desires  to  go  among 



the  Saracens  or  other  infidels  he  shall 
ask  permission  therefor  from  his 
minister-provincial;  but  the  ministers 
shall  give  permission  to  those  only 
whom  they  deem  fit  to  be  sent." 
The  zealous  patriarch  himself  regarded 
missions  among  heathen  people  so 
important  and  so  pleasing  to  God,  that 
he  resolved  to  be  the  first  to  devote 
himself  to  that  work. 

With  this  end  in  view,  Francis  em- 
barked for  the  land  hallowed  by  the 
footsteps  and  Blood  of  his  Divine 
Master,  in  order  to  preach  Christ  to 
the  Mohamedans  in  Palestine,  then 
as  now  controlled  by  the  partisans  of 
Mohamed.  Contrary  winds,  however, 
forced  the  vessel  back  to  Italy,  and 
frustrated  his  first  attempt  at  a  foreign 
mission.  He  then  set  out  for  Morocco ; 
but  he  had  scarcely  arrived  in  Spain, 
when  he  was  recalled  to  settle  import- 
ant business  in  connection  with  his 
Order.  These  efforts,  though  ending 
in  failure,  plainly  show  the  bent  of  the 
holy  founder's  mind.  Nor  would  he 
abandon  his  plans  for  the  conversion 
of  unbelievers.  At  the  second  general 
chapter,  held  at  Assisi  in  1219,  the 
friars  under  his  direction  took  system- 
atic action  to  organize  missionary 
bands  and  to  include  the  whole  world  in 
the  range  of  their  evangelical  activity. 
*     *     *     * 

Equipped  with  the  approbation  of 
the  Holy  See  and  the  blessing  of  their 
beloved  father,  the  friars  set  out  bare- 
footed for  their  laborious  task,  having 
"no  scrip,  no  bread,  nor  money  in 
their  purse,  but  shod  with  sandals," 
like  the  Apostles  of  old.  Brother 
Benedict  of  Arezzo,  with  a  number  of 
companions,  was  sent  to  Greece; 
Brother  John  of  Parent  and  one  hun- 
dred brethren  were  directed  to  preach 
in  Spain;  Brother  Agnello  of  Pisa  and 
others  were  ordered  to  England  with 
the  brief  mandate:  "I,  Brother  Francis 
of  Assisi,  Minister-General,  command 
you,  Brother  Agnello  of  Pisa,  in  virtue 
of  holy  obedience,  to  go  to  England 
and  there  to  discharge  the  office  of 

minister-provincial.  Farewell."  Other 
friars  went  elsewhere,  and  six  of  the 
brethren  were  told  to  preach  Christ 
and  his  Gospel  to  the  Moors  of 
Morocco.  Five  arrived  at  their  destina- 
tion only  to  suffer  a  violent  death  at 
the  hands  of  fanatical  Sultan  in  1220, 
and  thus  became  the  proto-martyrs  of 
the  Seraphic  Order. 

Francis  again  chose  the  Holy  Land. 
With  one  companion  he  landed  in 
Syria,  then  occupied  by  the  Sultans 
of  Damascus  and  Egypt.  Though 
Meledin,  the  Sultan  of  Egypt,  had 
offered  a  prize  for  the  head  of  every 
Christian,  Francis  boldly  approached 
the  Mahomedan  headquarters.  To 
the  amazement  of  his  court  Meledin 
listened  with  marked  attention  to  the 
fervent  address  of  the  barefooted 
stranger,  and  sent  him  back  unharmed 
to  the  Christian  camp.  Seeing  that  it 
was  not  the  will  of  God  that  he  should 
suffer  martyrdom  for  Christ,  as  he  had 
hoped,  Francis  returned  to  Italy, 
where  he  closed  his  wonderful  career 
on  October  4th,  1226,  at  the  age  of 
forty-four  years. 

The  Friars  Minor  have  ever  since 
regarded  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel 
to  heathen  people  as  one  of  the  most 
sacred  legacies  bequeathed  by  their 
holy  founder,  as  is  evident  from  the 
efforts  made  by  the  superiors  at  all 
times  to  obtain  volunteers  for  the 
missions  in  foreign  countries.  Referring 
to  the  Chinese  and  Turks,  for  instance, 
the  official  organ  of  the  Seraphic 
Family,  the  Acta  Minorum,  in  Febru- 
ary, 1903,  declared,  "The  Very  Rev. 
Fathers  Provincial  must  needs  be 
generous  and  well-disposed  in  pre- 
senting missionaries  to  the  Most  Rev. 
Father  General.  Those  acting  con- 
trariwise may  greatly  fear  to  incur  the 
severest  judgment  from  the  Savior 
of  the  world  for  having  impeded  the 
conversion  of  souls.  We  must  bear  in 
mind  that  the  scope  of  our  Order  is  not 
restricted  to  the  well-being  of  believing 
nations,  but  chiefly  consists  in  the 
conversion  of  unbelievers." 



It  is  owing  to  this  ever  active  mis- 
sionary spirit  among  the  Friars  Minor 
that  millions  upon  millions  of  American 
Indians  have  obtained  the  Christian 
faith.  The  children  of  St.  Francis 
were,  indeed,  the  principal  factors  in 
the  very  discovery  of  America,  inas- 
much as  the  persons  most  prominently 
connected  with  that  event  belonged  to 
the  Seraphic  Family.  Fr.  Juan  Perez, 
the  friend  and  counselor  of  Columbus, 
was  the  guardian  or  superior  of  the 
Franciscan  monastery  at  La  Rabida; 
Queen  Isabella  of  Spain  wore  the  cord 
and  scapular  as  a  member  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis;  and  the  great 
navigator  likewise  belonged  to  the 
Third  Order.  Fr.  Juan  Perez  accom- 
panied his  illustrious  friend  on  the 
second  voyage,  and  landed  on  the 
island  of  Hispaniola,  or  Hayti,  in 
1493.  At  Port  Conception  he  built  the 
first  chapel  in  the  New  World  of 
boughs,  and  there  on  the  feast  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception,  December 
8,  offered  up  the  first  holy  Sacrifice 
of  the  Mass,  and  in  the  name  of  Jesus 
Christ  blessed  the  land  in  whose  dis- 
covery he  had  taken  so  conspicuous  a 

Besides  Fr.  Perez,  a  number  of 
Franciscans,  Hieronymites,  and  a  few 
secular  priests  under  apostolic  vicar, 
Very  Rev.  Bernardo  Buil,  landed  at 
Hispaniola.  The  secular  clergy  at- 
tended the  spiritual  wants  of  the 
Spaniards,  whereas  the  religious  de- 
voted to  the  conversion  of  the  natives. 
The  vicar-apostolic,  however,  returned 
to  Spain  in  the  following  year.  In 
honor  of  St.  Francis  Columbus  had  a 
monastery  of  stone  erected  for  the 
Franciscan  Friars  at  a  place  around 
which  in  the  course  of  time  arose  the 
city  of  San  Domingo.  This  was  the 
first  Franciscan  convent  in  America, 
and  Juan  Perez  was  appointed  its  first 
guardian.  Another  monastery  was 
built  on  the  same  island  at  La  Vega. 
In  connection  with  both  houses  the 
Franciscans  conducted  the  first  school 
for  boys. 

Upon  the  advice  of  Cardinal  Xi- 
menes,  himself  a  Franciscan,  ten  addi- 
tional Fathers  were  sent  to  Hispaniola 
in  1502.  They  brought  along  the  first 
church  bells.  About  this  time  also  the 
Friars  first  passed  over  to  Cuba  and, 
with  the  assistance  of  the  natives, 
erected  the  first  convent  there.  It  was 
dedicated  to  St.  James,  the  patron  of 
Spain.  The  general  chapter  of  the 
Order,  held  in  1505,  only  thirteen  years 
after  the  discovery  of  San  Salvador, 
organized  the  convents  of  the  West 
Indies  into  an  independent  province 
under  the  title  of  the  Holy  Cross.  It 
was  the  first  of  its  kind  in  America. 

From  these  missionary  outposts  the 
intrepid  Friars  penetrated  into  the 
vast  unknown  regions  of  the  New 
World.  In  the  torrid  clime  of  the 
South,  in  the  rugged  mountains  of 
Central  American  and  Mexico,  in 
the  sunny  plains  of  California,  in  our 
own  southern  states  along  the  gulf  of 
Mexico,  the  fearless  Friars  were  seen, 
announcing  the  glad  tidings  of  the 
gospel  to  the  poor  pagans  "still  sitting 
ing  the  shadow  of  death."  Nor  was 
the  northern  part  of  the  continent 
overlooked  by  the  sons  of  the  Seraphic 
Saint  during  the  period  of  discovery. 
"The  unambitious  Franciscan,  Le 
Caron,"  says  the  Historian,  George 
Bancroft,  "years  before  the  Pilgrims 
anchored  in  Cape  Cod,  had  penetrated 
the  land  of  the  Mohawk,  had  passed 
to  the  north  into  the  hunting  grounds 
of  the  Wyandots,  and,  bound  by  his 
vows  to  the  life  of  a  beggar,  had  on 
foot,  or  paddling  a  canor,  gone  onward, 
and  still  onward,  taking  alms  of  the 
savages  till  he  reached  the  rivers  of 
Lake  Huron." 

Indeed,  the  account  of  the  mission- 
ary work  of  the  Franciscans  among  the 
North  American  Indians  is  one  of  the 
brightest  pages  in  the  history  both 
of  the  New  World  and  of  the  Francis- 
can Order. 

Note — This  chapter  is  taken  from  "The  Missions 
and  Missisnaries  of  California."  San  Francisco,  Cal. 
The  James  H.  Barry  Co, 



Current   Comments 

A  Happy  New  Year 

1"^0  all  our  readers  and  friends  and 
benefactors  we  extend  our  sin- 
cere  wishes   for   a  happy   and 
prosperous  new  year. 

It  is  a  good  and  laudable  custom, 
that  of  wishing  one  another  a  happy 
new  year.  It  has  its  origin  in  an  in- 
born and  deeply-rooted  desire  for 
happiness.  But  in  wishing  others  a 
happy  new  year,  we  must  not  forget 
ourselves;  while  we  are  concerned  for 
the  happiness  of  others,  we  must  not 
neglect  our  own.  For  it  is  a  trite  saying 
that  charity  begins  at  home.  It  is  a 
strange  phenomenon  that,  while  all 
men  long  for  happiness,  many  think  so 
little  of  acquiring  it,  yes,  they  do  not 
even  know  what  is  meant  thereby.  If 
we  do  not  wish  to  be  led  astray  in  our 
quest  for  happiness  by  some  deceptive 
will-o'-the-wisp  or  fleeting  phantom 
of  our  imagination,  we  must  know 
wherein  it  consists.  Happiness  is  the 
possession  of  every  good.  Now,  as 
it  is  impossible  that  we  should  be 
possessed  of  every  good  in  this  life, 
it  follows  that  we  must  seek  our  true 
happiness  elsewhere,  namely,  in  the 
life  to  come.  But  this  does  not  imply 
that  we  are  condemned  to  a  life  of 
infelicity  on  earth.  On  the  contrary,  it 
is  the  will  of  God  that,  already  in  this 
life,  we  enjoy  a  certain  measure  of 
temporal  happiness.  And  what  must 
we  do  to  acquire  it?  The  answer  was 
given  centuries  ago  by  the  Holy  Spirit 
Himself:  "Refrain  from  evil  and  do 

"Of  The  Gentiles  There  Is 
Not  A  Man  With  Me" 

In  a  recent  interview  with  an  Italian 
bishop,  Pope  Pius  X.  is  reported  to 
have  broken  into  the  complaint  of  the 
Prophet,  "Of  the  gentiles  there  is  not 
a  man  with  me."  Passing  in  review 
the  various  countries  of  the  earth,  we 

find  this  saying  of  the  Holy  Father 
strikingly  verified.  Excepting  the  few 
Catholic  potentates  of  Europe,  there 
is  hardly  a  ruler  or  statesman  of  note 
of  whom  it  might  be  said  that  he  thinks 
and  acts  in  concert  with  the  occupant 
of  the  See  of  Peter.  On  the  contrary, 
every  act  of  His  Holiness  for  the  wel- 
fare of  the  nations,  every  effort  for  the 
betterment  of  society,  every  mani- 
festation of  good  will,  every  ency- 
clical, bull,  or  law,  is  deliberately  mis- 
interpreted, adversely  critisized,  and 
maliciously  vilified.  The  various  re- 
ligious denomination,  styling  them- 
selves Christian,  seldom  miss  an 
opportunity  of  publicly  expressing 
their  profound  hatred  and  inborn 
distrust  of  the  Vicar  of  Christ;  the 
large  army  of  Freemasons  whose 
avowed  purpose  it  is  to  hinder  and 
hamper  the  Church  in  the  execution 
of  her  divine  mission  seem  to  have 
sworn  to  give  themselves  no  rest  by 
day  or  night,  till  they  have  bound  and 
gagged  her  Supreme  Pastor;  while  the 
every-increasing  hordes  of  Socialists 
delight  in  nothing  so  much  as  in  ma- 
ligning the  Pope  of  Rome. 

Verily,  His  Holiness  has  just  reason 
to  complain  that  outside  the  Church 
there  is  not  a  man  with  him.  It  were 
idle  as  well  as  presumptuous  to  ex- 
amine into  the  reasons,  why  Alimghty 
God,  should  have  permitted  this  turn 
of  affairs.  But  it  is  just  as  idle,  though 
not  so  presumptuous  to  indulge  in 
speculations,  why  the  enemies  of  the 
Church  should  be  so  hostilely  disposed 
towards  the  Papacy.  Indeed,  what 
power,  what  institution  on  earth  has 
accomplished  so  much  for  the  general 
good  of  mankind  as  the  Papacy? 
What  dynasty  of  kings,  what  list  of 
presidents  can  boast  of  so  many 
virtuous,  accomplished,  able  rulers  as 
the  Papacy?  The  history  of  nineteen 
centuries  witnesses  to  the  fact  that 
what  light  of  faith,  what  liberty,  what 



civilization,     what     education,     what 
taste  for  art,  and  what  knowledge  of 
sciences,  the  Christian  peoples  of  the 
earth  possess,  they  owe  in  no*  small 
measure    to    the    all-pervading    and 
beneficent   influence    of   the    Papacy. 
It   may,    therefore,    be   said   without 
exaggeration  that  there  is  not  a  man 
speaking  against  the  Pope  to-day  but 
owes  it  to  the  Popes  that  he  can  speak 
at  all.    They  are  indeed  the  greatest 
benefactors  of  mankind.     Yet,  it  was 
reserved  for  the  ungrateful  children 
of  the  present   age   to   imprison  the 
Vicar  of  Christ,  to  speak  of  him  as  a 
menace  to  the  rights  and  liberties  of 
nations,  as  an  enemy  to  the  spread  of 
knowledge,  as  a  veritable  Antichrist. 
What  has  the  Pope  done  to  merit 
such   reproach,    to   have  such  insults 
heaped  upon  his  hoary  head,  to  be 
branded   with   infamy,    and   confined 
as  a  prisoner  within  the  walls  of  his 
own  palace?  Were  he  to  call  down  the 
vengeance  of  Heaven .  on  those  who 
treat  him  so  shamefully,  what  right 
would  they  have  to  complain?     Yet, 
like  his  Divine  Master,  he  is  patient 
and   long-suffering;    he   rewards   evil 
with  good;    he  has  only  one  wish  for 
his   enemies,   namely,   that,    like   the 
prodigal,  they  may  see  into  their  way- 
wardness, and  return  to  the  Father's 
house,  there  to  find  peace  and  rest  on 
the  heart  they  now  so  deeply  grieve. 
Meanwhile,  how  fittingly  may  he  not 
apply  to   himself  those   other  words 
of  the  Prophet,  "All  day  long  have  I 
spread  my  hands  to  a  people  that  be- 
lieveth   not,  and  contradicteth  me.    O 
my  people,  what  have  I  done  to  thee, 
or   in   what   have    I    molested   thee? 
Answer  thou  me." 

The   Real  Mission  of  the 
Third  Order 

In  a  letter  addressed  to  the  Min- 
isters General  of  the  three  families 
of  the  First  Order  of  Minors,  the 
Holy  Father  gives  expression  to  "a 
certain  fear  that  an  unwise  zeal  for 

novelty,  under  the  pretext  of  doing 
better  work  for  society,  is  in  some 
places  insinuating  itself  into  the  Order 
of  Tertiaries,  and  gradually  diverting 
it  from  the  scope  for  which  the  most 
holy  Francis  has  ordained  it." 

After  defining  the  Third  Order  as 
a  religious  order,  he  mentions  as  the 
two     characteristic    marks    of     Ter- 
tiaries   or    "Brothers    of    Penance," 
as  they  were  called  by  St.  Francis, 
brotherly  harmony  among  themselves 
and  the  practice  of  penance.  He  dwells 
at  some  length  on  these  points  and 
adds  that  the  Third  Order  proved  a 
wonderful    blessing    to    Church    and 
society  as  long  as  it  religiously  pre- 
served its  native  form  of  penance,  and 
that  it  will  surely  bring  like  fruits  in 
future  if  only  it  adheres  to  its  scope. 
Then  he  proceeds  to  outline  the  form 
and  scope  of  the  Order  according  to 
the  Rule  laid  down  by  St.  Francis  for 
Tertiaries  and  concludes  his  remarks 
with  the  words :  "  From  what  has  been 
said,  then,  We  think  it  clear  that  the 
purpose  of  the  Third  Order  is  that  the 
members  put  into  daily  practice  the 
prcepts  of  evangelical  perfection  and 
be  an  example  of  Christian  life  for  the 
imitation  of  others.     It  follows  that 
sodalities  of  Tertiaries  as  such  must 
altogether  abstain  from  mixing  in  civil 
or  purely  economic  questions;    other- 
wise,  let  them  know  that  they  are 
doing  something  altogether  foreign  to 
their   purpose   and   contrary   to   Our 
will.   But  Tertiaries  will  render  a  great 
service  to  Christianity,  if  as  individuals 
they    join     Chatholic     societies    and 
work  for  the  attainment  of  the  special 
purpose  which  each  of  these  has  in 
view;    nor  are  they  prohibited  from 
cooperating   also   in  social   action   as 
approved  by  the  Apostolic  See." 

It  is  evident  from  the  text  of  the 
Papal  letter  that  the  purpose  of  the 
Third  Order  is  primarily  the  sancti- 
fication  of  its  own  members,  not  the 
solution  of  the  social  question.  The 
social  question  will  take  care  of  itself 
just  as  soon  as  Tertiaries  succeed  in 



leavening  society  with  the  principles 
of  virtue  and  piety  that  the  Pope 
wishes  them  to  teach  the  world  by 
the  example  of  their  lives.  Herein 
consists  the  real  social  mission  of  the 
Third  Order,  not,  however,  in  dabbling 
in  all  kinds  of  political  and  economic 
questions.  Its  mission,  therefore,  is 
the  same  to-day  as  it  was.  at  the  time 
of  St.  Francis.  As  the  Holy  Father 
states,  however,  individual  Tertiaries 
may  and  should  engage  in  "  social 
action  as  approved  by  the  Apostolic 
See."  But  care  should  be  taken  that 
the  Third  Order  itself  does  not  lose 
sight  of  the  purpose  for  which  it  was 
instituted,  "for  otherwise,"  to  use 
the  words  of  Leo  XIII.,  "the  good  to 
be  hoped  from  it  will  be  nil." 

Let  Tertiaries,  therefore,  indulge  in 
social  activity  to  their  heart's  content, 
but  if  they  are  animated  with  love  for 
the  Third  Order,  they  will  sedulously 
strive  to  preserve  its  purity  and  in- 
tegrity by  following  the  wise  and  timely 
instructions  of  him  who,  himself  a 
son  of  St.  Francis,  desires  nothing  so 
much  as  "to  restore  all  things  in 
Christ,"  by  spreading  the  spirit  of 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

The  Edict  of  Milan 

In  the  coming  year  the  Christian 
world  will  celebrate  the  sixteenth 
centenary  of  the  issuance  of  the 
joint  edict  of  religious  toleration  by 
the  Roman  Emperors  Constantine 
and  Licinius.  The  event  marks  an 
epoch  in  history. 

After  three  centuries  of  bloody  per- 
secution and  of  relentless  warfare 
against  the  newly  founded  Christian 
Church,  paganism  at  length  was 
forced  to  admit  its  defeat  and  to  bow 
in  homage  to  the  Cross  of  Christ.  The 
work  of  extermination  so  confidently 
begun  by  Nero  and  intermittently 
carried  on  with  such  fury  and  violence 
by  his  successors,  instead  of  stunting 
the  Church,  had  only  served  to  ac- 
celerate her  growth.    The  blood  of  the 

martyrs  was  the  seed  of  Christians. 
So  numerous  had  they  become,  as  a 
Chris^an  writer  of  that  age  informs  us, 
that  the  most  flourishing  cities  of  the 
empire  would  have  been  dispeopled,  if 
the  Christians  had  betaken  themselves 
to  other  parts.  No  wonder  paganism 
was  anxious  to  conclude  an  honorable 
peace  with  the  Church  it  had  sought 
so  ruthlessly  to  crush. 

In  the  year  313  the  rulers  of  the 
Roman  empire  met  at  Milan  and 
issued  the  famous  edict  of  toleration. 
This  declared  that  the  two  emperors 
had  decided  to  grant  to  Christians 
freedom  in  the  exercise  of  religion. 
A  happy  day  now  dawned  for  the 
Christians.  Their  feeling  of  emanci- 
pation from  danger  is  touchingly 
described  by  the  Christian  writer 
Lactantius:  "We  should  now  give 
thanks  to  the  Lord  who  has  gathered 
together  the  flock  that  was  devastated 
by  ravening  wolves,  who  has  exter- 
minated the  wild  beasts  which  drove 
it  from  the  pasture.  Where  is  now  the 
swarming  multitude  of  our  enemies, 
where  the  hangmen  of  Diocletian  and 
Maximian?  God  has  swept  them  from 
the  earth;  let  us  therefore  celebrate 
his  triumph  with  joy;  let  us  observe 
the  victory  of  the  Lord  with  songs  and 
praise,  and  honor  him  with  prayer 
day  and  night." 

Sixteen  hundred  years  have  passed 
since  then.  They  have  witnessed  the 
rise,  the  culmination,  and  the  gradual 
decline  of  the  Church's  influence  on 
the  life  of  nations.  No  sooner  had 
she  emerged  from  her  subterraneous 
asylum  and  inhaled  the  air  of  freedom, 
when  she  at  once  made  herself  felt 
as  a  world-power,  by  renewing  the 
face  of  the  earth.  Her  first  care  was 
to  breath  new  life  into  the  dying  Ro- 
man nation.  Gradually  extending  her 
sphere  of  influence,  she  enlisted  in  the 
service  of  Christ  those  hordes  of  bar- 
barians that  swept  like  a  deluge  over 
the  civilized  world.  Then,  she  set  out 
to  distant  shores  and  realms,  and,  one 
after  another,  the  foreign  nations  were 



made  to  pass  under  the  yoke  of  Christ; 
till,  in  the  Middle  Ages,  our  Lord's 
simile  of  one  shepherd  and  one  fold 
had  become  an  accomplished  fact,  as 
far  as  European  nations  were  con- 

Then  came  the  Reformation,  that 
great  social,  political  and  religious 
revolution  of  the  sixteenth  century. 
The  European  princes,  jealous  of  the 
beneficent  influence  of  the  Church  on 
public  life,  arrogated  her  own  divine 
rights.  Nor  did  they  rest  there;  they 
would  fain  have  chained  her  to  their 
chariots  to  grace  the  triumphal  march 
of  the  omnipotent  state.  The  Eliza- 
beths, the  Pombals,  the  Napoleons, 
the  Bismarcks,  the  Humberts,  the 
Waldeck-Rousseaus  left  no  stone  un- 
turned to  destroy  the  last  vestige  of 
ancient  power  and  prestige.  To-day 
we  see  her  influence  on  public  life 
reduced  to  a  minimum.  She,  the  di- 
vinely constituted  representative  of 
Christ  and  His  work,  no  longer  has  a 
voice  in  the  councils  of  nations.  She 
is  barely  tolerated  even  in  those  coun- 
tries that  owe  her  what  little  civiliza- 
tion they  still  possess.  O,  for  a  Con- 
stantine ! 

The  Balkan  War 

The  war  clouds  that  so  long  lowered 
on  the  Balkans,  have  burst  at  last, 
and,  at  this  writing,  are  still  venting 
their  fury  on  the  unfortunate  in- 
habitants of  the  peninsula.  The  Turks 
utterly  demoralized  by  their  continual 
reverses,  are  craving  mercy  at  the 
hands  of  the  irrepressible  confederates. 
Whatever  may  be  said  in  defense  of 
the  cause  of  the  Balkan  States,  and 
however  little  sympathy  the  Turks 
may  deserve,  the  fact  remains  that, 
considering  the  duration  of  the 
war  and  the  number  of  combatants, 
the  Balkan  war  will  be  recorded  in 
history  as  one  of  the  most  saguinary 
of  all  times.  Between  200,000  and 
300,000  human  lives  have  been  lost 
in   three   weeks   of   hideous   carnage. 

Whole  villages  have  been  ruthlessly 
burnt,  and  the  most  appalling  atroc- 
ities have  been  wreaked  on  defenseless 
men,  women,  and  children. 

All  this  is  enacting  before  the  very 
eyes  of  the  so-called  Christian  powers 
of  Europe  who  are  within  a  stone's 
throw  of  the  belligerents,  and  who  to 
put  an  effectual  stop  to  the  useless  and 
iniquitous  slaughter,  need  only  to  say 
the  word.  Instead,  they  prefer  to 
act  the  part  of  idle  and  unconcerned 
spectators  of  the  scenes  of  murder  and 
desolation  about  them.  Turkey  has 
repeatedly  appealed  to  them  for  in- 
terference, but  to  no  avail.  It  may  be 
wise  for  the  great  Powers  at  this  junc- 
ture to  keep  aloof.  But  why  did  they 
allow  things  to  come  to  such  a  pass? 
Why  did  they  not  interfere  while  in- 
terference was  still  possible?  Their 
mutual  jealousies  would  not  permit 
it.  Their  own  petty  interests  were  at 
stake,  and  these  must  be  guarded  even 
at  the  cost  of  embroiling  all  Europe  in 
a  war.  Meanwhile,  the  Balkan  con- 
federates having  realized  the  truth 
of  the  adage  that  in  union  there  is 
strength,  and  acted  on  this  realization 
presented  themselves  as  a  new  and 
formidable  corporate  power.  The  great 
Powers,  having  shirked  or  ignored 
their  duties  of  guardianship,  the  sub- 
jects of  this  guardianship  asserted 
themselves,  and  the  Balkan  Con- 
federation was  born.  Now  the  much 
vaunted  diplomats  of  Europe  are  at 
their  wits'  end  to  find  a  solution  of 
this  new  and  perplexing  problem  they 
find  themselves  confronted  with.  But 
it  has  ever  been  thus  in  the  history  of 
nations.  "The  foolish  things  of  the 
world  hath  God  chosen  to  confound  the 
wise:  and  the  weak  things  of  the 
world  hath  God  chosen  that  He  may 
confound  the  strong." 

"As  the  ring  is  the  sign  of  marriage, 
so  is  adversity,  both  corporal  and 
spiritual,  patiently  borne  for  the  love 
of  God,  a  most  true  pledge  of  divine 
election,  and  is  like  a  marriage  of  the 
soul  with  God." — St.  Gertrude. 



The  Prize  Story 

By  Fr.  Celestine  V.  Strub.  0.  F.  M. 

IT  was  a  gloomy  afternoon  in  early 
September.  Rain  had  been  falling 
by  fits  and  starts  all  through  the 
day;  and  now  it  began  to  descend 
steadily  in  a  dreary  drizzle  that 
chilled  the  atmosphere  and  the  heart. 
As  night  drew  on,  the  water' purled  in 
muddy  rills  along  the  sides  of  the 
streets,  and  gathering  from  various 
directions  hurried  down  a  narrow  gully 
to  the  creek  at  the  foot  of  the  hill. 
Gloomy,  however,  as  was  the  aspect 
of  nature,  it  yet  gave  fairer  prospects 
of  an  early  brightening  than  the  gloom 
that  filled  the  heart  of  John  Harmon, 
as  he  sat  alone  in  the  front  room  of 
his  poorly  furnished  but  neat  little 
cottage  and  stared  hopelessly  at  a 
newspaper  lying  on  his  lap.  The  last 
drops  had  been  added  that  filled  his 
cup  of  misfortune  to  overflowing. 

Senior  member  of  the  largest  milling 
company  in  Carrol  county  and  the 
proud  father  of  six  exemplary  children, 
Harmon's  life  had  been  one  of  unin- 
terrupted prosperity  and  joy,  when  a 
sudden  gust  of  misfortune  almost  over- 
whelmed him.  The  reckless  prodiga- 
lity of  his  spendthrift  partner  resulting 
in  utter  bankruptcy  of  the  firm,  and 
the  death  of  his  wife,  who  survived 
the  disaster  but  a  few  months,  reduced 
him  from  a  state  of  affluence  and 
domestic  happiness  almost  to  penury 
and  desolation.  Happily  his  eldest 
daughter,  Helen,  though  she  had  not 

yet  finished  her  course  at  St. 

Academy,  was  able  to  take  charge  of 
the  household,  and  Harmon  secured 
a  position  under  the  new  owner  of  the 
mill;  but  what  with  the  wants  of 
six  children  and  with  several  charities 
that  he  could  not  bring  himself  to 
abandon,  he  was  barely  able  to  keep 
the  wolf  from  the  door.  The  one  thing, 
which  he  hoped  would  tide  him  over 
his  financial  straits  safely,  was  an 
endowment  policy  for  two  thousand 
dollars,  which  lacked  but  two  years 

of  maturity;  a  life  policy  for  a  much 
larger  sum  he  had  suffered  to  lapse. 
It  was  the  sad  tidings  that  this  last 
straw  of  hope  was  swept  away  by  the 
failure  of  his  insurance  company,  that 
on  this  dismal  evening  bowed  his  head 
in  grief  and  enveloped  his  future  in 

Great  as  was  the  loss  of  two  thousand 
dollars  to  a  man  in  his  circumstances, 
it  was  aggravated  by  the  fact  that  he 
had  been  obliged  to  mortgage  his 
house  for  one  thousand  dollars  in  order 
to  keep  up  the  annual  payments  on 
his  insurance.  His  entire  house  and  lot 
was  valued  at  hardly  more  than  one 
thousand  dollars;  and  should  he  be 
unable  to  pay  off  the  mortgage  by  the 
end  of  the  year,  his  home  would  be 
sold  by  auction  and  he  with  his  six 
motherless  children  turned  into  the 

While  sunk  in  these  melancholy 
reflections,  a  knock  at  the  door  brought 
him  to  his  feet.  Opening  the  door  he 
beheld  the  tall  form  of  his  beloved 
pastor  smiling  under  his  dripping 
umbrella  while  he  stamped  the  mud 
and   water    from    his    drenched   feet. 

"Why,  Father  Wellman!"  cried  Mr. 
Harmon,  thoroughly  surprised. 

"Good  evening,  John.  There's  no 
day  so  bad  that  does  not  bring  some- 
thing good,  is  there?"  said  Father 

"I  doubt  that,  Father,"  Harmon 
replied,  taking  his  pastor's  umbrella 
and  offering  him  a  chair;  "but  cer- 
tainly your  coming  is  the  very  best 
thing  that  has  happened  to  me  to-day." 

"I  thought  as  much,"  said  the  pas- 
tor, "and  that  is  what  induced  me  to 

"So  you  know  all?"  asked  Harmon. 

"Yes;  I  read  the  account  of  the 
"Stonewall 's "  failure  in  this  morning 's 
paper,  and  I  remembered  that  it  was 
with  it  that  your  fortunes  rested. 
You  are  indeed  to  be  pitied,  my  dear 



Harmon,  and  you  have  my  sincerest 
sympathy.  But  forget  not  that  God 
is  still  watching  over  you,  and  that  not 
a  hair  falls  from  your  head  without 
his  knowledge  and  consent.  Have 
you  considered  what  you  shall  do 
now?  " 

"I  have  been  thinking  over  the 
matter,"  replied  Harmon;  "but  I 
do  not  see  that  there  is  anything  to  do 
but  to  await  the  inevitable.  The 
mortgage  on  our  house  is  payable  the 
thirtieth  of  December,  or  January 
the  third  at  the  latest;  and  it  is  im- 
possible for  me  to  raise  one  thousand 
dollars  within  that  time." 

"Could  you,  perhaps,  raise  half  that 
amount,"  queried  Father  Wellman, 
"if  you  discontinued  paying  forKenelm 
McRoy's  education?  We  might  then 
get  the  rest  from  other  sources." 

Kenelm  McRoy  was  an  orphan 
youth  whom  Mr.  Harmon  had,  at  the 
dying  request  of  his  widowed  mother, 
promised  to  have  educated  for  the 
priesthood.  In  his  palmy  days  the 
fulfilling  of  such  a  promise  was  an  easy 
task  for  the  wealthy  miller;  not  so, 
however,  now  that  his  fortune  had 

"No,  Father,"  replied  Harmon; 
"I  paid  his  board  and  tuition  in  ad- 
vance for  this  whole  school-year;  and 
I  am  very  glad  now  that  I  did  so. 
What  he  will  do  next  year,  I  do  not 
know.  He  has  but  one  more  year  to 
complete  his  college  course;  but  for 
even  one  year  I  cannot  support  him 
now.  Then  there's  Eugene,  too,  whom, 
as  you  know,  I  had  intended  to  send 
with  Kenelm  next  year;  his  dreams 
will  also  be  blasted." 

"Too  bad!"  said  Father  Wellman. 
"It  would  be  a  real  pity  if  these  two 
youths  should  be  hindered  from  fol- 
lowing their  vocation.  I  cannot  believe 
that  they  will  be  so  unfortunate.  At 
all  events,  my  dear  Harmon,  let  us 
hope  for  the  best.  You  have  still  over 
three  months  time;  and  who  knows 
what  may  turn  up  within  that  period? 
Even  should  all  else  fail,  we  shall  yet 

have  the  most  powerful  of  all  instru- 
ments for  good — prayer.  And  should 
prayer  fail  to  fill  our  coffers  with  gold, 
it  will  at  least  fill  our  hearts  with  con- 
fidence in  God;  and  you  know  that 
such  as  confide  in  him  have  never 
been  confounded." 

Looking  over  the  mail  that  night, 
after  having  returned  home,  Father 
Wellman  found  a  specimen  copy  of 
the  People's  Magazine.  Knowing  the 
periodical  by  name  and  by  its  repu- 
tation, which  was  neither  egregiously 
good  nor  bad,  he  was  just  about  to 
cast  it  into  the  waste-basket,  when  his 
eye  caught  the  words  in  bold  print  on 
the  front  cover:  Do  you  want  $1000? 
Upon  examination  he  found  that  the 
magazine  was  holding  a  short-story 
contest  for  a  prize  of  one  thousand 
dollars.  To  such  a  lover  of  the  poor 
as  Father  Wellman  was,  one  thousand 
dollars  would  have  been  a  welcome  gift 
at  any  time;  on  this  particular  even- 
ing the  remotest  possibility  of  such  an 
offer  seemed  to  him  as  an  assurance 
from  Heaven  that  his  hopes  for  some 
happy  solution  of  the  Harmon  affair 
shoufd  be  realized.  "Why  should  I 
not  write  a  story?"  he  said  to  himself. 
"And  why  should  I  not  be  able  to  win 
the  first  prize?"  he  continued,  half 
aloud.  "  Few,  if  any,  of  the  contestants 
will  have  a  better  purpose  in  writing 
than  I;  none,  a  more  disinterested 
one.  The  vocation  of  two  excellent 
young  men  and  the  fortunes  of  my  best 
parishioner  are  at  stake;  and  with 
God  on  my  side  I  believe  I  should  win. 
There's  nothing  like  trying.  'A  good 
cause  maketh  a  stout  heart.'  " 

Once  resolved,  Father  Wellman  did 
not  sleep  on  his  plan  before  beginning 
its  execution.  His  own  experience  as 
pastor  furnished  him  with  ample  ma- 
terial for  a  story;  he  had,  in  fact,  pre- 
viously thought  of  publishing  an  ac- 
count of  some  of  his  experiences.  So 
seizing  pencil  and  paper  he  soon 
sketched,  with  shift  of  scene  and 
change  of  names,  a  tale  of.  self -sac- 



rificing  filial  love  in  which  he  himself 
had  played  a  minor  role  in  the  early 
years  of  his  priesthood. 

The  following  Sunday  afternoon  he 
had  an  opportunity  to  speak  with  Mr. 
Harmon,  anb!  he  did  not  delay  to 
acquaint  him  with  the  good  news, 
doubtful  though  it  was.  Still  his 
humility  debarred  the  complete  dis- 
closure of  his  project.  He  merely  in- 
formed Harmon  in  a  general  way  that 
he  had  hit  upon  a  way  of  extricating 
them  from  their  difficulty  which  he 
was  confident  would  prove  successful. 
"All  I  ask  of  you,"  he  said,  "is  that 
you  and  the  children  earnestly  re- 
commend the  matter  to  God  in  your 
daily  prayers.  It  is  chiefly  upon 
prayer,  and  in  particular  upon  the 
prayer  of  the  children,  that  I  have 
based  my  hopes." 

This  advice  of  their  devoted  pastor 
the  Harmons  followed  most  zealously. 
Indeed,  it  seemed  as  if  they  had  caught 
the  contagion  of  his  hopefulness,  so 
enthusiastically  and  joyfully  did  they 
set  about  the  task.  The  praiseworthy, 
but  alas  too  uncommon,  custom  of 
reciting  the  rosary  daily  in  the  family 
circle  still  flourished  in  this  truly 
Catholic  home;  and  this  prayer  to- 
gether with  the  litany  of  Our  Lady 
was  now  said  every  evening  with  more 
than  usual  devotion. 

It  was  amusing  to  hear  the  various 
conjectures  that  the  children  made  as 
to  the  probable  plan  Father  Wellman 
had  adopted. 

"I  bet  I  know  what  Father  Well- 
man's  going  to  do,"  said  Raymond. 

"  Going  to  do  for  what?  "  asked  eight 
year  old  Louise. 

"To  get  that  thousand  dollars," 
Raymond  replied.  "You  remember 
that  Saint  he  told  us  about,  who  gave 
away  the  golden  candlesticks  that 
were  on  the  altar,  when  he  had  no 
more  money  to  give?" 

"That  was  St.  Charles  Borromeo," 
said  Eugene. 

"Well,  Father  Wellman  is  just  holy 

enough  to  do  the  same  thing,"  Ray- 
mond continued.  "Last  winter  a  poor 
man  asked  him  for  a  pair  of  shoes, 
and  as  he  hand  none  but  the  pair  he 
had  on,  he  took  them  off  and  gave 
them  to  the  tramp,  and  then  went 
around  for  the  next  few  days  wearing 
a  pair  of  old  slippers." 

"I  don't  doubt  at  all,"  Eugene 
interposed,  "that  Father  would  give 
the  candlesticks  if  he  had  them;  but" — 

"I  know  he  hasn't  no  candlesticks," 
interrupted  Raymond,  forgetting  his 
grammar  in  his  excitement;  "but 
he  has  fiddlesticks.  Didn't  he  say 
he  wouldn't  part  with  that  old  fiddle 
of  his  for  a  thousand  dollars?  See  if 
he  doesn't  sell  it  now  anyhow." 

"He  calls  that  his  'Ramona,'  doesn't 
he?"  queried  Louise  innocently." 

"His  'Cremona,'  you  little  goosey," 
corrected  Eugene.  "That's  an  ex- 
cellent kind  of  violin;  but  his  is  no 
Cremona  at  all;  he  calls  it  that  just 
by  way  of  a  joke.  If  he  could  get 
anyone  to  buy  it,  he  would  have  sold  it 
long  ago.  The  reason  why  he  would 
not  like  to  part  with  it,  is  because  it 
is  a  keepsake  from  his  grandfather." 

Edwin,  who  was  Raymond 's  senior 
by  nineteen  months,  had  seen  the 
pastor  conversing  with  the  proprietor 
of  the  mill,  and  volunteered  the  opinion 
that  it  was  from  the  latter  that  help 
was  expected ;  while  Eugene  laughingly 
opined,  that  Father  Wellman  expected 

to  discover  a  gold  mine. 

*  *  *  * 

The  last  draft  of  Father  Wellman 's 
narrative  was  almost  finished  when  he 
received  a  letter  from  his  younger 
brother,  George,  of  New  Orleans,  in- 
forming him  that  he  had  written  a 
story  for  a  contest,  which  the  People 's 
Magazine  was  holding,  and  that  he 
was  very  sanguine  of  winning  the  prize, 
as  he  had  already  at  college  written 
stories  that  were  much  admired. 
George  Wellman,  a  young  doctor, 
aged  thirty-four  years,  was  Father 
Wellman 's  only  living  brother — in 
fact  the   onlv  other  member  of  the 



family  yet  living.  He  reflected  little 
honor  on  the  family,  however,  as  he 
had  for  nine  years  neglected  the  prac- 
tice of  his  religious  duties.  Despite  his 
waywardness,  George  always  evinced 
a  strong  attachment  to  his  brother; 
but  he  had  so  far  invariably  turned  a 
deaf  ear  to  the  latter 's  admonitions. 
He  was  enjoying  a  pretty  extensive, 
but  not  very  lucrative  practice,  and 
he  wished  to  obtain  the  story-contest 
prize  in  order  to  purchase  himself  an 

This  letter  was  anything  but  pleas- 
ing to  our  good  pastor.  First  of  all  it 
awoke  him  to  the  discouraging  realiza- 
tion that  he  was  coping  with  far  abler 
competitors  than  he  had  imagined. 
Had  he  known  that  his  brother  was 
of  their  number,  he  would  not  have 
ventured  to  enter  the  contest;  for  he 
knew  from  George's  tentative  efforts 
at  story-writing  as  a  student,  that  his 
talent  in  that  respect  was  remarkable. 
Then,  the  fear  that  just  his  erring 
brother  should  indirectly  contribute 
to  bring  on  the  impending  ruin  of  the 
Harmon  family,  was  extremely  pain- 
ful. What  worried  him  most,  however, 
was  the  thought,  that,  should  he  with 
God's  help  nevertheless  win  the  prize, 
he  should  be  the  cause  of  a  grievous 
disappointment  to  his  brother.  For- 
tunately, on  examining  the  magazine 
again,  he  found  that  he  might  hide 
his  identity  under  an  assumed  name; 
and  in  view  of  that,  he  resolved  to 
send  in  his  story,  trusting  that  through 
the  Harmons'  and  his  own  fervent 
prayers  God  would  not  forsake  him 
but  crown  his  humble  effort  with 

It  was  late  in  October  when  Father 
Wellman  mailed  his  work.  He  had 
now  two  full  months  to  await  the 
outcome,  as  the  name  of  the  success- 
ful contestant  was  to  be  published  in 
the  New  Year's  issue.  As  will  be 
readily  understood,  these  were  two 
months  of  anxious  suspense  both  for 
him  and  for  the  Harmons.     Many  a 

time  when  he  arose  of  a  sullen  De- 
cember morning  and  noticed  the 
People's  Magazine  lying  on  his  desk, 
the  thought  came  to  his  mind:  "Are 
you  not,  perhaps,  after  all  deluding 
yourself  and  that  poor  family  with 
vain  hopes  and  foolish  fancies?  Is  your 
implicit  confidence  not  somewhat  ex- 
travagant?" But  he  forthwith  ban- 
ished the  thought  with  the  words: 
"No  one  that  trusted  in  the  Lord  has 
ever  been  confounded." 
*  *  *  * 

Finally  Chirstmas  came  with  its 
atmosphere  of  peace  and  contentment, 
and  great  as  was  Father  Wellman 's 
solicitude  for  the  Harmon  family,  he 
was  far  too  devoted  a  priest  to  let  that 
dampen  his  Christmas  spirits.  And, 
indeed,  when  everything  directs  our 
thoughts  to  the  source  of  all  our  joy, 
the  Divine  Child  in  the  crib;  when 
those  sweetest  of  all  songs,  the  sacred 
Christmas  carols,  daily  greet  the  ear; 
when  at  every  turn  the  beaming  coun- 
tenances' of  care-free  childhood  gladden 
our  vision;  what  Catholic  will  not 
feel  in  his  heart  a  thrill  of  gladness 
even  if  his  brow  be  clouded  with 
grief?  So  Father  Wellman  abated 
not  a  whit  his  usual  activity,  but  was 
ever  busy, — pouring  the  oil  of  consola- 
tion upon  troubled  souls  in  the  con- 
fessional; ministering  to  the  wants 
of  the  poor,  sick,  and  afflicted;  drop- 
ping words  of  love  and  cheer  wherever 
he  went.  The  Christmas-tree  for  the 
children  of  the  poor  was  erected  in  the 
school  as  usual ;  and  the  Harmon 
children  were  also  remembered  in  a 
way  that  would  not  wound  their 
feelings.  Father  Wellman  himself 
was  not  forgotten  by  his  grateful 
parishioners,  who  emulated  his  own 
generosity;  but  the  gifts  were  dealt 
out  again  almost  as  soon  as  they  were 

Day  by  day  throughout  the  octave 
of  Christmas  the  anxious  pastor 
scanned  the  mail  that  came  in;  but 
New  Year's  eve  dawned,  and  the 
People's  Magazine  with  the  expected 



joyful  tidings  had  not  yet  arrived. 
"So  the  Harmons  will  see  the  end 
of  their  high  life  at  last,"  said  the 
housekeeper  to  Father  Wellman,  as 
the  latter  was  partaking  of  his  frugal 
meal  that  noon.  "I  hear  that  unless 
the  mortgage  is  paid  off  by  January 
the  third,  they  will  be  turned  into  the 
street.  I  don't  wish  them  any  harm; 
but  I  can't  help  thinking  that  it  serves 
them  right.  Why  don 't  they  accom- 
modate themselves  to  their  means?" 
Her  pastor  'could  not  help'  think- 
ing: "Rather  threadbare  charity 
that;"  then-  replied  aloud:  "I  never 
knew  it  was  thought  that  they  lived 
above  their  means." 

"Never  knew?"  echoed  the  house- 
keeper. "What  right  has  Helen 
Harmon  to  wear  a  silk  dress  when 
there's  a  mortgage  on  their  home?" 
"If  you  refer  to  that  blue  dress," 
Father  Wellman  responded,  "which 
she  has  worn  for  the  last  two  or  three 
winters,  I  fail  to  understand  how  that 
can  convict  her  of  high  living.  I 
seldom  take  notice  of  people 's  apparel ; 
but  I  could  not  help  noticing  that  she 
had  on  that  same  dress  every  Sunday 
that  I  saw  her.  She  had  the  dress  too, 
I  am  sure,  before  her  father's  fortunes 
declined;  and  I  consider  it  not  only 
economical  but  also  humble  in  her  to 
wear  it  so  long.  What  else  should  she 
do  with  it?  There  are  few  girls,  I'll 
warrant,  or  even  women,  that  would 
wear  the  same  dress  so  long." 

Though  she  'did  not  wish'  to  ac- 
knowledge it,  the  housekeeper  'could 
not  help '  feeling  that  she  could  not  win 
in  this  encounter;  so  she  deftly  chang- 
ed the  subject,  and  soon  had  the  floor 
entirely  to  herself  for  a  long  and 
earnest  lecture  to  her  meek  pastor  on 
his  undue  generosity  in  giving  away 
almost  everything  except  the  clothes 
on  his  back. 

When  the  postman  came  that  even- 
ing, he  handed  Father  Wellman  a 
paper  and  a  letter.  With  the  greatest 
eagerness  Father  Wellman  ran  his 
forefinger  through  the  wrapper  of  the 

former.  It  was  the  New  Year's  copy 
of  the  People's  Magazine.  His  heart 
beat  pitapat  and  his  hands  trembled 
visibly  as  he  turned  the  front  cover. 
At  a  glance  his  eye  caught  the  name 
Wellman  in  bold  characters;  but  a 
second  glance  undeceived  him.  This  is 
what  he  read:  Winner  of  the  prize  of 
$1000,  George  W.  Wellman  of  New 
Orleans.  It  would  be  difficult  to 
describe  what  our  good  pastor  felt  at 
that  moment.  All  that  he  said  was: 
"Poor,  poor  Harmon! — But  God's 
will  be  done!" 

All  inclination  to  examine  the  letter, 
which  he  still  held  in  his  hand,  had 
now  left  him ;  but  noticing  his  brother's 
handwriting  on  the  envelope  as  he 
was  about  to  place  it  on  the  table, 
curiosity  prompted  him  to  open  and 
to  read  it.    It  ran  as  follows: 

New  Orleans,  La., 
December  26,  19__. 
My  dear  brother: 

It  will  undoubtedly  be  a  source  of 
great  surprise  to  you  to  receive  a 
letter  from  me  so  shortly  after  my 
customary  Christmas  card;  but  I 
have  been  the  recipient  of  so  singular 
a  favor,  that  I  could  not  for  a  moment 
defer  the  joy  which,  I  am  sure,  the 
news  thereof  will  give  you.  A  week 
ago  I  had  not  dreamed  of  the  happiness 
that  now  is  mine,  as  I  had  not  the 
faintest  presentiment  that  the  cause 
of  it  should  be  realized.  To  be  brief,  I 
received  Holy  Communion  Christmas 
morning;  and  I  doubt  whether  the 
shepherds  of  Bethlehem  themselves 
experienced  more  true  joy  on  beholding 
the  Divine  Child  than  I  felt  after  re- 
ceiving him  yesterday  into  my  un- 
worthy heart.  Could  you,  my  dear 
Frank,  have  wished  your  earthly- 
minded,  erring  brother  a  greater  grace 
or  a  more  joyful  Christmas? 

But,  you  will  ask,  what  wrought 
this  wonderful  transformation  in  me? 
The  cause  was  quite  as  unexpected 
and  wonderful  as  the  effect,  Divine 
Providence  no  doubt  having  shaped  all 
the  circumstances  to  bring  it  about. 



I  was  riding  in  an  automobile  with 
some  friends  two  days  before  Christ- 
mas, when  through  the  carelessness  of 
the  chauffeur  we  crashed  at  full  speed 
into  another  motor  car.  The  chauffeur 
was  killed  outright;  my  two  com- 
panions suffered  serious  internal  in- 
juries, and  the  occupant  of  the  other 
vehicle  was  severely  bruised.  It  was 
little  short  of  a  miracle  that  I  es- 
caped with  my  life,  as  I  was  pinned 
beneath  the  mass  of  wreckage;  still 
I  sustained  only  a  slight  sprain  of  my 
left  ankle  and  a  few  scratches.  When 
I  saw  the  mangled  corpse  of  the 
chauffeur,  the  danger  of  my  own  con- 
dition flashed  vividly  upon  my  soul, 
and  I  went  to  confession  the  very  next 
night,  which  was  Christmas  eve. 

It  was  on  the  same  evening  that  I 
received  from  the  People's  Magazine 
one  thousand  dollars  as  the  prize  for 
my  contribution  to  tyieir  story  contest. 
Though  I  had  set  my  heart  on  getting 
an  automobile,  you  can  readily  ima- 
gine that  I  have  been  put  quite  out  of 

the  notion  now.  The  winning  of  that 
prize  enables  me  to  send  you  a  slight 
token  of  my  gratitude  for  your  contin- 
ual prayers,  to  which  I  am  convinced 
I  owe  the  grace  of  my  conversion. 
Please  to  accept  it  with  assurances  of 
warmest  affection  and  with  best  wishes 
for  a  most  happy  New  Year  from 
Your  loving  brother, 

As  he  read  the  letter  the  look  of  dis- 
appointment vanished  from  Father 
Wellman's  countenance,  which  now 
bore  unmistakable  signs  of  the  joy 
and  gratitude  that  filled  his  heart. 
When  he  had  finished  reading  it,  he 
inspected  the  envelope  and  drew  forth 
a  slip  of  folded  paper.  Opening  it,  he 
shook  his  head  incredulously,  and  then 
smiled.  It  was  a  check  for  one  thou- 
sand dollars.  The  smile  seemed  to 
change  to  an  expression  of  deepest 
reverence  as  he  knelt  down  before  his 
Crucifix  and  said:  "No  one  that 
trusted  in  God  has  ever  been  con- 

"The  efficacy  of  prayer  is  inestim- 
able and  all-powerful  to  obtain  what 
is  profitable,  and  to  ward  off  injuries. 
If  thou  desire  to  bear  adversity  with 
patience,  be  a  man  of  prayer.  If  thou 
wish  to  overcome  temptations  and 
crosses,  be  a  man  of  prayer.  If  thou 
wish  to  trample  on  evil  affection,  be  a 
man  of  prayer.  If  thou  wish  to  dis- 
cover the  snares  of  the  devil  and  to 
guard  against  his  wiles,  be  a  man 
of  prayer.  If  thou  wish  to  rejoice 
while  doing  the  work  of  God  in  the 
midst  of  labor  and  sorrow,  be  a  man 
of  prayer.  If  thou  wish  to  exercise 
thyself  in  spiritual  life,  and  to  keep 
thy  desires  from  the  cares  of  the 
flesh,  be  a  man  of  prayer.  If  thou  wish 
to  put  to  flight  the  vain  butterflies 
of  the  imagination,  be  a  man  of  prayer. 
If  thou  wish  to  enrich  thy  soul  with 
good  and  holy  thoughts,  desires  and 
fervor,  be  a  man  of  prayer.  If  thou 
wish  to  establish  thy  heart  in  the  favor 
of  God,   in  manliness   of  spirit,   and 

constancy  of  resolution,  be  a  man  of 
prayer.  Moreover,  if  thou  wish  to 
rise  to  the  heights  of  contemplation, 
and  to  share  in  the  embraces  of  the 
spouse,  be  a  man  of  prayer.  For  it 
is  the  constant  practice  of  prayer  that 
can  bring  thee  to  contemplation,  and 
to  the  taste  of  heavenly  joys." — St. 

Intentions  for  January 

Conversion  of  a  husband.  Peace 
of  mind  and  body.  Perseverance  in 
studies.  Conversion  of  husband  and 
son.  Peace  in  family.  Recovery  of  a 
sick  person.  Success  in  an  under- 
taking. Conversion  of  a  brother. 
Spiritual  welfare  of  a  child.  For  the 
poor  dying  sinners. 

"To  read  impious  books  is  the  same 
as  to  offer  incense  to  the  demon." 
— St.  Isidore. 

In  these  columns  we  shall  endeavor 
to  bring  items  of  interest  concerning 
the  three  Orders  of  St.  Francis.  We 
do  not  for  a  moment  doubt  that  the 
story  of  the  pious  endeavors,  successes, 
and  sufferings  of  the  members  of  the 
Seraphic  family,  will  greatly  interest 
our  readers,  who,  for  the  most  part 
at  least,  glory  in  belonging  to  this 
same  family.  The  labors  and  successes 
of  their  brethren  and  sisters  in  Christ, 
at  home  and  abroad,  cannot  but  ar- 
rest their  attention  and  arouse  in 
them  the  holy  resolve  to  become 
worthy  children  of  St.  Francis  and  to 
labor  for  the  honor  of  God  and  the 
welfare  of  immortal  souls,  each  one 
according  to  his  or  her  means  and 
condition  of  life. 

The  Holy  Land. — The  war  between 
Turkey  and  Italy  did  not,  as  was 
feared,  seriously  check  the  work  of 
the  missionaries.  While  the  numbers 
of  pilgrims  was  not  so  great  as  usual, 
all  reports  point  to  a  satisfactory  pro- 
gress in  every  direction.  Neither  has 
the  war  between  Turkey  and  the 
Balkan  States  thus  far  caused  any 
disturbances,  though  the  Christians 
are  very  uneasy. 

Excavations  are  being  made  at 
Capharnaum  and  at  Mount  Thabor. 
At  the  latter  place  Fr.  Anthony 
Gassi,  O.  F.  M.,  is  busy  at  work  to 
lay  bare  the  ancient  ruins  with  a  view 
of  rebuilding  the*  ancient  Basilica  of 
the  Transfiguration.  At  Capharnaum 
Br.  Wendelin,  O.  F.  M.,  has  succeeded 
in  excavating  the  ancient  synagogue 
which  was  honored  by  the  presence 
and  prayers  of  our  Lord  himself. 
As  the  original  stones  are  nearly  all 
intact,  it  will  be  possible  to  rebuild 

this  shrine  with  the  old  material, 
and  in  its  primitive  shape. — The  Cru- 
saders' Almanac. 

The  Custody  of  the  Holy  Land, 
including  Syria,  Armenia,  the  islands 
of  Rhodes  and  Cyprus,  has  seven 
convents  and  thirty-seven  residences. 
The  number  of  Franciscans  in  the 
missions  is  at  present  about  360,  of 
whom  about  175  are  priests.  The 
Catholics  under  their  charge  number 
73,771.  The  Fathers  also  superintend 
54  schools  with  4184  pupils.  There 
are  about  69  Franciscan  Sisters  in 
these  missions. — Acta  Minorum. 

Farther  India. — The  Capuchins  labor 
in  six  districts  of  this  country.  In  the 
districts  of  Bettiah  and  Nepal,  four- 
teen Fathers  are  preaching  the  Gospel 
amid  great  difficulties,  but  with  steady 
success.  The  Catholics,  exclusive  of 
Europeans,  number  3457  with  232 
catechumens.  The  missions  maintain 
twelve  elementary  schools. 

China.- — The  sons  of  St.  Francis  are 
found  in  ten  vicariates:  North  Shan- 
tung, East  Shantung,  South  Hunan, 
Northwest  Hupe,  Southwest  Hupe, 
East  Hupe,  North  Shensi,  South 
Shensi,  North  and  Central  Shensi. 
The  total  number  of  priests  is  313,  of 
whom  203  are  Europeans.  There  are 
besides  17  lay-brothers,  and  137  Fran- 
ciscan Sisters  in  the  missions.  These 
missions  number  3859,  with  174,341 
Christians  and  74,945  catechumens, 
the  political  changes  of  the  past  year, 
though  they  have  caused  great  finan- 
cial losses,  have  thus  far  been  bene- 
ficial to  the  missions  in  other  respects, 
and  the  reports  of  the  missionaries 
are  throughout  optimistic. 



Japan. — The  Franciscans  in  the 
diocese  of  Hakodate  have  five  missions 
with  chapels.  The  southernmost 
mission,  with  20  Christians,  is  located 
at  Hakodate-Hameda,  on  the  southern 
extremity  of  the  island  of  Yezo.  Three 
Fathers  are  stationed  there.  At 
Sapporo,  the  capital  of  the  island,  the 
Fathers  have  a  small  parish  under  the 
patronage  of  St.  Francis.  The  total 
number  of  Catholics  in  the  diocese  is 
about  four  thousand ;  the  pagans  num- 
ber about  ten  million.  The  people  are 
showing  lively  interest  in  the  Church; 
hence  the  prospects  are  bright. 

Egypt. — According  to  the  latest 
reports,  118  Franciscans,  of  whom  75 
are  priests,  are  laboring  in  Upper  and 
Lower  Egypt.  They  attend  to  about 
70  parishes  and  missions.  There  are 
also  196  Franciscans  in  the  missions. 
About  1910  pupils  attend  the  19 

Mozambique. —The  condition  of  the 
missions  in  this  part  of  eastern  Africa 
is  a  sad  one,  on  account  of  the  hostile 
attitude  of  the  Portuguese  government 
which  controls  the  country.  Two 
Fathers,  aided  by  seven  Franciscan 
Sisters,  have  charge  of  two  stations. 
The  Catholics  number  2000. 

Caroline   and   Ladrones   Islands. — 

The  Catholics  on  these  islands  number 
about  4800.  The  Capuchins  are  labor- 
ing strenuously  in  this  distant  field  of 
labor,  but  are  meeting  with  great 
difficulties,  caused  partly  by  the  social 
conditions  among  the  natives,  partly 
by  the  vexations  of  minor  officials. 

Argentine  Republic. — The  missions 
in  this  country  are  making  steady 
headway.  Br.  Michael,  with  the  as- 
sistance of  the  Indians,  has  connected 
the  Reduction  of  St.  Francis  del 
Laishi  and  the  harbor  on  the  river 
Paraguay  by  means  of  a  telephone 
line.  He  has  also  erected  five  other 
telephone  lines,  which  bring  the  Re- 
duction within  easy  communication 
with  its  outlying  posts.    Aided  by  the 

Indians,  the  same  Brother  has  built 
a  boat  of  eighteen  tons,  and  has  made 
improvements  which  regulate  the  flow 
of  the  river  Salado  for  about  one 
hundred  miles. 

Brazil. — The  Fathers  of  the  Custody 
of  Santarem  in  northern  Brazil  have 
founded  a  new  mission  among  the 
Mundurucu  Indians.  Their  first 
station  among  them  is  Capiopi,  in  a 
hitherto  unexplored  region  near  the 
river  Cururu.  The  missionaries  have 
built  a  boat,  called  the  "Morning 
Star,"  to  enable  them  to  pass  more 
easily  from  one  station  to  another. 

A  persecution  against  the  Church 
seems  to  have  broken  out  in  Brazil. 
Although  the  new  President,  Gen. 
Hermos  da  Fonseca,  solemnly  promised 
to  respect  the  feelings  of  Catholics 
and  not  to  undertake  anything  det- 
rimental to  the  Church,  he  ordered 
the  confiscation  of  the  convents  of 
the  Franciscan  Province  of  the  Imma- 
culate Conception,  in  the  face  of  the 
protests  of  the  Bishops  and  the  laity. 
He  even  declared  that  the  policy  of 
confiscation  should  continue,  even 
if  the  Supreme  Court  should  declare 
the  conduct  of  the  government  illegal. 

Albania. — The  Balkan  war  has  again 
brought  the  Albanian  question  to  the 
forefront.  Events  point  to  an  inde- 
pendent Albania,  a  consummation  for 
which  its  inhabitants  have  fought  long 
and  with  great  sacrifices. 

The  population  of  the  country  is 
estimated  at  about  1 ,400,000,  of  whom 
120,000  are  Catholics.  Subjected  by 
the  arms  of  the  Eastern  Emperors  in 
the  eleventh  century,  the  people  were 
drawn  into  the  great  schism.  The  sons 
of  St.  Francis  arrived  in  the  country 
in  1240,  and  began  to  labor  with  un- 
tiring zeal  to  lead  the  people  to  the 
allegiance  of  the  Vicar  of  Christ. 
Their  labors  were  soon  crowned  with 
success;  for  about  the  year  1260 
a  few  districts  joined  the  Catholic 
Church.  From  this  time  "the  history 
of  the  Catholic  Church  in  Albania — 


is  indissolubly  bound  up  with  the  his- 
tory of  the  Franciscan  order  in  that 
country."  The  Church  continued  to 
spread,  especially  during  the  time  of 
Balchas  and  the  heroic  George  Kas- 
triota,  surnamed  Scanderbeg,  in  the 
fifteenth  century.  After  Scanderbeg 's 
death  the  country  fell  a  prey  to  Mos- 
lem fury.  Then  began  a  sad  time  for 
the  Christian  Albanians.  Bishops 
and  priests  were  murdered  or  driven 
from  the  country,  churches  and  con- 
vents were  sacked  and  destroyed,  and 
hundreds  of  the  faithful  were  killed. 
But  in  the  midst  of  this  havoc,  the 
Franciscans  remained  true  to  their 
charges,  and  gradually  succeeded  in 
repairing,  to  some  extent  at  least,  the 
damage  done  to  the  Christian  com- 
munities. In  spite  of  Moslem  fanatic- 
ism, which  frequently  broke  out  into 
bloody  persecutions,  the  Albanians 
continued  steadfast  in  the  faith,  until 
the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
when  large  numbers,  especially  among 
the  schismatics  in  the  southern  part 
of  the  country,  accepted  the  religion  of 
Mohammed.  "That  so  many  parishes 
in  Central  and  Northern  Albania  re- 
mained faithful  to  the  Church,  is 
due  to  the  self-sacrificing  labors  of  the 
Franciscans."  The  Friars  were  indeed 
not  alone  in  their  work;  they  were 
assisted  by  a  noble  band  of  priests, 
many  of  whom  were  educated  in  the 
College  of  the  Propaganda  at  Rome. 
For  since  the  middle  of  the  fifteenth 
century,  Albania  was  a  missionary 
country,  subject  to  the  Propaganda. 

Little  need  be  said  of  the  religious 
condition  of  the  country  since  the 
seventeenth  century.  It  was  always  a 
sad  one,  owing  to  the  constant  vexa- 
tions of  the  Turks  and  Schismatics,  and 
the  great  poverty  of  the  people. 

Albania  is  at  present  divided  eccle- 
siastically into  three  archbishoprics; 
Durazzo,  Skoplje  (Ueskub),  and  Scu- 
tari,— three  bishoprics:  Sappa,  Alessio, 
and  Pulati, — and  the  exempt  abbey  in 
the  Miridita  at  Orosci.  The  parishes 
number  126.    The  number  of  priests, 

secular  and  regular,  is  estimated  at 

According  to  the  latest  report  of 
the  Acta  Minorum.  October  4,  1911, 
the  Franciscans  number  64  priests,  7 
clerics,  11  brothers,  and  3  novices. 
The  Fathers  have  charge  of  36  par- 
ishes with  40,125  souls.  The  report 
mentions  a  school,  with  212  pupils,  and 
a  college,  with  20  students.  There 
are  also  24  Franciscan  Sisters  in  the 

England.  —  The  Franciscan  friars 
who  have  heroically  volunteered  to 
undertake  the  arduous  work  of  the 
mission  field  in  the  Putumayo  Valley 
in  South  America  were  present  on 
Sunday  evening,  November  10,  at  a 
farewell  service  in  the  Franciscan 
church,  Forest  Gate,  London,  England. 
There  were  at  the  lowest  estimate 
two  thousand  people  present. 

The  missionary  priests  are  Fathers 
Leo  Sambrook,  Frederick  Furlong, 
Cyprian  Byrne  and  Felix  Ryan.  It 
has  now  been  decided  that  Brother 
Edwin  0  'Donnell  shall  accompany  the 
party  which  Father  Genocchi  will,  at 
the  request  of  the  Holy  Father,  lead. 

The  farewell  service  opened  with  a 
procession,  which  formed  in  the  sac- 
risty and  made  its  way  to  the  high 
altar  along  the  central  aisle  from  the 
back  of  the  church.  The  Franciscans 
who  were  not  officiating  were  clad  in 
the  brown  garb  of  the  order,  and  with 
the  little  band  were  the  five  mission- 
aries who  were  now  on  their  way  to 
the  far-distant  field  of  their  labors. 
Prayers  having  been  recited  at  the 
high  altar,  the  procession  was  reformed 
to  the  Blessed  Virgin's  altar,  the 
"Benedictus"  being  sung  meanwhile. 
After  prayers  and  responses  the  pro- 
cession returned  to  the  sanctuary  of 
the  high  altar  while  the  "Ave  Maris 
Stella"  was  sung,  followed  by  the 
"Veni  Creator." 

The  special  sermon  was  preached 
by  the  Right  Rev.  Dr.  Hanlon  Titular, 
Bishop  of  Teos  and  formerly  Bishop 
of   Uganda.      After   the   sermon   the 



whole  of  the  congregation  approached 
the  altar  rails  to  kiss  the  hands  of  the 
departing  missionaries.  Bishop  Hanlon 
afterwards  gave  benediction.  "Faith 
of  Our  Fathers,"  sung  by  the  congre- 
gation concluded  the  touching  cere- 

The  missionaries  left  Liverpool  on 
Tuesday,  November  12,  by  the  Iquitos 
Steamship  Company's  liner  Huayna. 
A  large  gathering  of  Catholics  watched 
the  vessel's  departure  and  wished  the 
little  band  of  Franciscans  God-speed. 
■ — Catholic  Standard  and  Times. 

Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church  — 
In  the  course  of  1912  many  improve- 
ments have  been  made,  the  greatest  of 
which  was  the  building  of  an  addition 
to  the  school.  In  order  to  raise  the 
necessary  funds  for  this,  a  three  days' 
bazaar  was  held  in  the  month  of 
November.  The  members  of  the 
Third  Order  were  requested  to  take 
part  in  it.  They  had  their  own  booth, 
filled  with  articles  which  were  donated 
by  the  Tertiaries.  They  all  worked 
faithfully  and  helped  to  make  the 
bazaar  a  grand  success.  May  God 
reward  their  liberality! 

St.  Augustine 's  Church. — The  mem- 
bers of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Augus- 
tine's parish  celebrated  the  feast  of 
their  patroness  St.  Elizabeth,  Novem- 
ber 19,  with  special  solemnity.  After 
the  highmass,  sung  by  the  local  director 
Fr.  Francis  Albers,  O.  F.  M.,  Mrs. 
Theresa  Kaatz  and  Mrs.  Anna  Bell, 
who  were  celebrating  the  twenty- 
fifth  anniversary  as  members  of  the 
Third  Order,  renewed  their  profession. 
A  third  jubilarian,  Mrs.  Juliana  Gertke 
was  unable  to  take  part  in  the  cele- 
bration on  account  of  infirmity. 

St.  Louis,  Mo. — On  November  24 
the  regular  monthly  meeting  of  the 
English  division  of  the  Third  Order 
was  held.  On  this  occasion  the  Ter- 
tiaries celebrated  the  feast  of  their 
holy  patroness  St.  Elizabeth.  The 
Rev.  Director  spoke  on  the  virtues 
of    this    great    Saint,    whereupon    40 

new  members  were  received  into  the 
Order  and  44  made  their  profession. 
The  celebration  was  concluded  with 
the  Papal  Blessing  and  Benediction 
of  the  Most  Blessed  Sacrament. 

Joliet,  111.— On  December  26  Fr. 
Anselm  Mueller,  0.  F.  M.  celebrated 
the  fiftieth  anniversary  of  his  ordina- 
tion to  the  holy  priesthood.  The 
jubilarian  was  born  November  2, 
1838,  at  Bonn,  Germany;  he  came  to 
this  country  in  1862,  and  has  filled 
many  important  offices  during  his 
long  priestly  career.  The  next  issue 
of  the  Herald  will  bring  particulars  of 
the  celebration. 

Cowlitz,  Wash. — Fr.  Valentine  Dor- 
enkemper,  0.  F.  M.  celebrated  the 
twenty-fifth  anniversary  of  his  ordina- 
tion to  the  holy  priesthood  on  Decem- 
ber 10.  He  was  born  April  11,  1858  as 
St.  Augusta,  Minn.  At  present  he  it 
assistant  at  St.  Francis  Xavier's, 
Cowlitz,  Wash. 

Cleveland,  O. — On  November  25 
Ven.  Sister  Erharda  Lampe,  0.  S.  F. 
died  at  the  Hospital  of  St.  Alexis.  She 
was  72  years  old, ,  and  spent  the  last 
25  years  of  her  life  in  the  service  of 
the  sick  at  St.  Alexis  Hospital.  R.  I.  P. 

"He  beholds  thee  wherever  thou 
art.  He  calls  thee  by  name.  He  sees 
thee.  He  understands  thee.  He  knows 
all  thy  own  peculiar  feelings  and 
thoughts,  thy  weakness,  thy  strength. 
He  views  thee  in  thy  day  of  rejoicing 
and  thy  day  of  sorrow.  He  notes  thy 
very  countenance.  He  hears  thy  voice, 
the  beatings  of  thy  heart,  thy  very 
breathing.  Thou  dost  not  love  thy- 
self better  than  He  loves  thee.  Thou 
canst  not  shrink  from  pain  more  than 
He  dislikes  thy  bearing  it.  And — He 
is  God." — Cardinal  Newman. 

"If  we  had  one  foot  in  Heaven  and 
were  to  give  up  mortifying  ourselves 
we  should  fall  from  grace." — Cardinal 



Our  Seraphic  Colleges 

Educational  work  may  unquestion- 
ably be  styled  missionary  work.  This 
is  doubly  true  where  the  labor  is  spent 
on  boys  and  young  men  who  as  priests 
and  religious  will  one  day  devote  their 
energies,  and  their  toils,  and  even 
their  lives,  to  the  welfare  of  their 

In  centuries  past  the  order  of  St. 
Francis  has  ever  had  its  greater  and 
smaller  centers  of  learning.  Among 
these  institutions  were  the  renowned 
religious  schools  of  Oxford,  Paris,  and 
Cologne,  and  the  Apostolic  colleges 
of  missionary  countries.  The  purpose 
of  these  schools  was  to  equip  young 
religious  for  their  respective  fields  of 
labor.  Also  at  the  present  day  every 
province  of  the  Franciscan  order  has, 
besides  the  special  courses  of  philoso- 
phy and  theology,  so-called  Seraphic 
schools  or  colleges,  in  which  aspirants 
to  the  order  receive  their  first  classical 
education  and  are  imbued  with  a 
religious  spirit. 

St.  Joseph 's  Seraphic  College  is  one 
of  the  seven  institutions  of  this  kind 
in  the  United  States.  About  a  hundred 
miles  east  of  St.  Louis,  in  the  village 
of  Teutopolis,  Illinois,  this  college 
opened  its  modest  apartments  just 
fifty  years  ago,  to  receive  its  first 
twenty  students.  What  St.  Joseph's 
College  has  accomplished  since  those 
days  of  small  beginnings  and  heroic 
sacrifices,  may  be  viewed  with  un- 
common satisfaction.  Not  only  did 
its  buildings  grow  in  size,  not  only  did 
the  number  of  students  continually 
increase,  but  a  great  many  students, 
who  during  this  half  century  have  gone 
forth  from  its  portals,  have  reflected 
the  greatest  credit  on  their  ''alma 

Until  the  year  1898  St.  Joseph's 
College  was  open  also  to  boys  aspiring 
to  the  secular  priesthood,  or  seeking 
a  commercial  course;  but  since  that 
time  it  admits  only  students  whose 
express  intention  it  is  to  become  mem- 

bers  of   the   Franciscan   province   of 
the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus. 

On  an  average  the  annual  attend- 
ance at  the  college  amounts  to  about 
120  boys.  The  students  are  assigned 
to  five  graded  Latin  classes.  In  order 
to  gain  admission  to  the  first  Latin 
class,  the  aspirant  is  expected  to  have 
finished  the  eighth  grade  of  a  parochial 
school.  Those  students  who  success- 
fully complete  the  five  years'  course 
at  the  college,  are  admitted  to  the 
novitiate  of  the  order,  and  receive 
the  garb  of  St.  Francis.  After  a  year 
of  probation  the  young  clerics  continue 
their  studies  in  various  monasteries  of 
the  province. 

During  that  period  of  time  in  which 
St.  Joseph's  College  has  been  exclu- 
sively a  school  for  aspirants  to  the 
order,  it  has  given  to  the  Sacred  Heart 
province  no  less  than  seventy  priests, 
and  almost  as  many  clerics,  who  are 
still  pursuing  their  higher  studies. 

In  1896  the  Sacred  Heart  province 
opened  a  second  Seraphic  college  on 
the  Pacific  Coast.  This  school  is 
dedicated  to  the  great  miracle-worker 
of  Padua  and  is  located  in  the  city  of 
Santa  Barbara,  far-famed  for  its  old 
Franciscan  Mission.  St.  Anthony's 
College  beyond  the  Rockies  is  working 
on  the  same  plan  as  St.  Joseph's 
College  in  the  Middle  States,  and  it  is 
producing  similar  results.  Sixteen 
Franciscan  priests  and  a  greater  num- 
ber of  clerics  have  thus  far  been  its 
first-fruits.  The  number  of  students 
already  averages  sixty  a  year. 

As  our  kind  Tertiaries.  and  other 
admirers  of  the  works  of  St.  Francis, 
will  be  interested  to  hear  from  these 
Seraphic  nurseries,  the  Franidsean 
Herald  purposes  to  bring  monthly  re- 
ports from  both  St.  Joseph's  and  St. 
Anthony's  College. 

Fr.  Roger  Middendorf,  O.  F.  M. 

"When  the  fight  begins  with  himself, 
a  man 's  worth  something. "-Browning. 



A  Son's  Retort 

Would  to  God  that  freethinkers 
would  keep  their  pernicious  principles 
to  themselves  and  not  broach  them 
at  every  occasion, — least  of  all  to  their 
children !  At  such  times  they  are 
not  always  met  as  was  a  certain  Air. 
D..  who  found  his  match  in  his  son 
Oscar.  Oscar  arose  rather  early  one 
Sunday  morning  to  attend  holy  Mass, 
His  infidel  father  heard  him  preparing 
to  leave  and  asked:  "Where  are  you 
bound  for  so  early  in  the  day?"  "I 
am  going  to  holy  Mass,  father!" 
"Oh  nonsense,  boy!  What  good  will 
it  do  you  to  go  to  Mass?  Hunt  up  your 
•companions  and  enjoy  yourself.  After 
a  week  of  mental  labor  at  school  yon 
must  have  some  recreation.''  "Well,, 
but  our  professor  insists  we  ought  to 
observe  the  commandments  of  God 
and  the  Church."  "What's  that? 
Your  professor  speaks  to  you  about 
God  and  the  Church?  I  shall  have  to 
forbid  him  to  teach  you  such  foolish- 
ness." To  this  Oscar  calmly  but  firmly 
replied:  "Father,  would  you  forbid 
him  also  to  teach  me  to  honor  my 
father  and  mother?"  The  wretched 
parent  stood  abashed  at  this  unex- 
pected rejoiner,  and  finding  no  answer, 
he  embraced  his  noble  son  and  per- 
mitted him  to  go  to  Church  unmo- 

indeed,  what  sort  of  children  would 
they  be  who  would  no  longer  regard 
the  fourth  commandment?  Free- 
thinkers should  bear  in  mind  that,  in 
throwing  religion  overboard,  they  are 
removing  the  only  effective  restraint 
to  human  passions  and  are  giving 
them  the  fullest  license. 

"Small  things  are  best: 
Grief  and  unrest 
To  rank  and  wealth  are  given: 
But  little  things 
On  little  wings 
Bear  little  souls  to  Heaven." 

— Father  Faber. 


Of  your  charity  pray  for  the  repose 
of  the  souls  of  the  following  Tertiaries : 
Mary  Harrity,  Sister  Mary,  Oct.  21; 
Thomas  Sullivan,   Brother  Alphonse, 

Nov.  10; 
Frances     Schvmanski,     Sister    Anne. 

Nov.  16. 
Catherine  L.  Galligan,  a  novice,  Nov. 

J.  P.  Georgen,  Magdalena  Laukwitz, 

Gertrude  Junklau,  Cunegunda  Beier- 


R.  I.  P. 

Monthly  patron:  St.  Hyacintha,  Vir- 
gin of  the  Third  Order. 

Aspiration:  My  Jesus,  mercy!  100 
days  Indulgence. 

"Live  as  you  would  wish  to  die. 
because  as  you  die  so  will  you  be  for  all 
eternity.  Precisely  that  character 
which  you  have  woven  for  yourself 
through  life  by  the  voluntary  acts  of 
free  will,  be  it  for  good  or  for  evil,  that 
will  be  your  eternal  state  before  God. 
As  the  tree  falls  so  will  it  he.  Make  one 
mistake  and  that  mistake  is  made 
forever." — Cardinal  Maiming. 

"Only  serve  Jesus  out  of  love,  and 
while  your  eyes  are  yet  unclosed,  before 
the  whiteness  of  death  is  yet  settled 
upon  your  face,  or  those  around  you 
are  sure  that  that  gentle  breathing- 
was  indeed  your  last,  what  an  un- 
speakable surprise  will  you  have  had 
at  the  judgment  seat  of  your  dearest 
Love."— Father  Faber. 

"There  is  only  one  person  in  the 
world  to  whom  we  may  be  severe. 
There  is  one  who  deserves  it,  and  on 
whom  we  may  vent  all  our  severity, 
and  that  person  is  our  own  self." — 
Cardinal  Manning. 

"Let  no  one  conscious  of  ancient 
sins  despair  of  divine  rewards.  The 
Lord  knows  how  to  change  His  sen- 
tence if  you  know  how  to  amend  your 
faults." — St.  Ambrose. 



January,  1913 

Franciscan  Calendar 

Dedicated  to  the 
Holy  Name 









New  Year — Circumcision  of  Christ,  Day  of  Obligation.— (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Gospel:  The  Circumcision  of  our  Lord.     Luke  iu  21. 
St.  Macarius,  Ab. — St.  Fulgentius,  Bp. 
First  Friday. — St.  Genevieve,  V.  M. 
St.  Titus,  Bp.  C—  St.  Gregory. 



Sunday  after  Circumcision. — St.  Simeon  Styl. 

Gospel:     The  Return  from  Egypt.     Matt,  ii,  19-23. 










Epiphany.— The  Three  Kings.     (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Gospel:     Adoration  of  the  Magi.     Matt.  h\  1-12. 
St.  Lucian,  M. 

St.  Severin,  C,  Patron  of  Austria  and  Bavaria. 
SS.  Julian  and  Pasilissa,  MM. 
BI.  Giles,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  William,  C. 
St.  Hyginus,  P.  M.— St.  Theodosius,  C. 



1st  Sunday  after  Epiphany. — St.  Arcadius,  M. 

Gospel:     Jesus  found  among  the  Doctors.     Luke  ii,  42-52. 










St.  Leontius,  Bp.  C. — St.  Veronica  of  Milan,  V. 

Feast  of  the  Holy  Name.— BI.  Bernard,  C.     (P.  I.) 

St.  Paul  the  first  Hermit. 

SS.  Berard  and  Companions,  0.  F.  M.,  MM.    (P.  I.) 

Feast  of  the  Mysteries  of  the  Way  of  the  Cross. — St.  Antony,  Ab.  C. 

(G.  A.,  P.  I.) 
St.  Peter's  Chair  at  Rome.— St.  Prisca,  V.  M. 



Septuagesima  Sunday. — St.  Canute,  K.  M. 

Gospel:     The  laborers  in  the  vineyard.     Matt,  xx,  1-16. 

.     25 





SS.  Fabian  and  Sebastian,  MM. 

Prayer  of  our  Lord  in  the  Garden.. — St.  Agnes,  V.  M. 

SS.  Vincent  and  Anastasius,  MM. 

Espousals  of  the  B.  V.  M—  St.  Emerentiana,  V.  M. 

St.  Timothy,  Bp.  M.    . 

Conversion  of  St.  Paul  the  Apostle. 



Sexagesima  Sunday. — St.  Polycarp,  Bp.  M. 

Gospel:     The  parable  of  the  seed.     Luke  viii,  4-15. 







St.  John  Chrysostom,  Bp.  D. 

Passion  of  our  Lord. — BI.  Matthew  of  Agrigento,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 
St.  Francis  de  Sales,  Bp.  D.,  Patron  of  the  Catholic  Press. 
St.  Hyacintha  of  Mariscotti,  3d  Order  V.     (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 
BI.  Louisa  Albertoni,  3d  Order.  W.     (P.  I.) 

Abbreviations. — St. — Saint;  BI.— Blessed;  M. — Martyr;  C. — Confessor;  P. — Pope; 
Bp.— Bishop;  D.— Doctor;  Ab.— Abbot;  K—  King;  V.— Virgin;  W  — Widow;  O.  F.  M  — 
Order  of  Friars  Minor;  G.  A. — General  Absolution;  P.  I. — Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession,  com- 
munion and  visit  to  a  church  where  the  secular  Third  Order  is  established;  2d,  once  during 
the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of  monthly  meeting  for  those 
who  attend,  usual  conditions. 

1  Jfratutgcan  %eralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  Third  Order  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions 

Vol.  I.  FEBRUARY,  1913  No.  2 

Saint  Francis 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

Herald  of  the_King_thou  art, — 

Herald  of  the  Christ, — 
Francis  of  the  lowly  heart, — 

Thou  who  sacrificed 
Home,  and  human  love,  and  all 

Which  thine  own  might  be ; — 
Laid  aside  to  heed  the  call 

Of  Sweet  Poverty. 

Herald  of  the  King  thou  art, — 

Francis, — Seraph-Saint ; 
Unto  us  thy  strength  impart, 

That  we  grow  not  faint 
In  the  life  and  work  we  know 

As  our  own,  by  choice; 
May  the  King  to  each  one  show 

His  Face,  that  he  rejoice. 

— Amadeus,  0.  S. 



St.  Peter  Baptist  and  His  Companions,  First 
Martyrs  of  Japan 

February  5th 

IN  1582,  Hidejoshi,  also  known  as 
Taicosama,  succeeded  by  intrigue 
and  violence,  in  making  himself 
ruler  of  the  empire  of  Japan.  Ten  years 
later,  when  he  felt  himself  firmly  es- 
tablished   in    power,    he    planned    to 

failing  in  its  purpose,  the  governor 
sent  a  second  one,  headed  by  Fr. 
Peter  Baptist,  O.  F.  M.,  a  man  highly 
esteemed  for  his  learning,  prudence, 
and  sanctity,  who  was  at  that  time 
living  in  the  convent  at  Manilla. 

conquer  Korea  and  the  Philippine 
Islands.  Wishing  to  preserve  these 
islands  to  the  crown  of  Spain,  the 
governor,  Gomez  Perez  de  las  Marinas, 
sent  an  embassy  to  Hidejoshi  to  make 
a    treaty    of    peace.     This    embassy 

Fr.  Peter  Baptist,  accompanied  by 
three  of  his  brethren,  arrived  in  Japan 
towards  the  end  of  June  1583.  His 
wisdom  and  prudence,  and  the  mani- 
fest holiness  of  his  life  so  impressed 
Hidejoshi,  that  he  was  induced  to  give 



up  his  hostile  intentions  and  to  make 
a  treaty  of  peace  with  the  Spaniards. 
He  even  invited  the  Saint  and  his 
brethren  to  remain  in  the  country, 
granting  them  permission  to  preach 
the  Gospel  throughout  the  empire. 
Full  of  zeal  for  the  spread  of  our 
holy  religion,  the  Friars  gladly  accepted 
the  invitation,  and  began  to  labor 
with  the  greatest  enthusiasm  to  dispel 
the  darkness  of  paganism  and  to  make 
known  the  name  of  Christy  Their 
labors,  blessed  by  God,  were  crowned 
with  great  success.  Thousands  were 
regenerated  by  the  waters  of  baptism, 
and  gave  proof  of  the  sincerity  of  their 
conversion  by  the  most  fervent  prac- 
tice of  all  Christian  virtues.  Schools, 
hospitals,  homes  for  the  poor  and  or- 
phans were  erected,  and  could  not 
but  excite  the  admiration  of  the  pagans 
and  aid  in  spreading  and  confirming 
the  kingdom  of  Christ. 

But  now  God,  in  the  inscrutable 
designs  of  his  Providence,  allowed  a 
storm  of  persecution  to  pass  over  the 
church  of  Japan.  The  evident  good 
will  of  the  emperor  towards  the  mis- 
sionaries, the  constant  growth  and 
increasing  influence  of  the  Christian 
religion,  aroused  the  anger  of  the  pagan 
priests.  They  tried  to  convince  the 
emperor  that  the  missionaries  were 
secretly  planning  to  undermine  his 
throne  and  to  deliver  the  country 
over  to  the  Spaniards.  Hidejoshi  at 
first  refused  to  listen  to  their  accusa- 
tions, but  finally  believed  them,  and  his 
former  good  will  now  gave  way  to 
feelings  of  hatred  and  revenge.  He 
ordered  all  the  missionaries  to  be 
arrested  and  put  to  death.  With 
fierce  delight  the  pagans,  in  December, 
1596,  attacked  the  convents  of  the 
Fathers,  and  led  their  inmates  to 
prison.  The  noble  band  of  confessors 
of  the  faith  consisted  of  the  Fathers 
Peter  Baptist,  Martin  Aguire,  Francis 
Blanco,  Philip  of  Jesus;  the  cleric, 
Francis  de  Parilha;  the  lay-brother, 
Gonsalvo  Garcia;  and  seventeen  Terti- 
aries,    who    served    in    the    missions 

as  catechists,  teachers,  sacristans,  and 
nurses.  Among  these  Tertiaries,  three 
were  mere  boys:  Thomas  Cosa- 
qui,  aged  fifteen;  Anthony  Nangas- 
achi,  aged  thirteen;  and  Louis  Ibarchi, 
.  aged  eleven.  They  had  devoted  them- 
selves to  the  service  of  God  under  the 
direction  of  the  Fathers,  and  were 
employed  in  serving  at  Mass,  teaching 
Christian  doctrine  to  little  children, 
and  other  works  suited  to  their  age. 
They  eagerly  begged  to  be  arrested 
with  the  Fathers,  and  displayed,  to 
the  very  last,  a  joyous  courage  and 
constancy  that  aroused  the  admira- 
tion of  the  pagans  themselves.  To 
the  twenty-three  children  of  St.  Fran- 
cis were  associated  three  members  of 
the  Society  of  Jesus. 

On  January  3,  1597,  the  servants  of 
God  were  led  forth  from  their  prison 
to  the  public  square  of  Miako,  where 
the  sentence  of  death  was  pronounced 
upon  them.  Thereupon  they  were 
placed  upon  a  cart,  carried  through 
the  city,  and  exposed  to  the  ridicule  and 
the  revilings  of  the  mob.  On  the  fol- 
lowing day  began  the  journey  to 
Nangasaki,  where  they  were  to  re- 
ceive the  crown  of  martyrdom.  The 
sad  and  painful  journey,  which  lasted 
four  weeks,  was  itself  a  martyrdom, 
on  account  of  the  cruelty  of  the  guards, 
the  fanatic  fury  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  towns  through  which  they  passed, 
and  the  sufferings  of  cold  and  hunger, 
and  privations  of  all  kinds. 

Nangasaki  was  reached  on  the  morn- 
ing of  February  5th.  The  confessors 
of  Christ  were  at  once  led  to  a  hill  out- 
side the  city,  where  they  were  to  con- 
summate their  sacrifice.  The  crosses 
on  which  they  were  to  die  had  already 
been  erected.  As  soon  as  Fr.  Peter 
Baptist  and  his  companions  beheld 
the  crosses,  they  intoned  the  "Bene- 
dictus."  Reaching  the  summit  of 
their  Calvary,  each  of  the  martyrs  ran 
to  embrace  his  cross  and  press  it  lov- 
ingly to  his  heart.  Little  Louis,  not 
being  able  at  once  to  find  his  cross 
asked  a  pagan  official  to  point  it  out  to 



him.  When  this  was  done,  the  little 
martyr  ran  up  to  it,  embraced  it  and 
held  it  fast  until  the  executioner  came 
to  bind  him  to  it.  Fr.  Martin  Aguire 
addressed  a  few  words  of  encourage- 
ment and  consolation  to  his  com- 
panions, and  when  he  ceased  speaking, 
the  executioners  proceeded  to  fasten 
the  confessors  to  their  crosses.  With 
a  loud  voice  all  sang  hymns  of  joy 
and  gave  thanks  to  the  Lord  for  the 
grace  of  imitating  our  divine  Savior 
in  his  death,  until  the  executiones, 
passing  from  one  to  the  other,  pierce 
each  one's  breast  with  two  lances. 
Scarcely  had  the  martyrs  breathed 
forth  their  souls,  when  God  began  to 
glorify  them  by  wonderful  signs  and 
miracles.  For  this  reason,  they  were 
beatified  by  Pope  Urban  VIII.  in  1627, 
and  solemnly  canonized  by  Pope  Pius 
IX.  on  June  8,  1862. 


The  saints  whose  martyrdom  we 
have  considered  gave  thanks  to  God 
for  the  grace  of  dying  on  the  cross  after 
the  manner  of  our  Redeemer.  They 
looked  upon  such  a  death  as  a  reward 
for  their  labors.  "O  blessed  moment," 
exclaimed  Fr.  Martin  Aguire  before 
he  was  fastened  to  the  cross,  "when 
we  shall  die  for  Christ  on  this  glorious 
trophy  of  our  redemption!  What  have 
we  done  to  deserve  so  precious  a  favor 
from  Heaven?"  And  in  truth,  these 
martyrs  were  right.  To  a  Christian, 
death  on  the  cross  is  a  singular  privi- 
lege. For,  though  once  a  sign  of  infamy 
and  the  instrument  of  death  for  crim- 
inals, the  cross  has  become,  through 
the  death  of  our  Savior,  an  emblem  of 
honor  and  distinction, — an  object  of 
veneraton  to  all  true  Christians.  It 
is  the  instrument  with  which  the  Son 
of  God  has  overcome  our  greatest 
enemy  and  restored  to  us  the  love  and 
favor  of  our  heavenly  Father.  We 
were  slaves  of  sin;  we  are  now  the  free 
children  of  the  eternal  King,  and  we 
have  become  free  through  Christ's 
victory  on  the  cross.  The  cross,  there- 
fore, is  a  sign  of  victory,  of  true  free- 

dom, of  honor.  For  this  reason  the 
Church  has  placed  the  cross  on  the 
very  summit  of  her  spires,  over  the 
portals  of  here  places  of  worship,  in 
the  most  honored  place  on  her  altars. 
For  this  reason  all  the  sacraments,  all 
her  sacred  rites  and  blessings  are  ad- 
ministered with  the  sign  of  the  cross. 
For  this  reason  Christian  rulers  adorn 
their  crowns  and  scepters  with  this 
sacred  sign,  and  devout  men  and  women 
glory  in  wearing  it  on  their  breasts. 

We  should,  therefore,  as  true  child- 
ren of  the  Church  always  show  great 
love  and  veneration  for  the  sign  of 
our  redemption,  frequently  kneel  be- 
fore it  to  profess  our  love  and  grati- 
tude towards  our  Redeemer,  give  it  a 
place  of  honor  in  our  homes,  where  it 
will  be  the  religious  center  of  family 
life,— a  refuge,  a  consoler,  and  an 
eloquent  monitor  of  the  members  of 
the  family  in  the  various  circumstances 
of  life.  We  should,  moreover,  often 
make  the  sign  of  the  cross,  not  only 
before  and  after  prayers,  but  also  before 
and  after  important  labors,. and  espec- 
ially in  time  of  danger  of  body  or  soul. 

Finally,  the  cross  teaches  us  that  if 
we  wish  to  please  God,  we  must  strive 
to  bear  the  sufferings,  the  crosses  of 
this  life  with  patience  and  fortitude. 
In  this  way  only  can  we  become  united 
with  our  Savior;  for  he  tells  us: 
"Whosoever  doth  not  carry  his  cross 
and  come  after  me,  cannot  be  my  dis- 
ciple." (Luc.  XIV.  27).  He  entered 
into  his  glory  through  sufferings  and 
the  cross,  and  so  must  we,  his  children. 
Happy  he  that  perseveres  under  the 
cross  until  the  end. 


O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  through 
Thy  painful  death  hast  sanctified  the 
first  fruits  of  the  faith  among  the 
peoples  of  Japan  in  the  blood  of  the 
holy  martyrs  Peter  Baptist,  and  his 
companions,  vouchsafe,  we  beseech 
Thee,  that  we  who  celebrate  their 
feast,  may  be  encouraged  by  their 
example.  Who  livest  and  reignest, 
world  without  end.    Amen. 

Leaves  of  Laurel 


Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  O.  M.  Cap.) 

"Remember  the  days  of  old,  think  upon  every  genera- 
tion ;  ask  thy  father  and  he  will  declare  to  thee :  thv  elders 
and  they  will  tell  thee.— Deut.  XXXII.,  7. 


By  the  Translator 

Under  the  above  caption,  we  shall  give  our  readers  from  month  to  month 
a  complete  and  interesting  history  of  the  Third  Order.  The  original  of  this 
history  saw  the  light  but  little  over  a  year  ago,  and  this  is  its  first  appearance 
in  an  English  dress.  Whilst  the  author  lays  no  claim  to  scholarship,  he  has  never- 
theless been  ever  guided  by  the  canons  of  conscientious  historical  writing. 
His  purpose  has  been  to  portray  the  history  of  the  Order  in  such  a  manner  that 
it  may  also  serve  as  a  subject  for  spiritual  reading.  Those  who  ought  to  know, 
claim  that  it  is  the  first  attempt  along  the  lines  pursued,  and,  therefore,  unique 
in  its  class. 

E.  L.,  O.  F.  M. 

1.  The  Inner  Life  of  St.  Francis 

"God  is  wonderful  in  His  Saints,  the  God  of 
Israel  is  He  who  will  give  power  and  strength 
to  His  people." — Psalm  LXVI.  36. 

Unto  the  Lord  for  victory  bestowed, 
the  Royal  Prophet  renders  thanks. 
His  canticle  of  thanksgiving  he  con- 
cludes with  the  enraptured  exclama- 
tion, "God  is  wonderful  in  his  Saints!" 
Wonderful  God  proved  himself  in  the 
guidance  of  Israel's  chosen  people. 
To  them,  in  battle  with  their  various 
foes,  He  gave  the  strength  and  power 
to  cope  successfully. 

By  far  more  wonderful  God  shows 
Himself  in  the  guidance  of  a  people 
who  are  His  especially.  They  are  the 
saints.  Who  does  not  marvel  at  peni- 
tential rigors,  so  many  and  so  mani- 
fold, as  practised  by  the  hermits. 
Who  does  not  feel  himself  drawn  might- 

II.  Cor.  XII.,  6. 

ily  by  the  example  of  the  innocent 
and  clean  of  heart.  Who  is  not  edi- 
fied by  the  zeal  of  apostolic  men.  Who 
is  not  filled  with  admiration  for  the 
constancy  unbroken  of  the  martyrs. 
How  beautifully  is  here  fulfilled  the 
word  of  Holy  Writ:  "There  are  diver- 
sities of  operations,  but  the  same 
God,  who  worketh  allinall."1,Thus  He 
proves  Himself  so  wonderful  in  all  His 
Saints.  There  is,  however,  scarcely 
any  Saint  in  whom  divine  guidance  is 
manifested  in  more  brilliant  light  than 
in  St.  Francis  of  Assisi.  Of  this  a 
glance  upon  his  life  and  virtues  will 
afford  abundant  proof. 

But  stay!  Who  then  are  we  that  we 
make  bold  to  picture  forth  the  virtues 
of  our  Seraphic  Father.  Far  be  from 
us  the  thought.    A  labor  fraught  with 



so  much  difficulty  we  leave  .to  pen 
more  duly  sanctioned,  to  none  other 
than  that  of  St.  Bonaventure. 

At  the  earnest  wish  of  his  Brethren 
and  of  the  General  Chapter  of  Nar- 
bonne  in  the  year  1260,  Bonaventure 
took  upon  himself  to  write  the  life 
of  the  Seraphic  Father.  It  was  whilst 
thus  engaged  that  he  received  the 
famous  visit  of  St.  Thomas  Aquinas, 
who,  informed  about  his  occupation 
exclaimed:  "Disturb  him  not.  Let 
us  suffer  one  saint  to  labor  for  another 

This  biography  enjoyed  so  great 
esteem  that  to  it  others  were  sacri- 
ficed. In  the  General  Chapter  of  Pisa 
in  the  year  1263,  it  was  decreed  that 
the  life  of  St.  Francis  composed  by 
Thomas  Celano  and  that  of  the 
"Three  Companions"  should  be  des- 
stroyed,  and  in  future  only  that  of 
St.  Bonaventure  should  be  utilized. 
To  later  centuries  it  was  reserved  to 
rescue  the  older  biographies  from  ob- 

Let  us  then  contemplate  the  im- 
posing picture  of  our  Holy  Father's 
saintly  life  as  portrayed  for  us  by  one 
of  his  most  worthy  sons,  St.  Bona- 

"The  grace  of  God  our  Savior  hath 
appeared1  in  these  latter  days  to  all 
the  truly  humble  and  to  the  friends  of 
holy  poverty  in  the  person  of  His 
servant  Francis;  to  those,  namely,  who 
adore  God's  mercy  which  hath  been 
poured  forth  superabundantly  upon 
him;  to  those  who,  taught  by  his  ex- 
ample, entirely  deny  ungodliness  and 
worldly  desires2,  conform  their  lives 
to  Christ,  and  unwearyingly  thirst 
after  the  blessed  hope.  For  on  him, 
since  he  was  truly  poor  and  was  dis- 
pised,  hath  the  Divine  Majesty  deigned 
to  look3  with  great  and  condescend- 
ing goodness ;  He  hath  not  only  raised 
up  the  Poor  Man  from  the  dust  of 
worldly  occupation,  but  hath  also 
made  him  a  confessor,  a  leader,  and  a 
herald  of  evangelical  perfection,  and 
placed  him  as  a  light  before  the  eyes  of 

iTit.  II..  11.  =Tit.  II.,  12.  3Cfr.  Is-  LXVI..  2, 

"Eccli.  L.,8.  sCfr.  Rom.  X.,15.    "Cfr.  Mark  I.,  3. 

all  the  faithful,  so  that  Francis  giving 
testimony  of  the  light4  hath  prepared 
unto  the  Lord  the  way  of  light  and 
peace  in  the  hearts  of  all  the  faithful. 
Shining  in  the  radiant  splendor  of  his 
life  and  of  his  wisdom,  Francis,  as  the 
morning  star  in  the  midst  of  a  cloud,5 
hath  led  to  the  light  by  his  lustrous 
example  those  who  sat  in  darkness  and 
in  the  shadow  of  death.6  As  the  rain- 
bow giveth  light  in  the  bright  clouds,7 
so  did  he  bear  on  his  person  the  sign 
of  the  divine  covenant;  he  announced 
to  men  peace8  and  salvation;  he  him- 
self was  an  angel  of  true  peace.  By 
virtue  of  his  resemblance  to  the  Pre- 
cursor he  was  appointed  by  God  to 
prepare  as  it  were  a  way  in  the  wilder- 
ness'1 fur  the  sublimest  poverty  and  by 
word  and  example  to  preach  penance. 
Francis  came  in  the  spirit  and  power 
of  Elias;10  the  gift  of  divine  grace  in- 
spired and  prepared  him,  but  then  he 
grew  in  the  merit  of  unconquered  vir- 
tue; he  became  filled  with  the  spirit 
of  the  prophets,  ordained  to  the  ser- 
vice of  the  angels,  thoroughly  per- 
meated with  seraphic  ardor,  and,  like 
the  prophet,  was  exalted  on  fiery 
chariot,11  as  we  clearly  see  from  his 
career.  And  thus  it  is  that  he  appears 
also  to  us  in  the  revelations  of  St. 
John,  the  apostle  and  evangelist,  not 
inappropriately  represented  under  the 
figure  of  an  angel  who  ascends  in  the 
East  and  bears  the  sign  of  the  living 
God.  For  during  the  opening  of  the 
sixth  seal,  St.  John  tells  us  in  the 
Apocalypse:  I  saw  another  angel 
ascending  from  the  rising  of  the  sun 
having  the  sign  of  the  living  God.1'2 

"That  this  messenger  of  God  was 
Francis,  the  servant  of  God,  the  be- 
loved of  Christ,  the  worthy  object  of 
our  imitation,  and  the  wonder  of  the 
world,  we  may  see  with  certainty,  if  we 
keep  our  eyes  fixed  on  the  extraor- 
dinary eminence  of  his  sanctity.  For 
though  he  lived  amongst  men,  he 
imitated  the  purity  of  the  angels,  and 
in  consequence  became  a  model  even  for 
perfect  followers  of   Christ.     To  this 

JJohnl.,  7.  SEccli.I.,  6.  «Luke  I..  79. 

i "Luke  I.,  17.       niv,KingsII.,ll.    '^Apoc.VII.,  2. 



pious  belief  we  attain  not  only  in  con- 
sequence of  his  vocation  to  call  to 
weeping  and  to  mourning,  to  invite 
to  penance,  to  mark  the  sign  of  salva- 
tion on  the  foreheads  of  the  men  that 
sigh  and  mourn1,  but  also  because  he 
gave  unshaken  testimony  to  the  truth 
and  thus  emphasized  the  seal  of  re- 
semblance to  the  Living  God,  to 
Christ  Crucified,  which  was  impressed 

!Is.  XXII.,  12;    Ezech.  IX.,  4;  XXVIII.,  12.        2Rom.  VIII.,  29. 

upon  his  body,  not  by  nature  nor  by 
art,  but  rather  by  the  marvelous 
power  of  the  Spirit  of  God." 

In  the  Seraphic  Father  were  ful- 
filled the  words:  "Whom  He  foreknew, 
He  also  predestinated  to  be  made 
conformable  to  the  image  of  His  Son."2 
Let  us  also  strive  to  become  like  unto 
the  Divine  Master. 



Cheerfulness  of  St.  Francis 

NO  ministry  which  human  love 
can  render  is  so  angel-like  as 
that  of  him  who  gives  cheer," 
says  a  writer  of  to-day. 

Do  not  these  words  immediately 
call  up  before  the  minds  of  all  Ter- 
tiaries  the  figure  of  St.  Francis? 
Cheerfulness  was  the  very  atmosphere 
of  his  life.  Disappointment,  failure, 
the  scorn  of  men,  sickness  and  suffer- 
ing alike  failed  to  cast  any  shadow  over 
the  bright  sunshine  of  his  spirit. 

Again  and  again  he  stands  before  us 
as  the  "gay  and  gracious  man"  with 
"a  face  always  radiant  with  the  light 
of  an  inner  joy."  Watch  him  pacing 
along  the  dusty  Italian  highway, 
weary,  footsore,  often  faint  and  ill. 
His  clothes  are  worn,  his  feet  bare, 
his  face  furrowed  and  pale.  But 
listen!  So  full  of  joy  is  his  heart  that 
he  must  give  it  vent  in  hymns  of 
praise.  He  is  seized  by  robbers,  beaten, 
and  thrown  into  a  ditch.  But,  nothing 
disturbed,  he  again  pursues  his  way, 
singing  as  before!  See  him  in  his 
native  city,  hunted,  stoned,  insulted, 
a  "very  outcast  of  the  people"  as  was 
his  Divine  Master  before  him.  Still 
he  is  bright,  thankful,  cheerful,  with 
praise  on  his  lips  and  joy  in  his  heart. 
Let  us  follow  him  in  imagination  to  the 
Holy  Land,  where  Almighty  God  has 
called  him  to  preach  to  the  Sultan. 
The  Crusaders  are  discouraged  and 
despairing.  Six  thousand  Christians 
have  fallen  by  the  Saracen  sword.  But 
St.  Francis  never  loses  heart.  He  finds 
food  for  cheer  in  the  sight  of  two  lambs. 
"Be  of  good  cheer,"  he  cries;  "see,  it 
is  the  accomplishment  of  the  Gospel 
words,  'Behold  I  send  you  as  sheep 
in  the  midst  of  wolves.'  "  And  he 
gains  his  heart's  desire,  and  carries 
God's  truth  to  the  Sultan.  Another 
scene  comes  before  our  eyes.  It  is  the 
time  of  one  of  the  great  gatherings  of 
the  Friars.  Up  from  the  valleys,  down 
from  the  hill-sides,  and  from  the  shin- 
ing sea  coast,  are  flocking  streams  of 

brown-robed,  barefooted  men,  to  meet 
him  who  was  their  Father  and  guide. 
Many  things  does  he  teach  them,  but 
so  anxious  is  he  to  impress  on  these 
his  followers  the  duty  of  cheerfulness, 
that  he  has  these  words  posted  up  in 
large  letters:  "Let  the  brethren  avoid 
ever  appearing  sombre,  sad,  or  clouded, 
but  let  them  be  always  joyful  in  the 
Lord."  And  nobly  did  they  practice 
his  teaching.  But  perhaps  the  beauty 
of  his  joyous  spirit  shone  forth  at  its 
brightest  in  the  closing  days  of  his 
wondrous  life. 

Worn  out  with  incessant  toil, 
broken  down  by  sickness,  and  with 
blindness  creeping  on,  we  might  well 
expect  to  find  him  overwhelmed  with 
sadness  and  depression.  But  no! 
To  quote  the  words  of  a  Protestant 
writer  of  to-day,  "St.  Francis  lay  down 
in  his  narrow  cell  at  the  Portiuncula 
to  suffer  the  Divine  Will,  with  the 
same,  ready,  cheery  obedience  with 
which  he  had  heretofore  hastened  to 
perform  it;  a  vivid  picture  of  the 
triumph  of  spiritual  joy  over  every 
earthly  hindrance."  Truly  would  he 
have  said,  "Blessed  is  the  hour  when 
the  sun  goes  down,  and  it  grows  dark, 
for  then  we  see  the  glory  of  Heaven's 
stars."  In  his  keenest  sufferings  he 
has  no  words,  save  of  thankfulness 
and  cheer. 

His  brethren  shrink  away,  over- 
whelmed with  sorrow  at  the  sight  of  his 
pain,  but  St.  Francis'  heart  fails  him 

And  as  his  beautiful  soul  is  about  to 
pass  away  from  earth,  what  are  the 
last  words  in  which  he  tried  to  join? 
"Bring  my  soul  out  of  prison,  that  I 
may  praise  Thy  Name."  Fitting  close 
to  so  joyous  a  life.  And  yet  St.  Francis 
was  no  visionary  dreamer,  rapt  in  his 
own  thoughts,  and  indifferent  to  the 
sorrows  and  sins  of  his  fellows. 

Nay!  He  was  full  of  wondrous  sym- 
pathy and  compassion  for  the  suffer- 
ings  of   others;   his   very   eyes   were 



dimmed  by  the  many  tears  he  shed  over 
others'  sins.  But  in  the  words  of  the 
poet,  though 

''He  heeded  no  less  the  wailing, 
Yet  he  heard  thro'  it  angels  singing." 
And  this  spirit  of  happy  cheerfulness 
yet  lives  in  the  hearts  of  his  followers. 
During  the  last  six  centuries  the 
Franciscans  have  been  at  work,  carry- 
ing brightness  alike  into  the  sordid 
lives  of  the  peasants  and  the  studious 
life  of  the  college.  Even  the  Pro- 
testants of  our  own  land  have  paid  an 
unconscious  tribut  to  the  happy  Fran- 
ciscan spirit,  for  when  they  wish  to 
paint  caricatures  of  jolly,  fat  friars, 
we  notice  that  they  generally  dress 
them  in  Franciscan  habits !  And  to  us, 
Tertiaries  of  St.  Francis,  is  still  granted 
the  glorious  privilege  of  showing  forth 
his  bright,  cheery  spirit  in  the  world. 

"Cheerfulness,"  says  one,  "is  a 
perpetual  benediction,"  and  we,  fol- 
lowers of  St.  Francis,  may  carry  the 
sunshine  of  this  benediction  alike  into 
the  workshop,  the  busy  school,  the 
sick-room,  the  beautiful  home  of  the 
rich  and  to  the  simple  fireside  of  the 

If  we  cannot  follow  our  holy  father's 
footsteps  as  closely  as  the  First  and 
Second  Orders  of  his  children,  yet  we 
may,  like  him,  share  in  the  ministry 
of  cheer.  Cheerful  looks,  and  cheerful 
words!  Who  can  tell  their  power?  As 
one  truly  says: 
"Burdens  are  light  when  we  can  sing 

under  them, 
"Battles    are    easily    won    when   the 

heart  is  glad." 
A  cheerful  man  can  put  new  strength 
into  sad  and  weary  hearts. 

There  is  a  beautiful  legend,  which 
tells  how,  long  ago,  in  a  forest,  some 
moss  began  to  grow.  It  spread  out  in 
sunshine  till  it  formed  a  soft,  rich 
carpet  of  green.  One  day,  our  Lord 
passed  through  the  forest  with  feet 
torn  and  bleeding  from  the  rough 
wilderness  whence  He  had  come.  As 
His  bruised  and  weary  feet  trod  over 
the  moss,  they  were  soothed  and  rested 

by  its  gentle  softness,  and  Jesus,  from 
His  loving  heart  uttered  words  which 
made  the  moss  holy  for  all  time. 
"Thou  shaft  be  blessed  for  ever,  o'er 
every  plant  that  grows."  And  forth- 
with from  the  bosom  of  the  moss  there 
sprang  the  beautiful  "moss  rose." 

It  is  but  a  legend,  but  from  its  tender 
beauty  we  may  learn  that  if  we  can 
only  make  life's  road  a  little  easier  to 
some  bruised  and  weary  feet,  we,  too, 
may  hope  to  gain  the  benediction  of 
the  Master. 

Evermore  is  our  Lord  passing  us  in 
the  persons  of  His  poor,  His  sick,  His 
sorrowful  ones. 

And  let  the  Tertiaries  of  St.  Francis 
look  up  to  their  holy  father,  and  plead 
with  him  to  obtain  for  them  more  and 
more  of  his  own  cheerfulness  and 
brightness,  that  so  the  beautiful  rose 
of  love  may  blossom  in  their  lives,  and 
that  many  now  outside  the  Church 
may  learn  from  them  the  true  secret 
of  joy. 

—A  Tertiary  of  St.  Francis. 

"Often  when  men  have  sinned  they 
allow  their  souls  to  be  darkened  and 
disturbed  by  a  badly-regulated  kind  of 
sorrow.  They  compalin  and  cry  out, 
'Woe  is  me,'  'It  would  be  better  if 
I  didn't  exist!'  'Oh,  why  was  I 
born?'  'Oh,  if  I  could  only  die!' 
and  other  foolish  exclamations,  by 
which  they  often  offend  God  more  than 
by  the  sins  they  are  lamenting.  He, 
therefore,  who  desires  to  have  true 
and  genuine  contrition,  should  take 
care  to  cultivate  in  his -soul  humility, 
hatred  of  sin,  and  firm  confidence  in 
God.  For  this  reason  the  loving  spirit 
of  Eternal  Wisdom  says:  'Son,  in  thy 
sickness  neglect  not  thyself;  but  pray 
to  the  Lord,  and  He  will  heal  thee.' 
For,  in  good  truth,  what  could  be  more 
silly  than,  because  you  have  lost  an 
eye,  to  pluck  out  the  other?" — Bl. 
Henry  Suso. 

"In  a  vast  majority  of  instances, 
melancholy  is  only  the  result  of  pride." 
—St.  Theresa. 

Gleanings  From  Our  Mission  Fields 

(By  Fr.  Tiburtius  Wand,  O.  F.  M.,  Missionary  among  the  Papagos.) 

MOST  of  the  Indians  enumerated 
in  the  official  census  of  the 
United  States  are  to  be  found 
in  the  state  of  Arizona.  They  form 
about  one  eighth  of  the  205,000 
inhabitants    of    the    state.       In    the 

Moquis  in  the  north,  while  the  Fathers 
of  the  Province  of  the  Sacred  Heart 
have  missions  among  the  Indians  of 
the  south.  Little  has  been  done  thus 
far  for  the  Apaches  and  several 
smaller    tribes,    partly    for    want    of 

Fr.  Bonaventure  Camping  in  the  Desert 

northeastern  part,  we  find  the 
large  Navajo  and  Hopi  Reservations, 
which  extend  into  New  Mexico;  in  the 
central  part,  the  Apache  and  San 
Carlos  Reservations;  in  the  southwest 
are  found  the  Pima  and  Papago  In- 
dians. The  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the 
Province  of  St.  John  the  Baptist  are 
laboring    among    the    Navajos    and 

missionaries,  partly  on  account  of  the 
great  difficulties,  as  these  tribes  have 
always  shown  themselves  hostile  to 
any  missionary  efforts. 

Southwestern  Arizona  is  an  old 
heritage  of  the  Franciscans.  They 
entered  this  field  of  labor  in  the  eigh- 
teenth century  after  the  Jesuits  had 
retired  and  had  been  expelled  from  the 



Spanish  possessions.  The  best  known 
of  the  Franciscans  who  labored  here  for 
the  conversion  of  the  tribes  is  Fr. 
Cacez.  He  traversed  the  country  of 
the  Pimas  and  Papagos  several  times, 
and  after  laboring  hard  to  establish 
missions  among  them,  was  murdered 
by  the  Yumas  in  1781. 

The  seed  which  these  heroic  men 
planted  with  the  greatest  difficulty  was 
not  lost,  though  it  did  not  bring  forth 
fruit,  on  account  of  the  unfavorable 

1800  baptisms,  thus  converting  about 
one-half  of  the  tribe.  Churches  of 
adobe  have  been  erected  in  the  various 
villages,  and  the  missions  are  in  a 
flourishing  condition.  This  success  is 
due  in  a  great  degree  to  the  influence 
of  St.  John's  school,  in  charge  of  the 
Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  in  which  about 
220  children  receive  a  good  Christian 
education.  There  is  another  Catholic 
day-school  at  St.  Anna,  the  largest  of 
the  missions,  in  which  the  children  of 

Blackwater  Mission  after  Mass 

^^V^l^among't^e  Pimas  about  thirteen  years 
ago,  they  met  with  comparatively  less 
difficulty,  than  was  found  among  the 
tribes  of  the  north.  If  missionaries 
had  come  sooner,  the  entire  tribe  would 
now,  perhaps,  be  Catholic;  but  the 
Presbyterians  opened  missions  there 
ten  years  before  the  arrival  of  the 
Fathers  and  Succeeded  in  gaining  a 
large  number  of  the  Pimas  for  their 
sect.  After  laboring  for  twelve  years, 
we  have  been  able  to  record  from  1700- 

the  village  are  instructed  in  the  rudi- 
ments by  an  able  Indian  teacher,  a 
graduate  of  St.  John's  school.  It  is 
only  through  these  schools  that  we  are 
enabled  to  keep  a  hold  on  the  younger 
generation.  Such  children  as  attend 
the  government  schools  generally  re- 
turn minus  their  faith  and  with  little 
inclination  to  work.  The  boys  often 
come  to  school  on  their  small,  half- 
tamed  ponies.  Many  make  rapid  pro- 
gress in  their  studies,  learning  to  read 
and  write  with  ease,  though  they  had 



not  spoken  a  word  of  English  before. 

The  Papagos  had  no  missionaries 
among  them  until  last  year,  when  the 
persistent  efforts  of  the  Presbyterians 
to  gain  a  foothold  in  the  tribe  made  it 
evident  that  something  had  to  be  done 
to  save  these  Indians  to  the  Church. 
At  the  request  of  the  ecclesiastical 
superiors,  the  Province  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  accepted  this  new  field  of  labor, 
which  extends  from  the  Southern 
Pacific  R.  R.  to  the  boundary  of 
Mexico.  What  difficulties  confront  the 
missionary  in  administering  to  the 
Indians  of  this  region,  will  be  under- 
stood only  by  one  who  has  first-hand 
knowledge  of  the  condition  of  the 

One  of  the  greatest  difficulties  is  the 
lack  of  good  drinking  water,  and  of 
feed  for  horses;  for  the  missionary 
must  make  his  long  trips  by  wagon. 
Scarcely  any  of  the  villages  has  a 
well.  The  Indians  collect  the  rain 
water  in  large  ponds,  and  this  water 
serves  for  drinking  purposes  for  man 
and  beast.  As  the  water  is,  naturally, 
unwholesome,  the  Fathers  are  obliged 
to  take  a  supply  of  water  with  them  on 
their  journeys;  and  since  they  must 
sometimes  travel  for  days  before  they 
reach  the  nearest  mission,  where,  in 
all  probability,  good  water  cannot  be 
had,  they  must  be  very  economical 
with  their  supply.  It  often  happens 
that  they  do  not  wash  for  four  or  five 
days;  they  use  very  little  water  to 
quench  their  thirst  and  as  little  as 
possible  at  Mass,  lest  the  supply  give 
out  before  they  reach  a  mission  at 
which  there  is  a  well.  The  first  thing 
the  missionaries  will  have  to  do,  is  to 
have  wells  dug  at  the  principal  mis- 
sions. The  beginning  was  made  at  one 
place;  but  though  a  bore  was  driven 
to  a  depth  of  110  feet,  no  water  was 
found.  Then,  we  shall  have  to  erect 
storehouses  for  provisions  and  feed. 
Otherwise  we  shall  be  hindered  in  our 
work  by  the  constant  worry  about 
these  necessaries.  There  are  one  or 
two  stores  in  the  desert;  but  they,  as 

may  easily  be  understood,  charge 
enormous  prices.  Besides,  wood  and 
other  building  material  must  be  ob- 
tained from  a  great  distance,  and  that 
is  very  expensive.  The  nearest  mission 
is  forty  miles  from  Mission  San  Xavier, 
our  headquarters,  near  Tucson;  others 
are  distant  from  one  hundred  to  two 
hundred  miles.  Add  to  all  this  that  the 
Papagos  are  a  nomadic  people,  and  it 
will  be  easy  to  understand  that  it  will 
require  much  labor,  great  sacrifices 
combined  with  many  disappointments, 
before  affairs  can  be  brought  to  a 
state,  where  lasting  fruits  can  be 
realized  and  maintained.  But  this 
does  not  discourage  us.  Our  Divine 
Savior,  who  gave  his  disciples  the 
command  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  all 
nations,  will  give  us  the  strength  to 
fulfill  his  command  amidst  the  greatest 
difficulties.  The  spiritual  welfare  of 
several  thousand  Indians  is  at  stake, 
truly  a  thought  that  will  make  all  sac- 
rifices appear  small. 

Heeding  the  invitation  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan Herald,  that  purposes  to  arouse 
interest  in  the  Franciscan  missions,  we 
shall  not  fail  to  inform  its  readers  of 
our  experiences,  successes,  and  failures, 
hoping  that  they  will  assist  us  by  their 
prayers  and  alms  in  spreading  the 
kingdom  of  God  among  the  Indians 
committed  to  our  charge. 

"In  the  measure  in  which  we  love 
God,  in  that  measure  we  shall  have 
more  heartfelt  love  to  all  that  are 
about  us.  A  father  will  be  a  better 
father,  and  a  mother  a  better  mother; 
son  and  daughter  will  be  better  child- 
ren; they  will  love  each  other  more,  and 
friends  will  love  one  another  more,  in 
the  measure  in  which  they  love  God 
more."— Cardinal  Manning. 

"Love  consists  much  more  in  deeds 
than  in  words.  God  is  a  skillful  money- 
changer; bad  money  does  not  pass 
current  with  Him,  and  in  His  eyes  our 
words  have  only  the  value  of  our  ac- 
tions."— St.   Ignatius. 


Christmas  Among  Our  Indians 

Among  the  Menonimees 

CHRISTMAS  is  one  of  the  few 
feasts  that  appeal  to  the  heart 
of  the  Indians;  and  as  the  mys- 
tery it  commemorates  is  one  that 
lends  itself  aptly  to  decorative  effect, 
for  which  the  Indian  possesses  an 
unusual,  natural  talent,  it  is  in  no 
wise  surprising  that  for  simple 
beauty  of  ornament  the  celebration  of 
this  feast  in  some  far-away  Indian 
chapel  oftentimes  surpasses  that  of 
many  a  city  church  with  its  tinsel 
splendor  and  tawdry  display  of  elec- 
tric lights.  Such  at  least  was  the  im- 
pression I  got  at  St.  Joseph's  Church, 
South  Branch  Indian  Settlement,  some 
sixteen  miles  north  of  Keshena,  Wis- 
consin, where  I  spent  my  Christmas 
in  the  "late  lamented"  year  1912. 

A  few  days  before  Christmas  eight 
inches  of  snow  had  silently  arrayed  all 
nature  in  holiday  attire,  and  no  rude 
gust  of  wind  had  yet  disturbed  its 
stately  pose.  The  effect  on  the  land- 
scape and  especially  on  the  green 
pine  forests  baffles  description.  The 
night  before  Christmas  was  mild  and 
uncommonly  bright,  and  the  Indians 
from  far  and  near  flocked  to  the  mid- 
night Mass  which  we  have  the  privi- 
lege of  celebrating  in  this  diocese. 
But  not  only  Indians  came:  many 
whites  never  miss  an  opportunity  of 
attending  the  midnight  Mass  at  South 
Branch,  some  coming  a  distance  of 
ten  miles.  And  well  was  their  devotion 
repaid  by  the  childlike  simplicity  of 
what  they  saw  and  heard.  What  a 
splendid  sight  greeted  their  eyes  when 
they  entered  the  church!  Not  only 
the  crib,  but  the  entire  interior  of  the 
church  was  gorgeously  arrayed  in 
evergreens;  everywhere  one  beheld 
trees,  wreaths,  festoons  and  flowers; 
and  against  this  background  hundreds 
of  blessed  candles  tastefully  arranged 
sparkled  and  sputtered,  adding  life 
and  brilliance  to  the  scene. 

I  preached  on  the  love  of  the  In- 
carnate Word  in  English,  German  and 
Menonimee.  This  was  the  first  time 
I  addressed  them  in  their  own  lan- 
guage, and  many  of  the  elder  members 
of  the  tribe  rejoiced  exceedingly  to 
hear  their  new  priest  "Kanosit" — the 
"Tall  One"—  speak  to  them  in  their 
native  tongue.  Mass  over,  they  all 
advanced  in  single  file  to  the  crib  to 
pay  homage  to  their  Infant  Savior, 
each  offering  a  few  pence  from  their 
meagre  purses  in  token  of  their  child- 
like devotion.  Nor  did  they  forget 
their  God  in  the  Holy  Eucharist;  no 
less  than  fifty  returned  hungry  in  the 
morning  to  receive  Holy  Communion 
in  the  eight  o'clock  Mass.  The  High 
Mass  and  sermon  at  ten  o'clock  was 
also  well  attended. 

At  the  close  of  the  afternoon  service 
all  the  Indians,  large  and  small,  re- 
paired to  the  little  hall  adjoining  the 
church,  where  I  had  prepared  a  Christ- 
mas festival  to  gladden  their  simple 
hearts.  This  consisted  of  a  general 
distributing  of  nuts,  candies,  toys  and 
trinkets,  which,  however,  to  humor 
their  natural  inclination,  and  to  their 
infinite  merriment  they  were  obliged, 
or  rather  permitted,  to  fish  from  an 
artificial  pond  behind  a  screen.  Amid 
such  innocent  amusement,  the  general 
happiness  that  prevailed,  and  the 
spiritual  consolations  of  the  feast,  we 
felt  not  the  fatigues  of  the  long  day; 
and  all  returned  to  their  homes 
satisfied  that  our  childlike  celebration 
had  pleased  the  Infant  Savior,  and 
that  we  ourselves  were  the  richer  for 
it  in  heavenly  graces  and  temporal 
Fr.  Nicholas  Christoffel,  0.  F.  M. 

Among  the  Pimas 

We  take  special  pleasure  in  reproduc- 
ing the  following  two  letters  that  were 
placed   at   our   disposal   through   the 




kindness  of  the  Very  Rev.  Fr.  Pro- 
vincial. They  were  written  by  Pima 
Indian  girls,  aged  14  years,  graudates 
from  St.  John's  school,  Gila  Cross- 
ing, Arizona.  This  boarding-school 
founded  by  Fr.  Justin,  0.  F.  M.,  in 
order  to  gain  a  foothold  among  the 
large  Pima  tribe,  numbers  at  present 
about  230  pupils.  It  is  a  heavy  burden 
placed  on  the  shoulders  of  the  mis- 
sionaries, still  it  is  considered  the  only 
means  of  exercising  an  effective  and 
lasting  influence  on  the  minds  and 
hearts  of  the  Indians.  To  preserve  as 
nearly  as  possible  their  original  form 
and  their  childlike  simplicity,  we  re- 
frain from  revising  the  letters,  making 
only  the  most  necessary  corrections. 
(The  Editor.) 

St.  John's  Mission. 
Gila  Crossing,  Arizona. 
Dear  Father: — 

You  have  been  so  kind  to  us,  and 
visited  us  many  times.  So  I  will  write 
you  this  little  letter  to  tell  you  some- 
thing about  our  Christmas.  On 
Christmas  the  altar  was  decorated 
very  fine.  There  were  three  Fathers 
here,  so  that  we  could  have  Solemn 
High  Mass.  The  Fathers  were,  Rev. 
Fr.  Justin,  Fr.  Tiburtius  and  Fr. 
Gerard.  The  first  Solemn  High  Mass 
we  had  on  Christmas  was  at  5  o'clock, 
and  in  this  first  Mass  ten  children  made 
their  First  Holy  Communion;  also 
nearly  all  of  the  people  that  were  in  the 
church  received  Holy  Communion. 
There  were  about  340  Holy  Commun- 
ions. We  also  sang  a  new  High  Mass 
on  that  day.  Right  after  Mass  we  all 
visited  the  crib  before  we  left  the 
church.  The  second  Mass  we  had  was 
at  8:30,  and  the  last  Mass  was  at 
ten  o'clock.  Right  after  this  Mass  we 
also  had  Benediction,  so  there  were 
no  services  in  the  afternoon,  for  the 
people  here  going  to  have  their  com- 
mon meal,  what  they  call  their  feast, 
which  my  friend  Annie  will  write 
something  about.  Then  the  next  day, 
that  was  Thursday,  we  also  had  High 
Mass  at  nine  o'clock.  After  Mass  we 
had  Christmas  tree,  and  the  children 

had  a  little  entertainment.  After  the 
Christmas  tree  some  children  went 
home.  All  the  people  were  very  glad 
to  go  to  church  and  to  receive  Jesus 
into  their  hearts,  for  it  will  help  them 
very  much.  We  also  feel  very  glad 
because  you  have  been  so  good  to  us 
and  helped  us  very  much  so  we  have  a 
nice  school  here.  We  all  thank  you 
very  much  for  your  kindness  and  we 
hope  that  you  will  come  pretty  soon 
and  see  us. 

Good-by!     I  am  your  child, 

Mary  Bridget  Giff. 

St.  John's  Mission, 
Gila  Crossing,  Arizona. 
Dear  Rev.   Father  Provincial: — 

I  know  that  you  would  like  to  hear 
something  from  the  Indians  here  in 
Gila  Crossing  Reservation.  We  spent 
Christmas  clay  very  nicely;  everybody 
enjoyed  the  day  very  much  and  we  all 
wish  that  Christmas  would  come  every 
day.  I  will  say  something  of  what 
these  Indians  did  before  Christmas 
came.  A  long  time  before,  my  father, 
the  chief,  collected  some  money  among 
the  Indians;  some  of  them  gave  one 
dollar  and  those  who  are  very  poor 
they  only  gave  seventy-five  cents. 
When  he  had  collected  all  the  money 
he  called  all  the  men  to  have  a  meeting 
and  to  speak  about  what  they  were 
going  to  get,  because  they  always  have 
it  like  this.  Whenever  such  a  great 
feast  comes  round  they  always  collect 
some  money  in  order  to  buy  some 
things  to  eat.  Those  people  who  come 
from  afar  can  have  something  to  eat 
also,  and  this  we  call  our  feast.  Now  I 
am  going  to  explain  how  we  celebrated 
Christmas  day  this  year. 

When  everything  was  finished  in  the 
church  we  fixed  up  the  tables  and  pre- 
pared the  things  what  they  were  going 
to  eat.  First  they  gathered  all  those 
who  came  from  afar  and  seated  them 
by  the  tables.  When  the  benches  were 
full,  my  father  stood  in  the  middle  of 
them  and  said  some  prayers.  When 
he  had  finished  praying,  then  they 
began  the  eating.  We  had  meat,  bread, 



oranges,  apples,  butter,  pie  and  all 
kinds  of  canned  fruits.  After  we  had 
finished  our  meal,  then  two  men  gath- 
ered the  little  boys  to  have  foot  races 
and  jump  in  sacks.  They  had  rope 
pulling,  ten  little  boys  on  each  side. 
After  that  some  of  the  old  men,  but 
I  don't  know  how  many  of  them  on 
each  side,  had  rope  pulling;  some  of 
them  jump  the  rope  too.  And  we  had 
a  baseball  game  too.  Everybody  had 
time  to  laugh.  On  the  second  Christ- 
mas day  we  all  went  to  Holy  Mass 
again ;  HighMass  began  at  nine  o  'clock. 
After  High  Mass  then  the  Benediction 
of  the  Blessed  Sacrament  was  given 
to  all  the  people.  A  little  after  when 
we  came  out  from  the  church,  then  the 
entertainment  was  given  by  the  school- 
children in  the  dining-room.  Every- 
body went  in  to  see  them.  They  gave 
us  very  much  satisfaction.  Some  of  the 
girls  dressed  up  very  funny  and  some 
of  the  little  boys  too.  One  little  boy 
had  a  pink  stocking  in  his  hand,  he 
raised  it  high  so  that  everybody  could 
see  what  it  was,  and  two  little  boys 
holding  each  one  a  shoe  in  their  hands. 
Many  of  them  had  some  things  which 
I  can't  tell,  because  I  didn't  see  them 
all.  My!  but  everybody  had  a  good 
time  to  laugh  at  them.  When  the 
entertainment  was  finished,  our  Rev. 
Pastor  Fr.  Justin  spoke  something  to 

us  about  the  Christmas  tree  which 
stood  in  the  corner  of  the  room.  Then 
the  sisters  distributed  the  candies  and 
peanuts  in  sacks  to  all  the  children. 
After  this  some  of  the  children  went 
home  for  a  short  vacation,  only  those 
who  do  not*  live  very  far,  and  those 
who  live  very  far,  they  stayed  here  in 
school  and  they  are  now  having  a 
fine  time  here.  School  will  start  again 
next  Thursday.  We  all  expect  that 
the  children  will  all  come  back  to 
school  to  continue  their  schoolworks 
again.  We  had  so  many  children  now 
this  year.  They  came  from  all  different 
countries,  they  are  all  very  good  child- 
ren trying  to  learn  their  religion  well, 
because  they  know  that  they  will  be 
here  only  for  a  few  years,  then  by 
and  by  they  will  come  to  a  better 
land.  Next  Wednesday  will  be  New 
Years  day,  and  the  men  are  talking 
about  having  another  feast  again,  I 
mean  to  have  a  common  meal.  They 
are  now  collecting  small  sums  of  money 
among  themselves,  so  we  all  expect  to 
have  another  day  of  good  times. 

This  is  all  I  have  to  say.  My  friend 
Mary  Giff  will  tell  you  about  the 
church  feast.  We  all  thank  you  very 
much  that  you  have  been  so  kind  to  us 

Good-by ! 

From  Miss  Annie  Anton. 



Current  Comment 

Need  of  Organizing  the  Third  Order 

ORGANIZATION  is  the  watch- 
word of  our  times.  It  may- 
be described  as  the  ordinate 
striving  of  many  for  a  common  end. 
Organization  is  to  a  society  what 
the  soul  is  to  the  body.  It  is 
the  vital  spark,  the  principle  of  life, 
the  moving  spirit,  the  guiding  mind, 
the  preserver  of  energy,  the  source  of 
growth  and  action  and  stability.  In 
this  age  of  stress  and  strife  no  asso- 
ciation can  hope  to  endur  without 
organization.  In  an  association  that 
is  not  well  organized  the  individual  is 
made  to  bear  the  brunt  of  the  battle, 
while  the  great  mass  are  content  to 
rest  on  their  swords.  Without  or- 
ganization there  can  be  no  unity  of 
aims  and  interests,  no  concerted  action. 
Hence  the  best  energies  are  wasted 
and  the  aims  of  the  organization  fail 
of  attainment.  To  gather  the  scattered 
forces  and  to  organize  them,  that  is  the 
need  of  the  hour. 

Without  organization,  practical  and 
in  keeping  with  the  times,  the  Third 
Order  must  dwindle  into  insignifi- 
cance, both  in  numbers  and  in  power. 
Indeed,  how  could  a  society  numbering 
three  million  members  in  all  parts  of 
the  world,  live  and  prosper  and  achieve 
the  ends  for  which  it  has  been  insti- 
tuted, without  organization? 

If  in  European  countries  the  Third 
Order  is  in  a  flourishing  condition,  if 
there  it  presents  itself  as  an  effective 
body,  a  formidable  power,  a  veritable 
pillar  of  the  Church,  the  reason  is  not 
far  to  seek.  It  is  owing  to  the  fact 
that  it  is  well  organized.  If,  on  the 
other  hand,  the  Third  Order  in  this 
country  is  a  comparatively  unknown 
or,  at  best,  negligible  quantity,  if 
here  it  does  so  little  for  the  sanctifica- 
tion  of  its  own  members  and  still  less 
for  the  spiritual  regeneration  of  society 
at  large,  if  it  fails  to  impress  those 
without    as    that    grand    institution 

destined,  in  the  opinion  of  Leo  XIII., 
to  save  the  world — again  the  reason  is 
not  far  to  seek. 

Till  local  directors  have  made  every 
effort  to  promote  the  Third  Order  by 
instilling  into  people  love  and  esteem 
for  it;  till  Tertiaries  have  their  regular 
instructions  and  monthly  meetings  and 
annual  visitations;  till  they  are  taught 
to  look  upon  the  exercise  of  corporal 
and  spiritual  works  of  mercy  as  a 
duty  incumbent  on  the  Order;  till  an 
appeal  is  made  to  the  individual  mem- 
bers to  make  the  work  and  the  inter- 
ests of  the  Order  their  own;  till  this 
work  is  confided  to  prudent  and 
zealous  officers  to  be  apportioned  to 
the  single  members;  in  short,  till  the 
fraternities  are  reenforced  and  organ- 
ized and,  if  possible,  centralized,  that 
is,  brought  into  one  system  and 
under  one  control;  till  then  we  need 
not  look  for  any  change  in  the  con- 
dition of  the  Third  Order  in  these 
parts.  ■ 

The  ThirdOrder  in  Holland 

At  a  meeting  of  the  directors  of 
the  Third  Order  in  Holland  the  fol- 
lowing practical  resolutions  were 
adopted  among  others-  1.  As  to  the 
nature  of  the  Third  Order,  care  must 
be  taken  to  preserve  its  primitive 
spirit,  in  which  lies  its  power  of  re- 
forming itself  and  society  at  large. 
2.  Persons  desiring  admission  must  be 
at  least  fourteen  years  old.  An  ex- 
ception is  to  be  made  with  inmates  of 
public  institutions,  who  must  have 
attained  the  age  of  seventeen.  3.  If 
the  Third  Order  is  to  flourish,  the  no- 
vices must  receive  a  thorough  instruc- 
tion. 4.  The  canonical  visitation 
shall  be  held  at  stated  intervals  by  a 
representative  of  the  Provincial  of 
the  Friars  Minor,  whose  duty  it  shall 
be  to  visit  each  fraternity  and  to 
submit  an  explicit  report  to  the  pro- 



vincial  chapter.  5.  The  Third  Order 
shall  continue  with  renewed  zeal  to 
exercise  works  of  mercy,  especially 
that  of  visiting  and  caring  for  the 
sick;  the  single  Tertiaries  shall  make 
it  a  point  to  assist  and  promote  all 
charitable  institutions  and  societies 
of  their  respective  parishes  and  to 
take  an  active  part  in  social  activity 
generally. — In  this  spirit  the  Third 
Order  in  Holland  has  long  been  con- 
ducted. This  accounts  for  its  popu- 
larity. In  the  year  1911,  five  thousand 
new  members  of  both  sexes  were 
received  into  the  Order.  Spiritual 
exercises  are  held  annually.  A  monthly 
publication  in  the  interest  of  the  Third 
Order  owes  its  existence  to  the  Ter- 
tiaries. The  Third  Order  has  also 
founded  two  charitable  institutions, 
the  one  a  hospital  and  the  other  a 
house  of  refuge  for  homeless  children 
and  young  people. 

May  we  expect  similar  results  of  the 
Third  Order  in  this  country? 

A  New  Life  of  St.  Francis 

What  the  English-speaking  world 
has  waited  for  so  long  and  patiently, 
a  standard  work  on  St.  Francis,  has 
come  at  last.  For  this  latest  and 
valuable  contribution  to  the  ever-grow- 
ing store  of  Franciscan  literature  we 
are  indebted  to  the  pen  of  Fr.  Cuth- 
bert,  O.  S.  F.  C. 

St.  Francis  seems  to  be  a  subject 
ever  old  and  ever  new.  It  is  not  sur- 
prising that  he  who  during  life  won 
all  hearts  by  the  charm  of  his  winsome 
personality,  should  even  after  death 
continue  to  be  a  favorite  with  all 
classes  of  men.  He  deserves  in  very 
deed  the  appellation  that  forms  the 
title  of  another  biography  of  the  Saint 
lately  published,  "Everybody's  St. 
Francis."  If,  as  the  saying  goes,  "all 
the  world  loves  a  lover,"  then  it  has 
reason  to  love  St.  Francis,  for  he  was 
a  lover  of  God  and  of  man,  and  of  all 
nature.  The  many  lives  of  St.  Francis 
that  have  been  written,  especially  in 
these  latter  days,  are  nothing  but  a 

tribute  of  the  love  to  one  of  the  most 
lovable  characters  the  world  has  ever 

The  trouble  with  most  of  these 
works,  however,  is  that  they  present 
a  more  or  less  incomplete,  if  not  dis- 
torted, image  of  the  Saint  inasmuch 
as  the  authors  have  failed  to  view  the 
Saint's  character  in  all  its  phases. 
Thus  the  poet  that  essays  to  write  a 
life  of  St.  Francis,  loves  to  present  him 
to  us  from  a  poetic  point  of  view.  The 
historian  looks  to  him  for  a  solution 
of  the  many  riddles  of  medieval  times. 
The  idealist  seeks  in  him  a  ratification 
of  his  own  lofty  ideals  and  empty 
dreams.  The  social  reformer  points 
to  him  as  to  a  model  of  all  reformists. 
The  advocate  of  democracy  devoutly 
dubs  him  its  patron  saint.  The  mystic 
sees  in  him  the  very  incarnation  of 
mysticism.  The  religious  finds  in  him 
an  example  for  imitation.  The 
Protestant  would  fain  carve  for  him 
a  niche  beside  that  of  Martin  Luther. 
The  Rationalist,  stripping  him  of 
everything  supernatural,  exalts  him 
as  the  highest  type  of  humanity,  the 
noblest  conquest  of  Reason. 

Thus  it  happens  that  lives  of  St. 
Francis  written  by  such  men  as  these, 
are  very  often  incomplete  and  full  of 
contradictions  and  anomalies.  Far 
be  it  from  us,  however,  to  discourage  in 
these  men  the  study  of  St.  Francis 
and  of  Franciscan  literature;  the  more 
they  study  St.  Francis  the  better  they 
will  understand  him  and  the  nearer 
they  will  be  drawn  to  God  and  to 
God's  Church.  We  are  ready  to  for- 
give them  much  because  they  have 
loved  much. 

Fr.  Cuthbert,  however,  has  suc- 
ceeded where  others  have  failed.  He 
painted  for  us  with  a  master's  hand  a 
life-size  and  lifelike  portrait  of  the 
Saint,  one  that  approaches  as  near  as 
possible  to  the  original.  Fr.  Cuthbert's 
life  is  not  new  in  this  sense  that  it 
presents  phases  of  the  Saint's  char- 
acter or  facts  in  his  life,  hitherto  un- 
discovered or  unknown.    What  is  new 



about  it,  however,  is  the  treatment  of 
the  subject,  the  manner  in  which  he 
makes  use  of  the  material  at  hand. 
All  through  the  book  one  can  not  but 
notice  his  singleness  of  purpose,  name- 
ly, to  picture  the  Saint  as  he  was  in 
reality  and  not  as  he  might  exist  in 
the  imagination  of  others.  For  this 
the  author  has  our  thanks;  for  by 
adhering  strictly  to  historical  truth, 
he  has  brought  St.  Francis  nearer 
and  made  him  dearer  to  the  hearts 
of  his  admirers.  Nothing  less  was 
expected  of  a  scholar  of  Fr.  Cuthbert's 
attainments,  nothing  more  could  be 
expected  of  anyone. 

Yet  his  life  is  anything  but  a  mere 
critical  study  of  St.  Francis.  If  that 
were  its  only  merit,  it  would  still  be 
merit  enough.  But  it  is  more.  It  is 
truth,  poetry,  piety,  prayer,  medita- 
tion, inspiration,  "and  the  combina- 
tion," as  some  one  has  expressed  it, 
"proves  irresistible."  Hence  it  is  a 
book  that  will  be  read  with  pleasure 
and  profit  by  everybody,  also  by 
those  that  look  for  something  more 
besides  historical  accuracy  in  a  life  of 
a  saint. 

Fr.  Cuthbert  has  done  for  St. 
Francis  what  many  an  admirer  of  the 
Saint  has  longed  to  do,  if  only  half  so 
well.  He  has  written  a  life  of  the 
Seraphic  Father  such  as  only  a  loving 
son  of  his  could  write.  "It  is  not 
likely,"  says  America,  "that  anyone 
will  feel  inclined  to  write  St.  Francis ' 
life  again,  now  that  it  has  been  so 
successfully  written  by  Fr.  Cuthbert. 

Suffragists  and  the  Bible 

In  an  address  to  the  Woman's 
Party  at  the  Hotel  La  Salle,  Chicago, 
Mrs.  Laura  G.  Dixon  voiced  a  vigorous 
protest  against  man's  monopoly  of 
the  Bible.  Among  other  startling,  not 
to  say  flippant  and  blasphemous  re- 
marks, we  read  the  following:  "Man 
has  usurped  almost  everything  in 
religion  as.  well  as  everything  else. 
In  the  Bible  that  we  know,  God  is 
represented   as   a   man,    Christ   as   a 

man,  the  apostles  as  men,  and  the 
angels  in  heaven  as  men.  The  Bible 
commands:  'Women  obey  your  hus- 
bands.' (Aye,  there's  the  rub.)  Suffra- 
gists can  not  accept  the  Bible  literally 
as  a  divine  inspiration.  The  Bible 
needs  revision.    It  is  not  up  to  date." 

We  have  of  late  grown  accustomed 
to  all  kinds  of  silly  protests  and  sense- 
less statements  from  advocates  of  the 
feminist  movement,  but  we  were 
wholly  unprepared  for  anything  so 
nonsensical  as  Mrs.  Dixon's  irrational 
demand  for  revision  of  the  Bible  on 
the  ground  that  it  does  not  square 
with  her  own  extravagant  notions  of 
woman's  rights  and  position  in  society. 
Indeed,  so  absurd  are  her  utterances 
that  we  should  not  have  taken  any 
notice  of  them  were  it  not  for  the  fact 
that  they  were  accepted  without  a 
word  of  protest  from  here  enlightened 
auditory,  made  up  presumably  of 
society  women.  We  have  long  had  a 
lurking  suspicion  that  the  suffragist 
movement  is  but  an  outgrowth  of 
Socialism.  Declarations  such  as  Mrs. 
Dixon's  would  without  doubt  do  honor 
to  the  most  rampant  Socialist.  What 
right  have  American  suffragists  to 
pride  themselves  on  their  moderation 
and  criticize  the  militant  tactics  of 
their  English  sisters  if  they  themselves 
are  so  lamentably  lacking  in  self- 

Catholic  women  would  do  well  to 
keep  aloof  from  political  organizations 
such  as  the  Woman's  Party  until  they 
have  studied  the  character  of  these 
societies.  If  women  think  they  must 
have  the  ballot  in  order  to  safeguard 
their  newly  acquired  independence 
and  freedom  for  self-development,  let 
them  by  all  means  preserve  their  good 
sense  lest  they  expose  themselves  and 
their  cause  to  ridicule  and  contempt. 
But  before  they  decide  to  enter  the 
arena  of  politics,  let  them  ponder  well 
these  words  from  Senator  Bailey's 
valedictory  to  the  Senate:  "There 
is  not  a  southern  state  that  has 
adopted  woman  suffrage,  and  I  hope 



they  will  not.  I  can  not  understand 
how  a  woman  wants  to  stepdown 
from  the  high  pedestal  upon  which 
man  has  placed  her  to  mingle  in  the 
broils   and  debaucheries  of  politics." 

The  K.  of  P.  and  Divorce 

Ye  Knights  of  Pythias,  unsheathe 
your  trusty  swords  and  slay  the  hideous 
dragon  divorce! 

Joseph  M.  Omo,  grand  chancellor  of 
the  Knights  of  Pythias  in  Illinois, 
has  hit  upon  a  brand-new  plan  of 
combating  the  growing  divorce  evil, 
a  plan  which  he  believes  will  cut  in 
two  the  business  of  the  divorce  courts. 
It  is  all  so  easy  that  one  wonders  why 
the  Knights  have  not  thought  of  it 
ere  this.  All  they  have  to  do  is  to 
practice  what  they  preach — brotherly 
love.  By  helping  lodge  members  with 
friendly  advice  and  good  influences  to 
overcome  bad  habits  and  resulting 
domestic  difficulties,  the  chancellor 
thinks  that  fraternal  orders  can  pre- 
vent divorces. 

"I  believe,"  he  says,  "that  lodges 
can  exert  practically  the  same  influ- 
ence on  their  members  that  the 
Catholic  church  does  over  her  com- 
municants. Divorces  in  the  Catholic 
church  are  rare,  because  members  of 
that  church  consult  their  priests,  their 
best  friends,  before  they  take  such 
steps.  What  the  church  does  for  its 
members,  the  fraternal  orders  should 
be  able  to  do  for  their  members." 

It  is  gratifying  to  learn  that  even  a 
masonic  grand  chancellor  can  see  some 
good  in  Catholic  priests.  Yet  it  seems 
to  us  he  is  doing  them  honor  over- 
much. It  is  undoubtedly  the  duty  and 
the  practice  of  every  Catholic  priest 
to  discourage  and  condemn  divorce, 
whenever  he  is  asked  for  advice  on 
this  point.  Whether  on  this  account, 
however,  "divorces  in  the  Catholic 
church  are  rare,"  may  be  prudently 

The  reason  why  Catholics  seldom 
have  recourse  to  the  divorce  courts  to 

settle  their  marital  troubles,  is  simply 
because  they  believe  in  the  sanctity 
and  indissolubility  of  marriage.  Were 
it  not  that  Catholics  regarded  Matri- 
money  as  a  Sacrament,  divorces  might 
be  just  as  numerous  among  them  as 
among  lodge  members,  and  that  not- 
withstanding the  counsels  and  ad- 
monitions of  even  their  best  friends, 
the  priests.  Indeed,  why  should  a 
person  not  cast  off  a  yoke  that  to  him 
becomes  irksome  or  intolerable  as 
long  as  his  religious  convictions  not 
only  permit  but  even  sanction  such 
an  act?  If  he  is  not  deterred  by 
motives  of  religion,  friendly  advice 
and  good  influences  will  be  of  no 
avail.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  Mr. 
Omo  and  his  brother  knights  will  not 
have  proceeded  far  on  their  quixotic 
expedition,  before  they  realize  that 
their  efforts  at  reform,  though  in 
themselves  laudable,  must  ultimately 
prove  futile.  Nevertheless,  we  wish 
them  Godspeed.^ 

"Contemplate  our  Lord  seated  at 
the  well,  waiting  for  the  return  of  His 
disciples  with  food,  and  see  with  what 
humility  and  condescension  He  speaks 
to  that  poor  woman  of  Samaria,  and 
contemplate  His  frugality;  for  the 
disciples  were  to  return  with  food,  but 
where  was  He  to  eat  it?  At  the  side  of 
the  well,  or  by  a  stream  or  fountain, 
and  this  you  may  believe  was  His 
custom,  through  poverty  and  sim- 
plicity of  life.  He  had  no  exquisite 
dainties,  no  curious  vessels,  no  deli- 
cate wine,  but  pure  water  from  that 
fountain,  or  rivulet." — St.  Bonaven- 

"What  God  does  He  does  well;  it  is 
His  Providence  that  directs  us,  when 
it  calls  us  to  perform  a  part  on  the 
stage  of  the  world." — Chateaubriand. 

"The  duties  of  life  are  the  commands 
of  the  same  God  who  forbids  sin." 
—St.  Edmund. 



Sister  Agnes'   Sacrifice 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

THE  night  was  dark  and  cloudy; 
the  wind  was  cold,  and  a  slight 
rain  added  to  the  discomfort 
caused  by  the  unpleasant  weather. 
The  darkness  increased  as  the  night 
wore  on,  and  at  about  ten  o'clock 
the  rain  was  falling  in  torrents.  The 
street-lights  burned  dimly  and  it  was 
with  difficulty  that  one  could  distin- 
guish the  names  of  the  various  streets. 
About  this  time  an  ambulance  slowly 
rolled  up  the  gravel  road  to  the  dimly 
lighted  hospital.  Everything  was  at 
rest,  and  not  a  sound  was  to  be  heard 
save  now  and  then  the  low  whisper  of 
a  self-sacrificing  Sister,  as  she  knelt 
at  the  bedside  of  some  poor  sufferer, 
devoutly  saying  the  prayers  for  his 
departing  soul.  The  door-bell  aroused 
the  Sister  Superior  from  her  much 
needed  slumber,  and  she  hastened  to 
answer  the  summons.  The  doctor, 
who  accompanied  the  ambulance,  hav- 
ing explained  the  situation,  the  patient 
was  immediately  admitted;  and  as  no 
previous  arrangements  had  been  made, 
was  placed  in  a  well-furnished  private 

The  following  morning  the  house- 
doctor  came  a  little  earlier  than  usual 
and  was  taken  without  delay  to  ex- 
amine the  new  patient.  After  a  brief 
examination  he  turned  ghastly  pale, 
and  hastened  to  the  Superior  to  in- 
form her  that  no  one  should  be  allowed 
to  enter  the  room.  Besides  being  an 
advanced  case  of  tuberculosis,  the 
man  was  seriously  affected  with 
cholera.  The  venerable  Superior,  un- 
able herself,  on  account  of  the  duties 
of  her  office,  to  nurse  the  afflicted  man, 
assembled  all  the  Sisters  in  the  re- 
creation room  and  laid  the  matter 
before  them,  stating  the  danger  of 
contagion  and  the  necessity  of  seclu- 
sion, but  at  the  same  time  pointing  to 
the  great  reward  of  such  an  oblation. 
When  she  called  for  volunteers,  be- 

hold! every  Sister  stepped  forth. 
There  was  one,  however,  who  espe- 
cially desired  the  task,  and  in  pleading 
tones,  full  of  humility,  she  begged 
the  privilege  of  caring  for  the  un- 
fortunate sufferer,  saying  that  the 
greater  the  sacrifice  the  greater  would 
be  the  reward. 

The  humble  petitioner's  request 
was  granted.  After  kneeling  and 
begging  pardon  of  the  Sisters  for  her 
faults  and  her  bad  example,  and  re- 
questing them  not  to  forget  her  in 
their  prayers,  Sister  Agnes  directed 
her  steps  to  the  little  chapel,  there  to 
ask  her  divine  Spouse  for  strength  and 
perseverance.  She  then  withdrew, 
and  noiselessly  entering  the  room  of 
her  charge,  cast  her  eyes  upon  his 
emaciated  form.  She  understood  at 
once  that  she  had  assumed  a  heavy 
burden;  but  she  was  equal  to  the 
sacrifice.  Had  not  her  dear  Lord 
taken  upon  His  wounded  shoulders  a 
far  heavier  cross,  laden  with  her  sins 
and  the  sins  of  the  whole  world? 
And  should  she  not  rejoice  at  an  op- 
portunity of  canceling  the  debt  of 
gratitude  which  she  owed  to  Him 
who  said:  "What  you  have  done  to 
the  least  of  my  brethren,  you  have 
done  unto  Me"  ? 

The  tender  care  of  the  devoted 
Sister  soon  gained  the  heart  of  her 
patient.  Bit  by  bit  she  gleaned  his 
history;  and  only  a  few  days  passed 
before  she  had  heard  the  entire  story 
of  his  life.  What  a  sad  story  it  was! 
Born  of  good,  Catholic  parents,  evil 
companions  led  him  astray  from  the 
path  of  virtue;  a  mixed  marriage 
estranged  him  from  his  religion,  and 
the  demon  of  drink  drove  him  from 
his  wife  and  child.  Divorced  by  his 
wife  for  non-support,  he  sank  deeper 
and  deeper  into  vice,  until  at  last, 
unjustly  accused  of  murder,  he  was 
convicted     and     was     sentenced     to 



death.  "It  was  in  the  narrow  prison- 
cell,"  he  said,  "that  I  first  realized 
my  deplorable  condition.  There  I 
began  to  feel  the  stings  of  conscience, 
and  I  resolved  to  lead  a  better  life, 
should  I  escape  death  on  the  gallows. 
The  saying  that  'murder  will  out' 
was  verified  on  the  eve  of  the  day 
appointed  for  my  execution;  the  real 
murderer  gave  himself  up  to  justice. 
I  was  liberated  and  he  suffered  his 

"After  some  time  I  married  again 
- — a  kind,  noble  little  woman.  She 
was  devotion  itself.  Our  home  was 
happy  until  the  demon  of  drink  again 
seized  me.  I  frequently  remained 
away  the  entire  night;  and  though  my 
conduct  worried  my  young  wife,  she 
said  nothing,  but  remained  the  same 
tender  and  devoted  person  as  before. 
The  second  year  of  our  union  had  not 
yet  drawn  to  a  close  when  I  had  laid 
her  to  rest.  My  scandalous  life  had 
killed  her.  Since  then,  I  have  knocked 
about  here  and  there  and  everywhere. 
All  that  happened  in  those  five  years 
I  cannot  recollect.  I  know  that  I  am 
now  very  sick  and  have  not  long  to 
live.  My  death  is  not  far  away  and 
then  I  shall  burn,  burn  forever  in  the 
fire  of  hell." 

"What  makes  you  think  so?"  asked 
the  attentive  nun. 

"I  know  it;  I  am  sure  of  it,"  came 
the  reply;  "I  can  even  now  see  the 
demons  about  my  bed  ready  to  seize 

"Do  not  despair,"  she  answered, 
"God  is  good  and  merciful;  and,  if 
your  are  sorry  for  your  past  life,  He 
will  show  you  mercy." 

"Mercy!"  cried  the  sick  man,  rais- 
ing himself  up  in  bed;  "there  is  no 
mercy  for  me.  I  have  abandoned 
God;  I  have  mocked  Him  and  spent 
my  life  in  sin.  He  will  show  me  no 
mercy.    I  am  damned." 

The  good  Sister  prayed  fervently  for 
a  moment  before  she  responded. 

"Almighty  God,"  she  then  said, 
"Sent  His  divine  Son  into  the  world 

to  redeem  us  poor  sinners.  You  know 
how  He  was  scourged,  crowned  with 
thorns,  condemned  to  death  and 
crucified;  and  that  He  suffered  all  this 
for  us,  and  also  for  you.  Why,  then, 
should  you  despair?  Christ  Himself 
said:  'I  seek  not  the  death  of  the 
sinner,  but  that  he  be  converted  and 
live.'  "  And  she  reminded  him  of  the 
repentant  thief  on  the  cross ;  of  Christ 's 
prayer  for  His  enemies;  assuring  him 
that  she  would  help  him  make  an  act 
of  perfect  contrition  and  call  the 
priest  on  the  morrow.  During  the 
rest  of  the  day  she  said  but  little,  only 
requesting  him  to  say  frequently  the 
little  prayer  "My  Jesus  Mercy." 

Gradually  the  shades  of  evening 
began  to  fall,  and  as  the  night  ap- 
proached the  twinkling  stars  appeared 
in  the  heavens.  The  moon,  too,  sent 
forth  its  silvery  beams  upon  the  earth. 
One  by  one  the  hours  sped  by  till  at 
last  nature  was  wrapped  in  peaceful 
slumber.  Just  as  the  tower-clock 
began  to  toll  the  midnight  hour, 
Sister  Agnes  heard  a  strange  coughing 
of  her  patient  and  hastened  to  his 
bedside.  He  was  suffering  from  a 
severe  hemorrhage.  She  perceived  in 
a  moment  that  this  would  bring  the 
end  and  her  surmise  proved  correct. 
Once  more  she  aroused  him  to  an  act  of 
perfect  contrition.  Just  as  he  said 
"Amen,"  a  shudder  passed  over  his 
body  and  he  fell  asleep  in  death. 
Thus  he  died  resigned  and  reconciled 
with  his  God. 

His  nurse  did  not  long  survive  him. 
Worn  out  by  watching  and  fatigue,  she 
easily  became  a  prey  to  the  ravenous 
disease  with  which  she  had  lately 
been  in  contact.  She  lived  but  a  few 
weeks  and  during  that  time  she  edified 
all  by  her  heroic  patience  in  suffering 
and  by  her  fervor  in  prayer.  After 
three  weeks  of  intense  suffering,  her 
pure  soul  went  forth  to  receive  the 
superabundant  reward  of  her  sacrifice 
from  Him  who  said:  "What  you  have 
done  to  the  least  of  my  brethren,  you 
have  done  unto  Me."  — Maria. 



God  Does  Not  Think  of  Me 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

IT  was  a  cool,  foggy  morning  in  the 
season  of  autumn.  The  silvery 
sound  of  the  village  church-bell 
announced  that  Mass  would  soon  be- 
gin, and  the  call  was  not  unheeded; 
for  soon  the  little  ones  streamed  forth 
from  the  houses  with  their  schoolbooks 
under  their  arms.  Some  of  them  were 
accompanied  by  their  parents,  who 
were  accustomed  to  attend  Holy 
Mass  before  going  to  their  work,  while 
here  and  there  also  an  aged  grand- 
parent came  tottering  along. 

At  the  outskirts  of  the  village  stood 
a  small  house.  From  it  emerged  a 
boy  of  about  twelve  years.  His  coun- 
tenance was  unusually  pale  and  wore 
a  look  of  sadness.  He  cast  a  sorrowful 
glance  at  his  thin,  almost  threadbare 
coat,  then  drew  it  closer  round  his 
body  and  began  to  trot  to  the  church 
in  order  to  keep  warm,  for  it  was 
disagreeably  cold.  At  the  window  of 
the  cottage  stood  the  father  of  the 
boy.  For  a  time  he  watched  his  son 
hastening  to  the  church;  then  turning 
to  his  wife,  who  was  dressing  the 
younger  children  in  an  adjacent  room, 
he  said  in  a  vehement  tone:  "Yes, 
I  repeat  it  once  more,  I  can  no  longer 
believe  in  God's  goodness  and  justice. 
Other  people  work  but  little  and 
have  abundant  means  of  living;  and 
I  can  plague  myself  day  after  day 
the  whole  year  round,  and  still  misery 
and  want  are  continually  knocking  at 
our  door." 

"But  William,"  said  his  wife  calmly, 
"it  is  well  that  we  must  work  for  our 
living.  Those  who  have  heaven  on 
earth  will  not  easily  obtain  heaven  in 

"I  don't  want  heaven  on  earth, 
but  I  want  the  means  of  subsistence. 
Look  at  our  oldest  boy  Frank.  His 
coat  is  as  thin  as  a  spicier  web.  Have 
you  money  to  buy  him  a  new  coat? 
No;   you   spent   the   last   nickel    for 

medicine  yesterday.  My  purse  is 
empty,   although   1   toil  incessantly." 

The  mother  had  completed  the 
toilet  of  her  children  and  drew  closer 
to  her  husband  who  now  stood  staring 
out  of  the  window. 

"William,"  she  said,  "I  know  that 
times  have  never*  been  so  hard  for  us 
as  this  autumn.  But  take  courage; 
we  shall  again  see  better  days." 

"Words  alone  will  not  help  us. 
Your  sweet  talk  will  not  buy  a  coat 
for  Frank." 

"Almighty  God  will  provide  for 

"I  doubt  that,"  he  answered.  Then 
taking  his  hat  and  cane  he  walked 
toward  the  door  saying,"  You  may 
continue  to  believe  in  such  foolishness 
for  aught  I  care;  I,  for  my  part,  no 
longer  believe  there  is  a  God  who 
thinks  of  us."  Without  awaiting  an 
answer  he  hastily  left  the  room.  The 
mother  stood  at  the  window  watching 
her  husband  go  to  work;  his  last 
words  still  rung  in  her  ears  and  made 
her  feel  doubly  miserable.  Then  her 
lips  were  seen  moving  in  fervent 
prayer:  "O  my  God,"  she  sighed, 
"Thou  who  dost  clothe  the  birdlings 
with  thick  plumage  for  the  long  cold 
winter,  show  thy  mercy  and  goodness 
also  to  us ;  show  my  husband  that  Thou 
dost  think  of  us."  She  was  inter- 
rupted by  the  loud  cries  of  the  hungry 
little  ones.  She  appeased  their  hunger 
with  a  little  bread  and  then  went  to 
the  bed-side  of  her  five  year  old  son 
who  had  been  severely  suffering  from 
fever,  but  was  now  in  a  calm  sleep. 
Work  awaited  her  in  the  house  and  in 
the  yard.  She  set  about  it  courage- 
ously, knowing  that  she  would  then 
have  little  time  to  occupy  herself  with 
her  own  sad  thoughts. 

Evening  drew  near.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  little  cottage  were  in  an  unus- 
ually joyful  mood.  Charles,  a  splendid 



little  boy,  had  risen  from  his  sick  bed 
for  the  first  time  and  was  seated  near 
the  stove.  His  two  little  sisters  were 
at  his  side  evidently  delighted  at  his 
recovery  and  bestowing  their  most 
tender  care  upon  him.  Meanwhile 
Frank  was  telling  his  little  brother  a 
seemingly  very  exciting  story.  Several 
times  in  the  course  of  the  narrative 
he  pointed  to  a  package  lying  before 
them  on  the  table.  It  had  grown  dark 
and  the  room  was  lit  up  only  by  the 
flickering,  unsteady  fire  of  the  small 
stove.  The  sound  of  steps  was  heard 
and  the  children  with  one  voice  ex- 
claimed: "Father  is  coming!"  The 
moment  the  father  entered  the  room 
his  wife  also  came  in  from  the  kitchen 
holding  a  lamp  in  her  hand.  Four 
pair  of  cheerful  eyes  looked  up  to  the 
care-worn  countenance  of  the  father. 
All  day  long  while  at  work  felling  trees 
in  the  woods,  he  had  entertained 
thoughts  similar  to  those  which  he 
had  expressed  leaving  home  that 
morning.  Thus  he  had  worked  himself 
into  a  stubborn  and  unfriendly  mood. 
Even  when  turning  the  latch  of  the 
door  he  endeavored  to  put  on  a  morose 
and  sullen  mien.  But  the  moment  he 
saw  the  friendly  countenances  of  his 
children,  the  icy  crust  began  to  melt 
away.  "Up  again,  Charlie?"  he  asked 
in  a  more  pleasing  tone.  To  prove  his 
recovery  Charles  ran  across  the  room 
and  fetched  the  bootjack  while  Frank 
took  his  father's  hat  and  cane. 

"The  doctor  said  this  afternoon  that 
he  could  not  explain  Charles'  speedy 
recovery,"  asserted  the  mother.  "You 
see,  William,  she  added  quickly,  "God 
has  not   entirely  forgotten  us." 

"I  do  not  know,"  was  the  husband's 
sharp  reply.  "As  far  as  I  can  see, 
Frank  still  wears  the  threadbare  coat 
of  this  morning." 

"Yes,  but  tomorrow  the  tailor  will 
come  to  take  his  measure  for  a  new 

"The  tailor! "  And  who  will  pay  the 
tailor's  bill?  Or  is  he  going  to  make 
the  new  coat  of  paper?"  William  said 

"No,  he  will  make  it  out  of  new, 
thick,  woolen  goods.  See  here!" 
Mary  went  to  the  table  and  opened 
the  package.  William  silently  gazed 
at  the  goods;  the  children  also  gathered 
round,  felt  the  thickness  and  waited  to 
hear  what  their  father  would  say. 

"What  does  this  cost?"  he  at  last 
asked  in  a  wavering  tone. 


"Did  you  buy  it  on  credit?" 

"No;  it  is  a  present  that  Frank 
received  at  school  today." 

"A  present!     From  whom?" 

"From  God  who  does  not  forget 
the  poor  and  needy." 

Frank  was  now  called  upon  to 
narrate  the  story  which  he  had  told 
Charles  and  his  little  sisters  just 
before  the  father's  arrival.  That 
morning  the  teacher  had  entered  the 
classroom  carrying  a  large  package 
under  his  arm.  "My  dear  pupils," 
he  said,  "a  friend  of  mine,  a  rich 
merchant,  has  given  me  this  roll  of 
goods  and  wishes  me  to  present  it  to 
the  best  scholar  in  arithmetic.  I  will 
now  give  you  a  lengthy  example. 
Whoever  hands  in  the  correct  solution 
first,  wins  the  prize."  Frank's  heart 
beat  with  excitement  when  the  teacher 
had  finished  the  dictation.  In  his 
heart  he  fervently  prayed:  "0  God! 
help  me  to  win  this  prize.  My  father 
is  poor  and  can  not  buy  me  a  coat; 
and,  moreover,  he  thinks  that  you 
have  entirely  forgotten  us."  Then 
Frank  began  to  work.  He  himself  was 
astonished  at  the  rapid  progress  he 
made  in  the  solution.  Never  before 
had  he  found  an  example  so  easy. 
In  half  an  hour  he  had  filled  both  sides 
of  his  slate  with  figures  and  was  the 
first  to  hand  in  his  work.  How  his 
heart  beat  while  the  teacher  examined 
it.  He  was  in  great  suspense,  and  he 
almost  wept  for  joy  when  he  heard 
the  teacher  say:  "Frank,  you  have  won 
the  prize.  You  have  deserved  it; 
and  what  pleases  me  most,  you  can 
make  a  good  use  of  it." 

When  Frank  had  finished  his  narra- 
tive,  both  wife   and   children  looked 

(Continued  on  page  Gl) 


Golden  Jubilee  of  Father  Anselm,  O.  M.  F. 

EVERY  Catholic  heart  swells  with 
joy  when  a  newly  ordained  priest 
ascends  the  alter  to  say  his 
first  holy  mass;  for  great  are  the 
powers  conferred  upon  the  young 
levite,  and  great  and  numerous  are  the 
blessings  which  the  faithful  expect  to 
receive  from  his  anointed  hands. 
To  the  priest  our  Savior  has  committed 
His  pure  and  holly  doctrine,  the  great 
unbloody  Sacrifice  of  the  New  Law, 
the  holy  Sacraments,  in  short  all  the 
treasures  of  His  Redemption.  To  the 
priest,  therefore,  the  faithful  naturally 
look  for  help  in  every  necessity.  They 
expect  him  to  guard  the  innocent,  to 
instruct  the  ignorant,  to  cheer  the 
despondent,  to  animate  the  struggling, 
to  strengthen  the  weak,  to  rescue  the 
fallen,  and  even  to  reclaim  those  who 
have  forsaken  the  sacred  standard  of 

If  these  mere  hopes,  placed  in  a 
youthful  ambassador  of  Christ,  al- 
ready cause  such  uncommon  re- 
joicing, what  sentiments  of  joyful 
gratitude  must  fill  every  Catholic 
heart,  when  beholding  a  venerable 
priest  who,  having  grown  hoary  in  the 
service  of  his  divine  Master,  has  real- 
ized during  fifty  years  even  the  most 
sanguine  hopes,  placed  in  him  at  the 
outset  of  his  sacred  ministry. 

It  was,  therefore,  quite  a  natural 
tribute  of  veneration  and  love  for  the 
holy  priesthood,  when  on  last  St. 
Stephen's  day  the  good  people  of  St. 
John's  parish  in  Joliet,  111.,  together 
with  their  esteemed  pastor,  Rev. 
Daniel  Finkenhoefer,  O.  F.  M.,  made 
every  effort  to  appropriately  celebrate 
the  golden  jubilee  of  Rev.  Anselm 
Mueller,  the  senior  father  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan Province  of  the  Sacred  Heart. 
At  nine  o'clock  the  venerable  jubi- 
larian,  still  in  the  full  vigor  of  health 
notwithstanding  his  74  years,  was 
escorted  to  the  profusely  decorated 
church,  where  he  celebrated  a  solemn 
highmass  of  thanksgiving.      He  was 

assisted  by  the  Rev.  Father  Francis 
Albers  as  assistant-priest,  his  former 
pupils  the  Rev.  Fathers  Roger  Mid- 
dendorf  and  Martin  Strub  acting  as 
deacon  and  subdeacon,  and  the  Rev. 
Fortunate  Hauser,  the  present  rector 
of  St.  Francis  College,  as  master  of 
ceremonies.  A  most  eloquent  sermon 
was  delivered  by  the  Very  Rev.  Pro- 
vincial Benedict  Schmidt,  0.  F.  M., 
who  paid  a  hearty  tribute  of  gratitude 
to  the  venerable  jubilarian  for  the  life- 
long and  faithful  srevices,  rendered  to 
the  Sacred  Heart  Province  and  to  the 
Franciscan  Order  at  large.  The 
speaker  emphasized  the  singular  quali- 
fications, labor,  and  merits  of  Father 
Anselm  as  an  educator  of  youth  during 
his  long  rectorship  at  St.  Francis 
Solanus  College,  Quincy,  111.  In 
glowing  terms  he  told  the  large  and 
spell-bound  audience  how  the  Rev. 
Jubilarian  had  always  put  into  prac- 
tice the  maxims  of  education,  that 
Christ  himself  taught  by  word  and 
example.  Father  Anselm,  continued 
the  speaker,  had  ever  been  intent  not 
only  on  instructing  the  minds,  but 
about  all  on  cultivating  the  hearts  of 
the  pupils  by  instilling  into  them 
devotedness  to  duty,  love  and  respect 
for  authority,  and  a  genuine  spirit  of 
self-restraint  and  self-denial. 

After  the  services  in  church,  at 
which  were  present  the  local  clergy, 
the  venerable  definitory  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province,  the  Rt.  Rev.  Monsig- 
nor  Heer  of  Dubuque,  several  Fran- 
ciscan Fathers  of  Chicago,  and  a 
number  of  former  Quincy  students, 
dinner  was  served  to  the  Rev.  guests 
in  the  monastery.  Afterwards  the 
children  of  St.  John's  parish  invited 
the  clergy  to  the  school-hall  and  there, 
under  the  direction  of  the  Franciscan 
Sisters  and  Professor  Aloisius  Rager, 
they  rendered  an  appropriate  pro- 
gram. In  conclusion  the  Rev.  Jubi- 
larian made  a  short  address  thanking 
all  present  who  had  come  to  help  him 



give  thanks  to  the  Almighty  for  all 
the  favors  of  half  a  century. 

Rev.  Father  Anselm  Mueller  cer- 
tainly has  the  good  wishes  of  many 
hundreds  of  his  former  students  who, 
though  unable  to  be  with  him  on  this 
festive  occasion,  united  their  most 
fervent  prayers  in  behalf  of  their  kind 
father  and  former  rector. 

The  Franciscan  Herald  takes  plea- 
sure in  extending  its  sincerest  congrat- 
ulations to  the  venerable  jubilarian 
and  hopes  that  after  a  long  and  bright 
evening  of  life  the  words  of  Scripture 
will  be  verified :  "They  that  are  learned 
shall  shine  as  the  brightness  of  the 
firmament;     and    they    that    instruct 

many    to    justice,    as    stars    for    all 
eternity. ' ' — Dan .  12:3. 

Fr.  R.  M.,  0.  F.  M. 


(Continued  from  page  59) 

at  the  father  full  of  expectation.  Mary 
discovered  a  tear  glittering  in  his 
eyes;  and  he  was  indeed  moved.  He 
apologized  to  his  loving  wife  and 
children;  in  his  heart  he  asked  God 
for  pardon  and  forgiveness  and  said 
with  a  soft  voice:  "Mary,  you  were 
right,  I  again  believe  that  there  is  a 
God  who  thinks  of  us  and  cares  for  us." 
J.  F.,  O.  F.  M. 

Franciscan  News 

Rome. — (Correspondence.)  On  No- 
vember 17th  His  Holiness  Pope  Pius 
X.  appointed  His  Eminence  Cardinal 
Diomede  Falconio,  0.  F.  M.,  late 
Delegate  Apostolic  to  the  United 
States,  Protector  of  the  Sisters  of  the 
Third  Order  Regular  of  St.  Francis. 
The  motherhouse  of  the  Congregation 
is  at  Allegany,  N.  Y. 

The  Prefecture  Apostolic  of  Tri- 
poli, North  Africa,  has  been  raised  to 
the  rank  of  a  Vicariate  Apostolic  by 
the  Sacred  Congreagtion  of  the  Pro- 
paganda Fide,  making  the  present 
prefect,  Father  Bonaventure  Rossetti, 
().  F.  M.,  a  Titular  Bishop. 

The  Sacred  Congregation  of  Rites 
presided  over  by  Cardinal  Vincent 
Vanutelli  lately  had  a  meeting  to 
examine  the  two  miracles  attributed  to 
Bl.  Theophile  a  Curte,  0.  F.  M.,  whose 
canonization  is  expected  to  take  place 

Cardinal  Ferrata  has  been  appointed 
by  His  Holiness  Apostolic  legate  to 
the  next  Eucharistic  Congress  to  be 
held  on  the  island  of  Malta — the 
Mediterranean.  The  little  island 
famous  for  its  heroic  resistance  against 
the  attacks  of  the  Mohammedans,  in 
the  middle  ages,  is  entirely  Catholic. 

The  Holy  Land.— Many  interesting 
discoveries  have  been  made  during  the 
excavations  which  are  being  made  at 
Nazareth  under  the  direction  of  Fr. 
Prosper,  O.  F.  M.  The  outlines  of  an 
old  church  of  the  Crusaders  have  al- 
ready been  laid  bare.  During  the 
course  of  the  excavations  wonderful 
mosaics,  ancient  Roman  coins,  beauti- 
ful pillars,  many  tools,  and  ornaments 
have  been  brought  to  light.  The 
church  of  the  Crusaders  will  be  re- 
built in  its  primitive  shape. 

One  of  the  objects  of  interest  at 
Nazareth  is  the  workshop  of  St.  Joseph, 
situated  in  the  northeastern  part  of 
the  Franciscan  monastery.  In  1853  a 
small  chapel  was  erected  to  mark  the 
spot.  Lately,  however,  the  well- 
preserved  foundations  of  a  church 
which  was  built  at  the  time  of  the 
Crusades  have  been  discovered  nearby, 
and,  according  to  an  old  tradition, 
the  exact  place  of  St.  Joseph's  work- 
shop is  supposed  to  have  been  found. 

Tripoli. — The  Vicar  Apostolic  of 
Tripoli  has  communicated  the  follow- 
ing notes  regarding  the  Franciscan 
missions  in  his  Prefecture: 

The  Prefecture  Apostolic  of  Tripoli 
was  erected  in  1643;  but  it  is  probable 
that  the  Friars  came  to  Tripoli  long 
before  1600,  both  from  Morocco,  on 
the  west,  by  way  of  Algiers  and  Tunis, 
and  from  Egypt,  on  the  east,  by  way 
of  Marmarica  and  Cyrenaica. 

The  mission  was  irrigated  almost 
immediately  after  its  foundation  by 
the  blood  of  the  venerable  John  the 
Baptist  from  Piedmont.  His  heart 
was  crushed  at  the  prow  of  a  vessel 
and  his  body  burned  on  the  sea  shore. 

The  first  work  of  the  Friars  was  to 
help  the  Christians  who  had  been  made 
slaves  by  the  pirates,  who  at  that  time 
dominated  the  Mediterranean.  The 
Friars  were  protected  in  their  missions 
by  the  Powers  who  had  imposed  them 
upon  the  Turks  and  Barbarians  after 
the  battle  of  Lepanto  (1571).  It  was 
an  epoch  of  hidden  martyrdoms. 

In  1802  the  Friars  opened  up  the 
first  school  at  Tripoli  and  another 
about  1850  at  Bengasi.  In  1901  a 
mission  together  with  a  school  was 
begun  at  Derna.  At  this  place  Turkish 
ferocity  gave  us  a  new  martyr  in  Fr. 



Justin  Pancini,  whose  throat  was  cut 
while  asleep  during  the  night  of  the 
23rd  of  March,  1908;  he  was  found 
bleeding  to  death  from  a  hundred  or 
more  knife  wounds  on  his  body;  he 
died  almost  immediately  without  being 
able  to  utter  a  word.  In  school  the 
Italian,  French,  English  and  Turkish 
languages  are  taught. 

There  are  churches  at  Tripoli,  Derna, 
Horns  and  Bengasi.  The  work  of  the 
Friars  always  was  the  preservation  of 
the  faith  in  the  Christians  who  came 
to  Tripoli  in  quest  of  commerce  or 
work.  It  was  impossible  to  make  any 
propaganda  among  the  natives  on 
account  of  the  hostility  of  the  Turk's 
and  the  passive  indolence  of  the 
Arabs,  who  do  not  allow  any  other 
than  the  Mohammedan  religion  to  be 
spoken  of.  The  same  condition  prevails 
in  all  Moslem  settlements. 

After  the  occupation  of  Tripoli  by 
Italy  there  is  some  hope  for  improve- 
ment in  the  instruction  which  will 
be  imparted  to  the  Arabs.  But  much 
time  will  be  necessary.  When  dis- 
cussion of  religion  will  be  allowed  it  is 
to  be  hoped  that  some  Arabs  will  feel 
the  necessity  of  probing  the  motives 
of  their  faith  and  of  changing  their 
religion.  Until  then  nothing  can  be 

China. — The  latest  reports  from  the 
Vicariate  North  Shantung  are  very 
favorable.  The  missionary  work  is 
successfully  carried  on  by  28  European 
Franciscan  Friars,  23  native  priests, 
5  lay-brothers,  8  sisters,  161  teachers, 
and  291  catechists.  There  are  31,619 
Catholics  and  20,131  Catechumens  in 
the  Vicariate;  the  106  elementary 
schools  are  attended  by  2,182  pupils, 
while  290  scholars  visit  the  27  high 
schools.  At  the  two  seminaries  51 
young  men  are  studying  for  the  holy 

Philippine  Islands. — Before  the  war 
between  the  United  States  and  Spain, 
in  1898,  more  than  four  hundred 
Franciscan  Friars  had  charge  of  163 
parishes  and  17  missions  with  about 

1,250,000  Catholics.  On  account  of 
religious  intolerance  on  the  part  of 
the  United  States,  most  of  the  Friars 
were  forced  to  abandon  their  field  of 
labor,  going  to  Spain  and  South 
America.  Soon,  however,  the  attitude 
of  the  government  changed  for  the 
better,  so  that  at  present  86  Friars 
are  again  laboring  among  the  Philip- 
pines. In  the  dioceses  of  Manila, 
Lipa,  Nueve  Caceres  and  Samar  y 
Leyte  the  Catholics  under  the  charge 
of  the  Friars  number  204,225.  The 
statistics  of  the  different  parishes  show 
how  great  the  derth  of  priests  is  in  the 
Philippine  Islands.  Thus  in  the  35 
parishes  which  the  Friars  have  in  the 
dioceses  of  Nueva  Caceres  and  Samar 
y  Leyte  each  Father  has  the  care  of 
five  to  eight  thousand  souls;  in  the 
former  diocese  there  are  81,000  Catho- 
lics and  only  12  Friars,  in  the  latter 
196,000  faithful  and  but  34  Friars.— 
May  God  bless  their  heroic  efforts. 

Caroline  and  Marian  Islands. — Fr. 

Salvator  Walleser,  O.  M.  Cap.,  from 
the  Caroline  and  Marian  Islands  was 
consecrated  bishop  at  Koenigshafen, 
Germany,  on  December  22.  It  is  only 
two  years  since  some  German  Ca- 
puchins left  their  monastery  at  Koe- 
nigshafen to  take  charge  of  the  missions 
of  the  far  islands  of  the  southern  seas. 
Last  August  the  mission  was  exalted 
to  an  Apostolic  Vicariate  and  Fr. 
Salvator  was  chosen  Vicar  Apostolic. 
The  newly-consecrated  bishop  goes  to 
take  charge  of  one  of  the  largest  dio- 
ceses in  the  world.  It  takes  a  modern 
steamer  fifteen  days  to  make  the  round 
of  the  diocese,  which  consists  of  many 
small  islands,  so  scattered  that  they 
are  within  some  days  of  each  other, 
lying  in  groups  in  the  ocean. 

Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church- 
On  the  third  Sunday  in  December,  83 
Novices  made  their  profession  in  the 
Third  Order.  The  Superior,  Rev. 
Fr.  Henry,  O.  F.  M.,  assisted  by  Rev. 
Fr.  Alexis,  O.  F.  M.  as  deacon,  and 
Rev.  Fr.  Peter  Baptist,  O.  F.  M.,  as 
subdeacon,  conducted  the  solemn  ser- 



vices.  He  preached  on  the  necessity 
of  penance  for  all  Christians,  but  es- 
pecially for  Tertiaries,  whose  Order  is 
called  by  St.  Francis  the  Order  of 
Penance.  After  the  sermon  the  Novices 
came  to  the  communion  rail,  where 
each  individually  pronounced  the 
words  of  the  Profession.  It  was  very 
edifying  to  behold  such  a  large  number 
of  Tertiary  Novices,  who  were  all 
anxious  to  consecrate  themselves  to 
God  in  the  Third  Order.  May  the 
Almighty  grant  them  all  the  grace  of 
perseverance ! 

During  the  year  1912  the  English 
branch  received  190  Novices,  whilst 
170  completed  their  year  of  probation 
and  made  their  Profession;  54  have 
been  called  by  God  to  their  eternal 

The  library,  which  is  open  for  the 
Tertiaries  every  third  Sunday  after- 
noon until  6  o'clock,  was  well  patron- 
ized; 1650  books  were  taken  out  during 
the  past  year. 

St.  Augustine's  Church. — A  mission 
in  a  State  Penitentiary  is  indeed  a 
remarkable  event.  Such  a  mission  was 
held  November  20-26  by  Fathers 
Francis  Haase,  O.  F.  M.,  and  Titus 
Hugger,  O.  F.  M.,  in  the  State  Peni- 
tentiary at  Michigan  City,  Ind.  The 
missionaries  report  that  the  services 
were  attended  with  great  zeal  and  in- 
terest by  the  two  hundred  Catholic 
prisoners.  On  the  25th  all  went  to  con- 
fession and  on  the  following  day  to 
holy  communion.  At  the  close  of 
the  mission  all  were  enrolled  in  the 
Confraternity  of  the  Scapular;  they 
also  renewed  their  baptismal  vows  and 
received  the  Papal  blessing.  The 
mission  was  a  preparation  for  death 
for  one  of  the  prisoners  who  will  be 
executed  this  month. 

St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St.  Antony's  Church. 
— During  the  past  year  182  new  mem- 
bers were  received  into  the  Third 
Order — 154  into  the  English  branch 
and  28  into  the  German.  203  were 
admitted     to     holy     profession,    viz.: 

162  English-  and  41  German-speaking 

The  Tertiaries,  having  been  told 
of  the  need  of  the  poor  Indians,  re- 
sponded generously.  Besides  many 
articles,  they  also  contributed  over 
$200  in  money  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Indian  missions. 

Dubuque,  la. — A  new  branch  of  the 
Third  Order  was  established  December 
8  by  Fr.  Jasper  Thoenessen,  O.  F.  M., 
at  St.  Francis  Home,  Dubuque,  la. 
Fifteen  men  and  thirteen  women 
entered  the  Novitiate.  This  is  surely 
a  satisfactory  beginning.  May  God 
prosper  the  new  congregation! 

Milwaukee,  Wis. — Three  priests  of 
the  Archdiocese  of  Milwaukee,  Wis., 
celebrated  their  twenty-fifty  anniver- 
sary as  members  of  the  Third  Order 
December  29;  they  are  the  Rev. 
Fathers  H.  Ries,  professor  at  St. 
Francis  Seminary,  M.  Gerend,  rector 
of  the  Catholic  Deaf-mute  Institute 
at  St.  Francis,  and  A.  Rossbach, 
chaplain  at  the  convent  of  the  Sisters 
of  Notre  Dame  at  Milwaukee.  The 
members  of  the  Third  Order  went  to 
holy  communion  in  a  body  during  a 
solemn  highmass  at  ten  o'clock.  Rt. 
Rev.  Koudelka,  Coadjutor  Bishop 
of  Milwaukee  preached  on  the  occa- 
sion. In  the  evening  the  men  of  the 
Third  Order  produced  the  drama 
"St.  Francis  of  Assisi"  in  the  parish 
hall  of  St.  Francis  parish.  St.  Francis 
parish  is  in  charge  of  the  Capuchin 

A"shland,  Wis. — The  new  monastery 
of  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  St. 
Agnes  church  was  solemnly  blessed  by 
the  Very  Rev.  Fr.  Provincial,  assisted 
by  the  Rev.  Fathers  Bernarclin  Weis, 
O.  F.  M.,  and  Fabian  Rechtiene,  O. 
F.  M. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — The  following 
report  from  the  San  Francisco  branch 
of  the  Third  Order  will  doubtless  prove 
interesting  as  well  as  suggestive  to 
many  other  branches  of  Tertiaries  in 
the  Sacred  Heart  Province: 



Paid   out  in   charities    (since 

July  12,  1911) $1299.00 

Miscellaneous  expenses 327.95 

Visits  made  to  the  sick 165 

Miscellaneous   good   works 
(Records  kept  since  August 

1912) 25 

Various  acts  of  charity 40 

Attendance   of   councilors   at 

wakes  and  funerals 54 

New  members  received 351 

Novices  professed 169 

Members  deceased 13 

Pieces  of  literature  distributed 
(since  Oct.  1912)  approx- 
imately   250 

Pieces  of  clothing  distributed 
(since  Oct.  1912)  approx- 
imately   25 

The  " councilors"  mentioned  in  the 
foregoing  report  form  a  peculiar  feature 
of  this  branch  of  the  Third  Order. 
Though  the  progress  in  the  way  of 
membership  and  the  number  of  char- 
ities performed  by  individual  members 
had  been  highly  satisfactory,  the  pre- 
sent Rev.  Director,  Fr.  Josaphat 
Kraus,  O.  F.  M.,  felt  that  much  more 
could  be  accomplished  by  a  closer 
union  and  cooperation  of  the  members. 
For  this  reason  he  organized  the 
prefects  and  other  officers,  besides 
some  specially  appointed  members, 
numbering  in  all  about  fifty,  into  a 
board  of  councilors,  which  held  its 
first  meeting  July  12,  1911.  The  mem- 
bers of  this  body,  which  meets  monthly 
on  the  Wednesday  before  the  first 
Sunday  of  the  month,  have  the 
various  districts  of  the  city  parceled 
out  among  themselves.  Upon  learning 
of  the  death,  illness,  or  distress  of  any 
of  the  members,  or  of  any  other  cause 
worthy  of  charity,  the  councilors  of  the 
respective  district  render  immediate 
aid  if  necessary  and  report  the  matter 
to  the  Rev.  Director,  who  in  turn 
takes  whatever  action  the  case  sug- 

In  the  past  year  the  practice  was 
introduced  of  going  to  Communion 
monthly    in    a  body.        The  branch 

contains  approximately  1200  members, 
including  many  young  persons  between 
the  ages  of  fifteen  and  thirty  years; 
and  though  they  are  scattered  to  a 
great  extent  in  the  outlying  districts, 
about  forty  per  cent  is  in  attendance 
at  the  monthly  Communion.  And  a 
most  edifying  sight  it  is  to  behold  so 
large  a  body  of  Tertiaries  with  their 
crucifixes  on  their  breast  approach  the 
table  of  the  Lord. 

Los  Angeles,  Cal. — Lompoc,  near 
Santa  Barbara,  California,  was  lately 
the  scene  of  a  unique  ceremony.  A 
massive  cross  of  concrete,  twenty  feet 
high,  erected  at  Mission  Purisima 
Conception,  was  solemnly  blessed  by 
Bishop  Conaty  of  Monterey.  The 
cross  is  a  public  monument  by  the 
citizens  of  Lompoc  to  the  memory  of 
the  Franciscan  pioneers.  A  public 
procession  to  the  site  was  followed 
by  solemn  highmass,  after  which  came 
the  ceremonies  of  dedication.  The 
mass  was  sung  by  a  large  volunteer 
choir,  composed,  almost  to  a  man, -of 
non-Catholics.  Californians,  regardless 
of  creed,  are  proud  of  their  padres,  and 
the  speakers  on  this  occasion  were 
lavish  in  their  praises  of  the  old 
missioners  and  their  noble  work.  One 
of  the  speakers,  Senator  Campbell  of 
San  Luis  Obispo  referred  to  the  spot 
as  one  made  holy  by  the  tread  of  the 
sandeled  feet  of  the  Franciscan  friars. 
He  spoke  of  the  obligations  that 
America  is  under  to  the  order  of  St. 
Francis;  for  to  it  belonged  Juan 
Perez  who  advised  Queen  Isabella  to 
assist  Columbus;  Isabella  and  Colum- 
bus were  Tertiaries.  He  pointed  out 
that  the  successful  settlement  of 
California  is  due  to  friars  Junipero 
Serra,  Palou,  Nerger,  and  Crespi. 

The  great  cross  will  be  a  continuous 
reminder  to  the  public  of  the  saintly 
missioners;  it  is  so  placed  as  to  over- 
look the  Lompoc  valley,  and  forms  the 
nucleus  of  a  city  park. 

Santa  Barbara,  Cal. — Brother  Hugo- 
linus,  "the  good  old  brother,"  as  he 
was  called  by  every  one  that  had  met 



him,  died  at  the  Old  Mission,  Sunday, 
January  5.  His  death  withdraws  from 
the  Mission  one  of  the  most  pictur- 
esque and  beloved  friars  since  the  time 
of  the  old  Padres. 

It  was  on  Christmas  day,  1868,  that 
Brother  Hugolinus  joined  the  Fran- 
ciscan Order  as  a  tertiary  at  Teuto- 
polis,  111.  Having  successfully  com- 
pleted the  years  of  his  probation,  he 
took  his  final  vows  on  January  10, 
1875.  In  1885  he  was  sent  to  Santa 
Barbara,  and  thenceforth  the  Old 
Mission  became  and  remained  the 
field  of  his  labor  until  death  summoned 
him  to  his  reward.  Manifold  were  the 
occupations  in  which  his  superiors 
employed  him,  chiefly  as  carpenter  and 
guide  for  the  numerous  visitors.  His 
gentleness  and  childlike  simplicity 
won  him  the  hearts  not  only  of  his 
brethren  in  religion  but  of  all  who  had 
the  pleasure  of  meeting  him,  in  short 
to  know  Brother  Hugolinus  was  to 
love  him.  He  died  as  he  lived — a  true 
son  of  the  humble  Saint  of  Assisi. 
After  a  long  and  lingering  sickness  he 
welcomed  death  as  a  messenger  from 
on  high,  who  was  to  conduct  him  to 
his  eternal  reward.     R.  I.  P. 

Tucson,  Arizona. — December  5  a 
meeting  was  held  at  the  Indian  village 
of  Juejo  under  the  superintendency  of 
Mr.  Frank  A.  Thackery,  Superinten- 
dent of  the  Gila  River  Indian  Reserva- 
tion, in  order  to  finish  negotiations  with 
the  Indians  concerning  the  acquisition 
by  the  Roman  Catholic  Mission  of 
five  acres  of  land  to  be  used  for  Mission 
purposes.  The  Indians,  desirous  of 
doing  all  in  their  power  to  assist  the 
cause  of  our  holy  religion,  were  most 
willing  to  make  the  donation.  They 
have  volunteered  to  do  all  the  work 
they  can  gratis,  and  have  already  made 
three  thousand  adobes  (bricks  baked 
in  the  sun.)  , 

During  the  month  of  December  the 
Mormons  made  another  attempt  to 
found  a  mission  in  the  Quijotoa  Valley. 
For  this  purpose  and  also  to  look 
after  his  cattle  interests,  Mr.  Encar- 

nacion  Valenzuela,  a  Mexican  Papago 
Indian  and  minister  of  the  Mormon 
church,  made  a  trip  into  the  valley. 
He  considered  the  great  plain  at  the 
foot  of  the  rugged  Ben  Nevis  most 
adapted  for  the  foundation  of  a  mis- 
sion, school  and  church.  But  lo,  and 
behold !  when  he  asked  the  Indians  for 
their  consent,  he  was  told  to  build  the 
church  on  the  inaccessible  summit  of 
the  neighboring  mountain.  These 
same  people  have  built  four  neat 
chapels  for  themselves.  These  are, 
indeed,  entirely  inadequate  for  mis- 
sionary purposes,  yet  they  testify  to 
the  good  will  of  the  people. 

At  his  last  visit  the  Very  Rev. 
Provincial  appointed  Fr.  Tiburtius 
Wand,  0.  F.  M.,  or  Fr.  Juan  as  the 
Indians  call  him,  to  minister  to  the 
numerous  inhabitants  of  the  Quijotoa 
Valley.  Our  Papagos  will  not  tell 
"Fr.  Juan"  to  build  his  mission  on 
mountain  tops. 

"Oh,  how  displeasing  are  rash  judg- 
ments to  God!  The  judgments  of  the 
children  of  men  are  rash,  because  they 
are  not  the  judges  of  one  another,  and 
therefore  usurp  to  themselves  the 
office  of  the  Lord.  They  are  rash, 
because  the  principal  malice  of  sin 
depends  on  the  intention  of  the 
heart,  which  is  an  impenetrable  secret 
to  us.  They  are  not  only  rash,  but  also 
impertinent,  because  everyone  has 
enough  to  do  to  judge  himself  without 
taking  upon  himself  to  judge  his 
neighbor." — St.  Francis  de  Sales. 

"Do  not  look  at  life's  long  sorrow; 

See  how  small  each  moments  pain; 
God  will  help  thee  for  tomorrow, 

So  each  day  begin  again. 

"Every  day  that  flits  so  slowly 
Has  some  task  to  do  or  bear; 

Luminous  the  crown  and  holy, 

If  thou  set  each  gem  with  care." 
— Adelaide  Anne  Proctor. 

"  Do  you  wish  never  to  be  sad?  Then 
live  rightly." — St.  Isidore. 



Notes  from  St.  Joseph's  College 

THE  month  of  December  brought 
many  deviations  from  the  or- 
dinary routine  of  college  life. 
Beguiled  by  special  religious  solemn- 
ities, the  English  literary  contests,  the 
Christmas  festivities  and  the  annual 
retreat,  the  last  month  of  the  year  took 
flight  on  rapid  wings. 

On  December  8,  sixteen  boys  were 
admitted  into  the  sodality  of  the 
Blessed  Virgin  by  the  Rev.  Director 
Fr.  Ferdinand  Gruen;  and  on  this  oc- 
casion new  badges  were  worn  by  all 
the  sodalists,  who  evidently  glory  in 
being  enrolled  among  the  clients  of 
the  Immaculate  Mother. 

December  19  was  a  day  to  which  all 
had  looked  forward  with  eager  expec- 
tation; for  it  was  on  this  day  that  the 
complete  reports  of  the  literary  con- 
tests were  to  be  made  public.  These 
contests  in  English  essay-writing  and 
elocution,  which  had  been  announced 
in  the  beginning  of  October,  were  held 
on  November  30.  The  written  work 
was  then  submitted  to  three  judges, 
and  on  the  evening  of  December 
19,  when  all  the  students  together  with 
the  Rev.  Faculty  assembled  in  the 
college  hall,  the  prize  essays  were 
read.  After  a  few  words  of  praise  and 
encouragement,  Fr.  Rector  announced 
the  predicates  of  all  the  most  successful 
contestants  and  presented  handsome 
books  to  the  winners  of  the  contest. 
Sigismund  Bayfus  of  the  Second 
Collegiate  Class  received  "Father 
Ryan's  Poems"  as  the  prize  for  his 
essay:  "Eloquence  a  Worthy  Object 
of  a  Student's  Ambition."  Next  in 
merit  were  Antony  Sloch  and  Frank 
Pazdzierski.  Of  the  First  Collegiate 
Class  Joseph  Kola  carried  off  the  palm, 
his  subject  being  "A  Study  of  Than- 
atopsis."  Second  honors  were  accorded 
Joseph  Johantges  and  Lawrence  Von 
der  Haar.  The  prize  of  Fourth 
Academic  went  to  Joseph  Hermes  for 
an  amplified  prose  rendition  of  T.  A. 
Daly's  "Da  Leetla  Boy;"  whilst  Leo 

Seibert  and  Aurelius  Brumleve  took 
second  place.  Of  the  Third  Academic 
Class  the  best  prose  descripion  of 
"Horatius  at  the  Bridge"  was  given 
by  Ray  Duling,  who  was  closely  fol- 
lowed by  Mathias  Schneiders  and  by 
Henry  Wellner.  Of  the  Juniors  Justin 
Diederich  won  the  first  prize  in  elo- 
cution, John  Torczon  and  Antony 
Kriech  deserving  next  honors. 

Christmas  Day  whose  peculiar  charm 
ever  captivates  the  hearts  of  all 
Christians  has  a  special  attraction 
in  every  Franciscan  church.  The 
visiting  relatives  of  our  boys  experi- 
enced this  same  charm  in  our  college 
chapel.  A  solemn  midnight  Mass,  a 
High  Mass  at  8:30,  and  the  solemn 
Compline  towards  evening,  all  en- 
hanced by  the  singing  of  the  college 
choir  under  the  able  direction  of  Fr. 
Charles  Schlueter,  constituted  the 
religious  part  of  the  Christmas  fes- 
tivities. In  the  evening  the  boys  and 
visitors  gathered  around  a  Christmas 
tree  and  amid  songs  and  innocent 
merry-making  spent  a  most  joyful 
evening.  On  St.  Stephen's  day  the 
students  presented  the  drama  "The 
Malediction."  The  college  hall  was 
crowded  with  friends  of  the  institu- 
tion, and  this  evidently  animated  the 
boys  to  show  their  very  best  abilities. 
Between  the  acts  the  college  orchestra 
rendered:  Lustspiel,  Souviens-Toi,  Bar- 
carolle, and  Don  Caesar  March.  On 
the  other  evenings  short  comedies  were 
played  for  the  amusement  of  the 

But  Christmas  clay  had  also  a  tinge 
of  sorrow  for  our  students.  Charles 
Frank  was  called  home  to  the  bed-side 
of  his  dying  mother.  The  bereaved 
family  of  Mr.  C.  Frank  of  Chicago  has 
our  sincerest  sympathy,  together  with 
the  assurance  of  our  prayers  for  the 

The  students  concluded  the  old  year 
by  making  their  annual  retreat.  The 
retreat-master  was  Fr.  Philip  Marke 


O.  F.  M.,  of  Dubuque.  Even  the  small- 
est boys  followed  his  interesting  dis- 
courses with  unabating  interest.  All 
the  boys  appeared  extremely  happy 
on  New  Year's  morning,  when  the 
spiritual  exercises  came  to  a  close. 

The  Tertiaries  of  our  college  mani- 
fest great  interest  in  the  Franciscan 
Herald  and  in  the  Indian  Missions. 
Several  of  them  collected  no  less  than 
ten  dollars  for  the  missions,  which  is 
quite  a  large  sum  for  college  boys. 

Fr.  R.  M.,  O.  F.  M. 

The  Value  of 'Letting  Go" 

One  of  the  most  practical  and  abso- 
lutely truthful  bits  of  philosophy  that 
have  appeared  in  a  long  time  was 
recently  published  in  "Medical  Talk," 
on  the  wisdom  of  "letting  go."  Says 
the  writer: 

If  you  want  to  be  healthy  morally, 
mentally,  and  physically,  just  let  go. 

That  little  hurt  that  you  got  from  a 
friend,  perhaps  it  wasn't  intended, 
perhaps  it  was,  but  never  mind,  let  it 
go.   Refuse  to  think  about  it. 

Let  go  of  that  feeling  of  hatred  you 
have  for  another,  the  jealousy,  the 
envy,  the  malice — let  go  all  such 
thoughts.  Sweep  them  out  of  your 
mind,  and  you  will  be  surprised  what  a 
cleaning  up  and  rejuvenating  effect 
it  will  have  upon  you,  both  physically 
and  mentally.  Let  them  all  go; 
you  house  them  at  deadly  risk. 

But  the  big  troubles,  the  bitter 
disappointments,  the  deep  wrongs  and 
heart-breaking  sorrows,  the  tragedies 
of  life — what  about  them?  Why,  just 
let  them  go,  too.  Drop  them  softly, 
maybe,  but  surely.  Put  away  all 
regret  and  bitterness,  and  let  sorrow 
be  only  a  softening  influence.  Yes,  let 
them  go,  too,  and  make  the  most  of 
the  future. 

Then  that  little  pet  ailment  that 
you  have  been  hanging  on  to  and  talk- 
ing about,  let  it  go.  It  will  be  a  good 
riddance.  You  have  treated  it  royally, 
but  abandon  it;  let  it  go.  Talk  about 
health,  instead,  and  health  will  come. 

Quit  nursing  that  pet  ailment,  and  let 
it  go. 

It  is  not  so  hard  after  once  you  get 
used  to  the  habit  of  it — letting  go  of 
these  things.  You  will  find  it  such  an 
easy  way  to  get  rid  of  the  things  that 
mar  and  embitter  life  that  you  will 
enjoy  letting  them  go.  You  will  find 
the  world  such  a  beautiful  place. 
You  will  find  it  beautiful  because  you 
will  be  free  to  enjoy  it — free  in  mind 
and  body. 

Learn  to  let  it  go.  As  you  value 
health  of  body  and  peace  of  mind, 
let  go — just  simply  let  go. 

"Those  who  never  retract  their 
opinions  love  themselves  more  than 
they  do  truth. " — Joseph  Joubert. 


Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church: 

Mrs.  Bridget  Lynch,  Sister  Frances; 
Mrs.  Catharine  Tracy,  Sister  Josepha; 
Mrs.  Mary  Byrne,  Sister  Gabriel. 

St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St.  Antony's  Church 

(Report  of  1912) : 

Mary  Chartrand,  Mary  Schloemer, 
Mathilda  Harkins,  Bridget  Barrett, 
Bridget  Clonney,  Mary  Whyte,  Alice 
Bruder,  Elizabeth  Luby,  Mary  Keane, 
Anna  Remenier,  Mary  Carroll,  Anna 
Lyman,  Margareth  McEnery,  Anna 
Dowling,  Catharine  De  Laak,  Cath- 
erine Kebbler,  Anna  Lager,  Caroline 
Buecher,  Mary  Connell,  Ellen  Galla- 
gher, Catherine  Buschart,  Catherine 
McCrudden,  Elizabeth  Koch,  Eliza- 
beth Mohrmann,  Anna  Kleinhoffer, 
Theresa  Haefele,  Philomena  Obert, 
Martha  Heger,  Mary  Bonk,  Ber- 
nardine  Dirker,  Nicholas  Kirchhoff, 
Bernard  Sprenger,  Mary  Krapf ,  Joseph 
Rose,  John  Roling,  Elizabeth  Ketterle, 
Anna  Brinkmann,  Elizabeth  Nichles, 
Euphrosyne  Lechmer,  Catharine  Bus- 

St.  Paul,  Minn.: 

Mr.  Adam  Nachtsheim. 


Franciscan  Calendar 

FEBRUARY,  1913 


to  the  Seven  Sorrows 

of  Mary 





Bl.  Andrew,  0.  F.  M.,  C.  (P.  I.)— St.  Brigid,  Abbess,  Patroness  of  Ireland. 



Quinquagesima  Sunday. — Purification  of  the  B.  V.  M.  (P.  I.) 

Gospel:     Jesus  gives  sight  to  the  blind  man.     Luke  xviii,  31-43. 








St.  Blase,  Bp.  M— Bl.  Odoric,  0.  F.  M.,  C.  (P.  I.) 

St.  Joseph  of  Leonissa,  0.  M.  Cap.,  C.  (P.  I.) 

Ash  Wednesday.— SS.  Peter  and  Companions,  0.  F.  M.,  MM.  (P.  I.) 

St.  Dorothy,  V.  M. — St.  Agatha,  Patron  against  fire. 

Crown  of  Thorns.  — Bl.  Antony  of  Stronconio,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 

St.  John  of  Matha,  C,  Founder  of  the  Trinitarians. 



1st  Sunday  of  Lent. — St.  Appolonia,  V.  M.  (Invoked  against  toothache.) 
Bl.  Giles,  0.  F.   M.,  C. 

Gosepl:     Jesus  tempted  by  the  devil.     Matt,  iv,  1-11. 






St.   Scholastica,   V.   Abbess. — St.    William,    C. 

Apparation  of  Our  Lady  of  Lourdes. 

St.  Peter  Nolasco,  C. — St.  Gaudentius,  Bp.  C. 

Seven  Holy  Founders  of  Servites. — Bl.  Viridiana,  V.  3rd  Order. 

The  Sacred  Lance  and  Nails. — St.  Valentine,  M. 

St.  Romuald,  C. — Translation  of  St.  Antony. 



2d  Sunday  of  Lent.— Bl.  Philippa,  V.  2d  Order.— St.  Juliana,  V.  M. 
Gospel:     The  Transfiguration  of  Our  Lord.     Matt.  xvii.  1-9. 







St.  Hilary,  Bp.  and  D. 

St.  Simeon,  Bp.  of  Jerusalem,  M. — St.  Marcellus,  P.  M. 

St.  Conrad  of  Piacenza,  C.  3d  Order. 

St.   Raymond,  C. 

St,  Angela  Merici,  V.  3d  Order  (P.  I.) 

St.  Margaret  of  Cortona,  Penitent  of  3d  Order.  (P.  I.) 


3d  Sunday  of  Lent. — St.  Peter's  Chair  at  Antioch. 
Gospel:     Jesus  casts  out  a  devil.     Luke  xi,  14-28. 





St.  Mathias,  Ap. 

Bl.  Sebastian,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Walburga,  V. 

St.  Ignatius,  Bp.  M. — St.  Victor,  C. 

Bl.  John  of  Triora,  0.  F.  M.,  M—  St.  Eustochium,  V.  2d  Order. 

The  Five  Wounds.— Bl.  Thomas  of  Cora,  0.  F.  M.,  M. 

Abbreviations. — St.  Saint;  Bl. — Blessed;  Ap. — Apostle;  M. — Martyr;  C. — Confessor; 
P. — Pope;  Bp. — Bishop;  D. — Doctor;  V. — Virgin;  O.  F.  M. — Order  of  Friars  Minor;  O. 
M.  Cap. — Order  of  Minors  Capuchin;   P.  I. — Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession,  com- 
munion and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of  St.  Francis;  2d, 
once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of  monthly  meeting 
for  those  who  attend,  usual  conditions. 



St.   Colette  of  Corbie,  of  the  Order 
of  St.   Clare. 

March  6th. 

ST.  Colette  was  born  on  January 
13,  1381,  at  Corbie  in  France. 
Her  parents  were  not  rich  in 
the  things  of  this  world,  but,  what 
is  of  incomparably  more  value,  they 
were  deeply  religious,  and  therefore 

soul.  The  child  found  delight  in 
solitude  and  prayer,  in  works  of 
charity  and  mortification,  and  that 
at  an  age  when  children  usually 
begin  to  study  the  first  lessons  of  the 
catechism.       She  remained  remark- 

most  anxious  for  the  spiritual  wel- 
fare of  their  child.  They  soon  dis- 
covered in  Colette  signs  of  the 
especial  workings  of  divine  grace, 
and  gladly  allowed  her  to  follow 
the  inclinations  of  her  God-fearing 

ably  small  of  stature  and  weak  of  con- 
stitution until  her  fourteenth  year. 
As  this  greatly  grieved  her  good 
father,  and  caused  him  to  complain 
that  she  would  never  be  of  any  use 
to  them,  she  earnestly  begged  God 



to  console  her  parents  in  this  regard. 
Her  prayer  was  heard,  and  in  a  very 
short  time,  she  grew  to  normal  size. 
Anxious  to  preserve  her  purity  un- 
defined, she  besought  God  to  take 
away  her  beauty,  lest  it  be  for  her 
and  others  an  occasion  of  sin.  Her 
prayer  was  again  heard.  Her  beau- 
tiful rosy  complexion  disappeared, 
her  face  became  pale  and  thin,  and 
her  gay  countenance  assumed  a 
serious   expression. 

A  few  years  after  the  death  of  her 
parents,  Colette  received  the  habit 
of  the  Third  Order;  and  after  dis- 
tributing her  possessions  among  the 
poor,  she  took  up  her  abode  in  a 
little  house  attached  to  a  church 
of  her  native  city.  Here  she  intend- 
ed to  spend  the  rest  of  her  life  as 
a  recluse.  Not  satisfied  with  scru- 
pulously observing  the  rule  of  the 
Third  Order,  she  strove  to  imitate 
the  virtues  of  the  holy  Founder  in 
a  most  perfect  manner;  and  she  gave 
herself  up  to  the  practice  of  almost 
continuous  prayer,  the  greatest  pov- 
erty, and  the  severest  mortification. 
She  received  many  extraordinary 
graces  and  consolations  from  above, 
but  was  also  tormented  with  most 
severe  temptations,  and  even  with 
apparitions  and  physical  mal-treat- 
ment   of  the   evil   spirits. 

But  God  did  not  wish  her  to  close 
her  days  in  her  secluded  cell.  He 
had  destined  her  for  a  higher,  for 
an  extraordinary  purpose.  He 
aroused  in  her  the  desire  to  restore 
the  rule  of  St.  Clare  to  its  primitive 
purity  from  which  many  convents 
had  deviated.  The  humble  virgin, 
who  considered  herself  the  lowliest 
of  God's  creatures  and  delighted 
in  nothing  more  than  in  seeing  her- 
self despised  by  all,  shrank  from  the 
very  thought  of  such  a  mission. 
She  tried  to  persuade  herself  that 
the  thought  was  an  illusion  of  her 
imagination,  or  a  snare  of  the  evil 
spirit.  But  the  inspiration  came 
upon  her  again  and  again.  When 
she  continued  to  resist,  she  lost  the 

power  of  speech;  then  she  became 
blind,  until  at  length  she  complete- 
ly submitted  to  the  will  of  God. 
"Lord,  what  do  you  wish  me  to 
do?  "  she  prayed  in  her  heart.  "I 
am  ready  to  fulfill  your  holy  will." 
She  at  once  recovered  speech  and 
sight.  God  also  sent  her  an  enlight- 
ened confessor,  under  whose  guid- 
ance she  was  to  carry  out  her  extra- 
ordinary   mission. 

Leaving  her  beloved  seclusion, 
where  she  had  lived  in  close  com- 
munion with  God  for  four  years, 
she  traveled  on  foot  through  France 
to  present  herself  to  the  Pope,  who 
was  then  at  Nice,  to  obtain  his  bless- 
ing and  the  commission  to  bring- 
about  the  intended  reform.  The 
Pope,  full  of  admiration  for  her 
virtue  and  wisdom,  clothed  her  in 
the  habit  of  the  Poor  Clares  and 
admitted  her  to  the  profession  of  the 
First  Rule  of  St.  Clare.  Then  he 
gave  her  all  the  necessary  powers 
to  introduce  the  reform,  and  at  the 
same  time  appointed  her  Abbess 
General  of  all  the  convents  which 
she  should  found  or  restore. 

Colette  now  set  about  fulfilling 
the  commission  she  had  received. 
It  would  lead  too  far  to  give  even 
a  halfway  complete  account  of  her 
journeys,  her  strenuous  labors,  her 
successes  and  failures.  Needless  to 
say,  her  attempt  to  restore  the  rule 
of  St.  Clare  to  its  primitive  purity 
caused  violent  opposition.  Many 
and  great  were  the  sufferings  and 
persecutions  which  she  had  to  under- 
go. She  was  treated  as  a  visionary 
and  a  fanatic,  as  a  foolish  and  im- 
prudent person,  who  was  only  caus- 
ing confusion  and  bringing  vexations 
upon  others.  But  Colette  bore  all 
with  the  greatest  patience  and  cour- 
age,— even  with  cheerfulness;  since 
nothing  satisfied  her  humility  more 
than  to  see  herself  despised  and 
rebuffed.  Though,  in  addition  to 
this  opposition,  she  was  afflicted 
with  constant  painful  ailments,  she 
quietly    but    courageously    applied 



herself  to  the  task  imposed  upon 
her,  and  soon  had  the  happiness 
of  seeing  her  labors  bear  abundant 
fruit.  She  was  able  to  found  suc- 
cessively seventeen  convents  of  Poor 
Clares,  and  in  the  course  of  time  her 
reform  took  root  in  Burgundy,  Savoy, 
Spain,   Flanders,    and    Germany. 

Her  life  continued  to  be  one  of 
heroic  virtue,  especially  of  humility, 
mortification,  charity,  and  prayer. 
In  the  midst  of  her  successes,  when 
others  honored  and  praised  her  and 
God  bestowed  upon  her  the  most 
extraordinary  graces,  Colette  re- 
mained humble  and  trembled  at 
the  least  thought  of  pride.  In  all 
exhortations  to  the  Sisters  and  to 
those  who  came  to  her  for  advice, 
she  inculcated  the  necessity  of  humil- 
ity, of  complete  subjection  of  one's 
judgment  and  will  to  the  will  and 
judgment  of  God  and  of  the  lawful 
superiors.  The  Saint  practiced  the 
greatest  self-denial  in  all  things; 
the  mere  recital  of  her  acts  of  mor- 
tification makes  us  shudder.  Her 
charity  embraced  all,  especially  the 
afflicted  and  the  sinners.  The  latter, 
particularly,  were  the  object  of  her 
constant  prayers  and  acts  of  morti- 
fication, and  she  made  it  a  special 
duty  of  her  Sisters  to  plead  con- 
tinually for  the  conversion  of  those 
who  had  strayed  away  from  God 
and  were  in  danger  of  being  lost  for 
all  eternity.  In  short,  Colette  was 
a  living  model  of  all  virtues,  and 
therefore  was  able  to  exert  so  power- 
ful an  influence  upon  all  that  came 
into  contact  with  her,  above  all  to 
implant  into  the  hearts  of  her  spirit- 
ual daughters,  the  spirit  of  poverty, 
penance,  charity,  prayer,  and  holy 

After  laboring  for  fourteen  years 
for  the  honor  of  God  and  for  the 
salvation  of  a  multitude  of  souls, 
Colette  went  to  her  eternal  reward 
at  Ghent  in  Belgium,  on  March  6, 
1447.  She  was  beatified  on  January 
23,  1740,  and  canonized  by  Pope 
Pius  VII   on   May  24,    1807. 


If  we  wish  to  please  God  and  to 
grow  in  virtue,  we  must  imitate 
St.  Colette  and  become  truly  humble. 
Everything  we  have  is  a  gift  of  God. 
The  natural  gifts — talent,  strength, 
dexterity,  riches, — as  well  as  the 
supernatural  gifts,  are  so  many 
proofs  of  God's  love  and  bounty. 
Of  ourselves,  we  are  nothing  and 
have  nothing.  All  honor  and  praise 
for  all  we  have  and  do  is,  therefore, 
due  to  God.  The  proud  man,  how- 
ever, seeks  his  own  honor,  ascribes  his 
successes  to  his  own  prudence  and 
wisdom,  and  despises  others  who 
are  less  favored  than  he.  He  thus 
offends  God,  robbing  him  of  what 
is  his  due;  and  for  this  reason  St. 
James  writes:  "God  resisteth  the 
proud,  and  giveth  grace  to  the  hum- 
ble".(James  IV.  6). — How  can  a 
proud  Christian  be  a  true  disciple 
of  our  Divine  Savior?  Jesus  was 
meek  and  humble  of  heart.  He 
humbled  himself  "taking  the  form 
of  a  servant"!  he  was  obedient  to 
his  creatures,  even  to  his  enemies; 
and,  in  all  things  sought  the  honor 
of  his  Heavenly  Father.  He  has 
also  solemnly  declared  that  we  can 
enter  the  kingdom  of  heaven  only 
_\by  the  road  of  self-denial  and  obedi- 
ence, that  is,  humility.  It  is  there- 
fore of  the  greatest  importance  for 
us  Christians  and  children  of  St. 
Francis  to  be  on  our  guard  against 
pride,  to  seek  in  all  things  the  honor 
of  God  and  not  the  honor  and  esteem 
of  men,  and  to  bear  humiliations 
and  persecutions  with  patience  and 


O  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  hast 
enriched  the  holy  virgin  Colette 
with  heavenly  gifts,  grant,  we  be- 
seech thee,  that,  imitating  her  virt- 
ues here  on  earth,  we  may,  with  her, 
enjoy  the  eternal  reward  in  heaven. 
Who  livest  and  reignest,  world  with- 
out end.    Amen. 

Leaves  of  Laurel 


Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  O.  M.  Cap.) 

2.    The  Life-Work  of  St.  Francis. 

"  God  is  wonderful  in  His  Saints." 

GOD  is  wonderful  in  the  various 
gifts  that  He  bestows  on  His 
chosen  ones.  By  far  more 
wonderful  is  He,  however,  in  the 
lifework  assigned  by  Him  to  individ- 
ual saints.  Some  we  meet  whose 
lives  are  calmly  passed  within  the 
cloister's  quiet  walls,  whilst  other 
perfect  souls  there  are  who  live  and 
labor  in  the  narrow  circle  of  the 
family.  Some,  however,  we  behold 
whose  bark  is  tossed  upon  the  surg- 
ing billows  of  a  stormy  life;  only  for 
the  sake  of  urgent  relaxation  and 
to  gather  added  strength  are  days, 
or  only  hours,  allotted  them  for  rest 
and  solitude,  and  then  there  comes 
again  to  them,  as  of  yore  to  Jere- 
mias,  the  Lord's  command;  "Behold, 
I  have  given  my  words  in  thy  mouth: 
Lo,  I  have  set  thee  this  day  over 
the  nations,  and  over  kingdoms,  to 
root  up  and  to  pull  down,  and  to 
waste,  and  to  destroy,  and  to  build, 
and  plant.  "x 

What  mission,  then,  devolved  up- 
on St,  Francis?  From  whom  may 
we  expect  its  adequate  description? 
No  one,  undoubtedly,  has  more 
completely  grasped  and  more  thor- 
oughly portrayed  the  mission  of 
Assisi's  Saint  than  the  zealous  Ter- 
tiary on  the  papal  throne,  the  great 
reformer  of  the  Third  Order,  Leo 
XIII.      Let  us  hear,  his  words: 

"The  character  of  that  age  (end 
of  the  twelfth  and  beginning  of  the 
thirteenth  centuries)  is  sufficiently 
well  known  both  in  its  good  and  evil 
tendencies.  Deep  in  the  hearts  of 
men  flourished  the  Catholic  faith; 
and  a  glorious  sight  it  was  when  mul- 
titudes, inflamed  with  chivalry,  en- 
thusiastically went  forth  to  Palestine, 
resolved  to  conquer  or  to  die.  The 
morals  of  the  people,  however, 
through  license  had  become  remiss, 
and  a  crying  need  was  evident  for 
renovation  of  the  Christian  spirit. 
True  virtue,  however,  demands  a 
certain  generous  disposition  of  the 
heart  prepared  to  undergo  all  difficul- 
ties and  hardships,  a  course  fore- 
shadowed by  that  cross  which  all 
who  wish  to  follow  Christ  must 
learn  to  bear.  He  whose  heart  is 
thus  disposed,  must  die  to  earth  and 
earthly  vanities,  must  exercise  a 
rigid  self-control,  and  bear  adversity 
with  ease  and  equanimity.  Above 
all  other  virtues  stands,  as  queen 
and  mistress  of  them  all,  the  love  of 
God  and  of  one's  neighbor,  which 
wields  a  power  so  great  that,  where 
it  exists,  all  hardships  consequent 
upon  fulfilment  of  one's  duty  be- 
come as  naught,  and,  irksome  though 
one's  labors  be,  they  thus  are  ren- 
dered not  only  light  and  easy  but 
even  sweet  and  pleasant. 

"In  these  virtues  the  twelfth  cen- 



tury  was  poor;  only  too  many,  entire- 
ly absorbed  in  earthly  things,  bent  all 
their  energies  in  frenzied  quest  of 
honors  and  of  wealth, or  passed  their 
lives  in  luxury  and  lust.  All  power 
was  vested  in  a  few,  whose  resources 
too  often  were  misused  to  cause 
oppression  of  the  poor,  disparaged 
multitude;  and  from  these  vicious 
blemishes  not  even  those  were  free 
whose  office  called  to  them  to  be  a 
model  unto  others.  And  since  char- 
ity in  many  hearts  had  ceased  to 
burn,  corruption  like  a  pestilence 
was  daily  gaining  ground;  on  all 
sides  envy,  lust  of  power,  and  hatred ; 
so  divided  and  so  hostile  had  the 
minds  of  men  become  that  on  the 
most  trivial  pretexts,  neighboring- 
states  would  spend  themselves  in 
mutually  exhausting  wars,  and  citi- 
zens would  draw  the  swords  in  brutal 
conflict  with  their   fellow-citizens."1 

Dismal  indeed  the  picture  of  that 
age  which  the  Pontiff  here  has 
sketched  for  us. 

Who  then  was  sent  to  be  the  angel 
of  deliverance?  Who  was  called  to 
put  an  end  to  these  unfortunate 
conditions  and  to  usher  in  the  reign 
of  better  times?  Someone  adept  in 
statesmanship,  perhaps,  or  some  vic- 
torious general?  Not  so.  The 
choice  fell  on  a  man  in  worldly  es- 
timation most  insignificant.  "The 
foolish  things  of  the  world  hath  God 
chosen,  that  He  may  confound  the 
wise:  and  the  weak  things  of  the 
world  hath  God  chosen,  that  He  may 
confound  the  strong:  and  the  base 
things  of  the  world,  and  the  things 
that  are  not,  that  he  might  bring  to 
naught  things  that  are."'2  In  these 
words  St.  Paul  declares  that  God  has 
chosen  lowly,  poor,  unlearned  men  as 
His  apostles,  and  set  them  up  against 
the  rich,  the  wise,  the  mighty  of  the 
world.  The  heralds  of  the  gospel 
were  to  worldly  eyes  devoid  of  in- 
terest, objects  of  disdain,  nonenti- 
ties. Children  of  the  world  maintain 
peculiar  views;  wealth,  fame,  and 
noble  birth  find  value  in  their  eyes. 

.A  St.  Agnes  and  many  other  martyrs 
were  to  them  but  weaklings  worthy 
of  contempt;  whereas  the  tyrants 
were  objects  of  regard  because  pos- 
sessed of  power  and  prestige.  Yet, 
none  the  less,  the  heathen  rulers 
were  put  to  shame  and  vanquished 
by  the  Christian  martyrs. 

Along  these  lines  St.  Francis  too 
was  led.  He,  the  unpretentious 
beggar  of  Assisi,  overcame  so  man}' 
proud  and  warlike,  conquest-loving 
princes  of  his  time,  by  giving  to  his 
Tertiaries  the  famous  rule  prohibit- 
ing the  use  of  arms  except  in  de- 
fence of  Church,  faith,  and  property. 
Francis  oft  was  ridiculed,  despised 
and  rated  as  a  fool,  but  later  on 
became  the  center  of  universal  ven- 
eration. Posterity  has  grasped  his 
deep  significance  and  pays  him  un- 
divided admiration.  Where  are  now 
those  personages,  illustrious,  great, 
and  powerful,  who,  in  Francis'  time, 
possessed  such  vast  importance  from 
a  worldly  point  of  view?  Of  many 
now  one  truthfully  may  say,  "Their 
memory  hath  perished  with  a  noise."3 
Their  names  perhaps  are  found  re- 
corded in  the  one  or  the  other  ancient 
chronicle,  or  quite  likely,  they  are 
blotted  out  from  memory  altogether. 
To  the  Seraphic  Father,  on  the  con- 
trary, these  words  may  well  apply: 
"The  memory  of  him  shall  not  de- 
part away,  and  his  name  shall  be 
in  request  from  generation  to  gener- 
ation. "4  And  why  does  everybod}- 
versed  in  history  pronounce  with 
deepest  reverence  the  name  of  Fran- 
cis of  Assisi?  Why  should  his  re- 
membrance find  a  lasting  shrine  not 
only  in  the  hearts  of  Catholics  but 
like-wise  in  the  love  of  men  of  all 
and  no  beliefs?  It  is  because  he 
thoroughly  fulfilled  the  purpose  of 
his  life,  and  thus  obtained  a  place 
in  history  of  world-wide  significance. 
Leo  XIII  writes:  "When  evils 
have  become  rampant,  and  the  time 
divinely  set  is  ripe  that  shall  afford 
relief,  God's  merciful  decree  sends 
forth    a    man,    not    one  of  common 

-Psalin  IX.,  7. 
4Ecclus.  XXXIX.,  13. 


mould,  but  one  of  singular  and  high- 
est worth,  to  whom  He  then  entrusts 
the  leadership  in  restoring  public 
weal.  This  clearly  was  the  state  of 
things  about  the  end  of  the  twelfth 
century  and  somewhat  later.  The 
one  divinely  chosen  to  accomplish 
this  great  work  was  Francis." 
The     great     life-work,     therefore, 

confided  to  our  Saint  by  God,  was 
no  other  than  the  amelioration  of 
social  condition.  Verily,  no  easy 

And,  now,  what  work  has  been 
assigned  to  us?  To  labor  for  our 
own  perfection,  and,  as  far  as  in  us 
lies,  to  collaborate  for  the  welfare 
of  our  fellow-men. 

The  Revival  of  the  Franciscan  Spirit. 

It  is  not  difficult  to  account  for 
the  influence  which  St.  Francis 
wields  over  cultured  and  thought- 
ful minds  in  our  time.  He  was  the 
most  lovable  of  saints,  a  human 
seraph;  and  his  life  was  signalized 
by  two  great  virtues  that  are  sadly 
needed  among  men  today.  There 
is  poverty  in  the  world  now,  and 
there  will  always  be  poverty.  No 
legislation,  no  system  of  political 
economy  will  ever  succeed  in  chang- 
ing a  condition  which  depends  as 
much  upon  natural  necessity  as 
upon  indolence,  selfishness  or  the 
weakness  of  individual  character. 
When  the  world  was  more  religious 
than  it  is  now;  when  the  poor  man 
believed  that  poverty,  honestly  and 
patiently  borne  upon  earth,  was  an 
earnest  of  unspeakable  riches  in 
heaven,  statesmanship  was  not  so 
difficult.  But  in.  our  age  poverty  is 
not  so  understood.  The  poor,  alien- 
ated from  religious  influences,  rebel 
against  a  fate  which  offers  them  no 
comfort  in  the  present  and  promises 
them  nothing  in  the  future.  Now, 
the  life  of  St.  Francis  proves  that 
poverty  is  no  hindrance,  but  rather 
and  aid,  to  the  growth  of  the  religi- 
ous spirit.  He  despised  the  com- 
forts of  life — he  was  not  even  as- 
sured of  its  necessities — and  yet  he 
practised  heroic  virtue,  and  became 
the  most  Christ-like  of  the  saints. 
A  non-Catholic  writer  in  a  secular 
magazine  displays  such  a  rare  appre- 

ciation of  the  Franciscan  spirit  that 
we  can  not  deny  ourselves  the  pleas- 
ure  of   quoting  from   him: 

"If  St.  Francis,  having  made 
poverty  his  bride,  having  foresworn 
all  luxury  and  selfish  pleasure,  could 
even  in  this  find  an  extra  means  of 
quickening  that  life  of  the  spirit  in 
which  the  riddle  of  the  world  is 
solved;  if  thus  he  could  spend  a  life 
so  exalted,  yet  so  full  of  meekness 
and  affection,  as  to  gain  for  himself 
an  everlasting  place  among  the  com- 
forters and  helpers  of  the  human 
family;  if,  indeed,  this  be  true 
(and  it  is  true),  who  shall  say  there 
is  in  the  story  of  such  a  life  no  mean- 
ing for  a  generation  like  ours?  In 
that  tale  of  sanctity,  what  a  reproach 
for  all  those  of  us  (and  great  is  the 
number  of  them)  who  are  filled  with 
envy  and  discontent,  who  cry  out 
for  luxury  and  vulgar  pleasures,  and 
in  their  despair  flee  to  the  dema- 
gogue— in  whom  there  is  no  comfort! 
Poor,  trusting  souls,  that  give  your 
peace  to  the  agitator,  what  is  your 
reward?  Foolish  talk,  and  vain  pro- 
mises, and  fresh  fuel  for  your  dis- 
content. Not  through  these  passion- 
ate men  will  peace  come  to  you;  the 
peace  you  long  for  is  the  secret  of 
the  saints. 

"And  it  is  here,  it  seems  to  us, 
that  we  should  seek  the  message  of 
St.  Francis  to  our  own  time.  In 
that  narrative  of  the  Saint  and  his 
first  followers,  with  their  enthusiasm 



and  purity,  their  romance,  their 
poetry  and  joyousness,  is  there  not 
a  lesson  for  us?  To  the  politician, 
with  his  millennium  of  cakes  and 
ale;  to  the  man  of  science,  with 
his  millennium  of  intellect,  what  a 
better  way  is  shown  than  by  the 
Saint  of  Assisi!" 

The  other  Franciscan  virtue  that 
appeals  with  special  force  to  our  age 
is  the  joyousness  and  large-hearted- 
ness  of  the  Saint.  Coventry  Pat  more 
has  said  that  "in  America  there  is 
much  comfort,  but  no  joy;"  and  the 
saying,  so  far  as  it  is  true  at  all, 
applies  to  other  countries  than  our 
own.  This  is  an  age  of  gloom.  The 
pessimist  is  abroad.  Since  modern 
philosophy  has  come  into  vogue,  our 
civilization  has  been  overcast  with 
the  shades  of  melancholy.  We  have 
become  morbidly  introspective  and 
self-conscious.  Our  music  is  all 
written  in  a  minor  key,  and  the  domi- 
nant note  of  our  fiction  is  one  of 
hopelessness  and  despair.  But  the 
gentle  Saint  of  Assisi  combined  the 
utmost  joyousness  of  heart  with 
the  ut.nost  seriousness  of  purpose; 
and  his  example  shows  that  we  are 
joyhss  becaise   we   are  unspiritual. 

'What  other  saint  has  come  so 
near  as  Francis  to  that  condition 
of  perfect  peac?  and  all-embracing 
love,  that  pure  life  of  the  spirit, 
which  is  to  the  Christian  the  final 
aim  of  human  development?  He 
has  forsworn  luxury  and  pleasure, 
ami  he  lives  on  the  humblest  fare; 
no  mendicant  is  more  sparely  fed, 
more  coarsely  clad  than  he.  Yet, 
in  the  usual  sense  of  the  word, 
he  is  not  an  ascetic;  he  is  light- 
hearted,  joyous,  without  a  touch 
of  gloom.  Francis  has  the  light- 
ness of  soul  and  the  soundness  of 
feeling  that  belonged  to  the  men  of 

But  if  the  world  is  to  profit  by  the 
revival  of  interest  in  St.  Francis, 
that  interest  must  be  more  than 
sentiment.  Some  practical  method 
must   be   sought   out   and    adopted. 

The  Holy  Father,  Leo  XIII,  has 
repeatedly  expressed  his  desire  for 
the  spread  of  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis,  and  no  time  was  ever  more 
opportune  than  the  present.  It  is 
deeply  deplorable  that  the  efforts  of 
the  late  Vicar  of  Christ  have  met 
with  such  apathy  on  the  part  of  Catho- 
lics. His  purpose  was  not  understood 
by  those  who  should  have  under- 
stood it  best ;  his  efforts  were  not 
seconded  by  those  who  should  have 
cooperated  most  zealously.  Who 
among  us  will  not  be  mortified  as 
well  as  surprised  on  reading  these 
appreciative  words  of  a  non-Cath- 

"The  Order  of  Tertiaries,  or  Peni- 
tent Brethren,  is  not  severe  in  its 
methods,  but  is  open  to  all;  it  is  for 
those  who  do  their  work  in  the  ordi- 
nary paths  of  the  world,  who  yet 
are  willing  to  accept  a  rule  of  life, 
and  to  impose  upon  themselves  some 
conditions  as  to  their  pleasures  and 
diet,  their  daily  habits,  and  style 
of  dress.  Who  can  fulfill  the  law  of 
the  spirit  with  such  natural  ease 
that  a  rule,  of  life  is  unnecessary  to 
him?  He  who  says  so,  and  speaks  the 
truth,  is  greater  than  the  saints." 
—Ave  Maria 

"No  one  is  a  good  student  who 
listens  not  with  reverence  to  his 
teacher,  who  does  not  often  revolve 
in  his  mind  what  he  has  heard,  or 
who  does  not  test  his  thinking  by 
observation." — St.   Bonaventure. 

"We  cannot  presume  that  a 
science  is  taught  unless  it  has  been 
learnt  by  attentive  meditation." — 
St.  Gregory  the  Great. 

"What  is  learnt  impetuously  is 
not  likely  to  abide  with  us;  but  what 
is  taken  up  with  a  pleasant  ease  and 
content  will  rest  durably  in  the 
mind." — St.  Basil. 

The  Spirit  of  the  Early  Indian  Missionaries, 

(By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  0.  F.  M.) 

HAVING  previously  discussed 
the  obligation  of  the  Friars 
Minor  to  labor  for  the  con- 
version of  heathen  tribes  and  nations, 
we  shall  now  dwell  upon  the  senti- 
ments that  animated  the  early  mis- 
sionaries who  went  forth  to  battle 
against  visible  and  invisible  powers 
in  behalf  of  immortal  souls.  Theirs 
was  an  extremely  difficult  task,  not 
to  say,  a  forlorn  hope.  For  their 
enemies  were  in  reality  not  of  flesh 
and  blood;  they  were  the  merciless 
spirits  of  darkness  who  merely  laugh 
at  the  feeble  efforts  of  a  timid,  half- 
hearted or  easy-going  foe.  Hence 
it  was  that  St.  Francis,  like  a  wise 
and  skillful  general,  wanted  only 
volunteers,  brave,  active,  and  whole- 
souled  men,  to  be  entrusted  with 
the  errand. 

For  the  soldier  in  the  enemy's 
country  a  watchword  is  necessary. 
and  in  the  struggle  itself  a  battle- 
cry  is  highly  important.  In  that 
great  battle  that  ensued  in  the  fore- 
court of  Heaven  when  Lucifer  raised 
the  standard  of  revolt,  it  was  St. 
Michael  of  the  faithful  host,  that 
gave  out  the  watchword  and  soun- 
ded the  war-cry,  "Quis  ut  Deus — 
Who  is  like  God!"  By  the  power  of 
that  adorable  name  he  frustrated  the 
arrogant  assumption  of  Lucifer  and 
cast  him  and  his  rebellious  hordes 
into  the  abyss  of  hell.  That  battle 
settled,  once  for  all.  the  question 
of  the  supremacy  of  the  celestial 
over  the  infernal  powers.  The  latter, 
however,  smarting  under  their  crush- 
ing defeat,  shifted  the  scene  of  war 

from  Heaven  to  earth,  and  the  battle 
now  rages  between  the  infernal 
spirits  and  weak  humanity.  In  this 
struggle  the  missionaries  are  expected 
to  act  as  officers'.  Woe  to  them  and 
the  file  if  they  are  ignorant  of  the 
enemies'  tactics  and  country,  or  if 
courage  and  supplies  fail  them. 

In  their  struggle  against  the  powers 
of  darkness  it  was  but  natural  for 
the  sons  of  St.  Francis  to  look  up  to 
their  holy  Father  as  to  their  leader, 
and  an  able  and  experienced  leader 
did  they  find  in  him.  Being  himself 
of  a  truly  chivalrous  nature,  a  knight 
without  fear  and  without  reproach, 
he  was  solicitous  to  instil  into  his 
followers  the  true  spirit  of  a  soldier 
of  Christ.  Like  St.  Michael,  his 
patron,  he  sought  only  to  defend 
and  promote  the  honor  of  the  Lord. 
God  was  uppermost  in  his  thoughts 
and  desires.  Hence  he  never  wearied 
of  repeating  the  aspiration,  "Deus 
meus  et  omnia — My  God  and  my 
all."  This  favorite  ejaculation  of  his 
has  become  the  motto  of  his  order 
and  the  watchword  of  all  those  who 
have  ranged  themselves  under  his 
glorious  standard.  "Ut  in  omnibus 
glorificetur  Deus — That  in  all  things 
God  may  be  glorified"  became  their 
battle-cry.  For  such  was  the  aim  of 
the  Seraphic  Saint,  and  such  is  the 
aim  of  his  children.  The  attentive  stu- 
dent will  find  this  verified  wherever 
the  sons  of  St.  Francis  set  foot,  and 
that  means  in  almost  every  country 
and  clime  under  the  sun.  This  is  es- 
pecially true  of  the  early  Franciscan 
missionaries  that  labored  within  the 



boundaries  of  our  own  country,  the 
missions  of  which  we  intend  to  take 
up  in  turn  for  the  information  and 
edification  of  the  readers  of  the 
Franciscan  Herald. 

In  obedience  to  the  Rule  and  Con- 
stitutions of  the  order,  and  lest  they 
be  hampered  in  the  struggle  for  the 
rescue  of  souls,  the  missionaries  to 
the  Indian  would  divest  themselves 
of  everything  that  savored  of  attach- 
ment to  anything  or  anyone  but 
Almighty  God  whose  knowledge  and 
love  it  was  their  steady  aim  to  im- 
plant into  the  hearts  of  the  savages. 
Clad  in  the  habit  of  St.  Francis,  and 
armed  with  nothing  more  than  the 
breviary  and  the  rosary,  they  set 
out  for  their  destination,  and  there 
they  labored  oblivious  of  what  was 
transpiring  in  the  world  at  large.  For 
nothing  interested  them  save  the 
spiritual  advancement  of  their  dusky 
charges  whom  they  loved  as  though 
they  were  their  own  children.  So 
absolutely  did  they  devote  them- 
selves to  their  chosen  work  that, 
to  adduce  only  one  of  many  instan- 
ces, of  the  one  hundred  and  forty  or 
more  friars  who  Christianized  the 
California  savages,  only  two  have 
left  a  letter  each  in  which  mention  is 
made  of  relatives,  and  one  of  these 
letters  was  an  official  communication 
addressed  to  the  governor  which  was 
unavoidable.  Nor  would  they  write 
about  themselves,  their  personal  ex- 
periences, their  successes  and  fail- 
ures, a  custom  for  which  the  historian 
cares  not  to  bless  them,  because  it 
deprives  him  of  the  material  which 
would  furnish  instructive  and  edify- 
ing chapters  for  the  lover  of  the  mis- 
sions and  the  missionaries.  Some 
of  the  heroic  deeds,  however,  have 
come  to  light  and  it  came  about  when 
satan  in  his  fury  would  incite  vicious 
men  to  slander  and  persecute  the 
devoted  and  unselfish  friars  who 
succeeded  in  saving  numerous  souls 
from  his  clutches. 

Wonderfully       detached,     indeed, 
were    those    Indian    missionaries    of 

old,  not  only  from  family  ties,  but 
from  everything  of  earthly  value. 
Whatever  was  given  them  whether 
stipend  or  alms,  was  straightway 
lavished  upon  the  Indians  under  their 
care.  Thus,  for  instance,  Fr.  Fermin 
de  Lasuen,  who  succeeded  the  immor- 
tal Fr.  Junipero  Serra  as  superior  of 
the  California  missions,  in  a  long 
and  magnificent  defence  of  the  mis- 
sionaries wrung  from  him  at  the  age 
of  eighty  years,  could  declare  with 
pardonable  pride:  "In  all  the  years 
of  my  missionary  life — and  they  are 
more  than  thirty-six — I  have  not 
heard  of  half  a  real"  (six  and  one- 
fourth  cents)  "by  the  use  of  which 
any  missionary  might  have  become 
unworthy  the  name  of  a  good  Fran- 
ciscan. Thanks  be  to  Cod!"  Such 
was  the  love  of  "Lady  Poverty" 
which  distinguished  the  friars  to 
the  last,  that  is  to  say,  down  to  the 
unhappy  day  when  the  missions 
were  confiscated  under  the  fraudu- 
lent  term   of   "secularization." 

Naturally,  whilst  so  detached  from 
things  worldly,  the  missionaries  cul- 
tivated a  close  union  with  God  and 
His  Saints.  It  was  well  they  did 
so,  otherwise  they  must  have  sunk 
under  the  intolerable  burden  of  end- 
less privations  and  of  human  and 
diabolical  opposition.  None  but 
those  that  have  worked  similarly, 
can  realize  the  headaches  and  heart- 
aches suffered  by  the  missionary  to 
the  Indians,  especially  in  the  early 
days.  The  Jesuit  Relations  of  Cana- 
da, the  records  of  Father  Hennepin 
and  other  Franciscans  of  the  north, 
the  narrative  of  historians  on  Flori- 
da, the  histories  of  Fathers  Espinoza 
and  Arricivita  on  Texas  and  Sonora, 
and  the  descriptions  of  the  situation 
in  California,  do  not  tell  half  of  what 
the  heroic  messengers  of  the  Gospel 
had  to  endure  from  the  aborigines, 
let  alone  the  hardships  of  climate 
and  the  want  of  food.  These  things 
are  too  glorious  for  human  tongue  to 
relate  and  had,  therefore,  better  be 
lef|  to  the  Recording  Angel  to  note 



down  in  the  Book  of  Life.  Human 
approbation  would  be  too  meagre 
a    compensation    for    such    heroism. 

Generally  the  undertaking  to  im- 
part to  the  brutish  savages  the 
knowledge  and  love  of  God,  of  whom 
they  had  no  conception  or  only  un- 
worthy and  material  notions,  was 
a  truly  superhuman  task,  and  to 
persuade  them  to  abandon  their 
beastly  habits  and  to  adopt  civilized 
ways,  was  an  almost  hopeless  under- 
taking. Yet  the  missionaries  never 
lost  heart  entirely.  The  Lord  who 
had  led  them  away  from  home  and 
kindred  into  the  land  of  these 
wretched  barbarians,  would  show 
them  a  means  by  which  they  would 
succeed  where  success  seemed  out  of 
question.  More  than  that,  He  would 
assist  them  for  the  asking,  and  so 
they  had  recourse  to  fervent  prayer. 
In  order  that  their  tearful  petitions 
might  be  effective,  these  unselfish 
messengers  of  the  Gospel  enlisted 
the  cooperation  of  God's  most  be- 
loved friends:  the  Angels  and  Saints, 
and  above  all  the  Lord's  own  mother. 
Thus  they  concluded,  and  rightly 
so,  as  the  result  demonstrated,  that 
failure  could  not  be  possible. 

Accordingly,  after  choosing  a  spot 
in  a  well-inhabited  district,  the  mis- 

sionary would  first  set  up  an  altar 
in  a  brushwood  hut  and  dedicate 
the  place  to  some  saint  upon  whose 
intercession  he  relied  in  the  effort 
to  win  the  savages  over  to  Christ 
and  His  Law.  Such  was  the  custom 
of  all  the  Catholic  missionaries  from 
the  Lakes  down  to  Patagonia,  and 
from  the  Pacific  to  the  Atlantic. 
Unlike  the  irreligious  adventurers  of 
either  Teuton  or  Anglo-Saxon  ex- 
traction, and  unlike  the  sectarian 
emissaries,  the  Catholic  missionary, 
and  even  the  worldly  French  or 
Spanish  soldier  of  fortune,  would 
raise  his  eyes  from  the  surface  of  the 
earth  heavenward  for  a  name  with 
which  to  distinguish  a  new  discovery, 
or  the  founding  of  a  mission  and 
settlement.  Hence  it  is  that  the 
traveler  all  through  Canada,  along 
the  southern  boundary  of  the  United 
States,  and  on  the  Pacific  Coast 
from  Alaska  to  Cape  Horn,  as  well 
as  in  the  heart  of  the  United  States, 
in  New  Mexico,  finds  rivers,  mount- 
ains, lakes,  cities,  towns,  islands, 
and  capes  reminding  him  by  their 
names  that  those  who  first  trod  the 
soil  there  believed  in  God  and  aimed 
to  be  united  with  Him,  in  a  word, 
were  Catholics.  Gracias  a  Dios, 
as  the  missionary  would  exclaim, 
whether  he  failed  or  succeeded. 

"Do  not  live  an  aimless  life — that 
of  the  street  walker,  the  gossip,  the 
visitor  from  place  to  place,  the  simple 
pleasure  seeker.  Have  an  object  in 
life,  one  which  will  make  you 
grander,  and  someone  else  better 
and  happier.  Use  your  talent,  time 
and  opportunity  for  the  highest 
purposes." — Sodalist. 

"Wisdom  does  not  consist  in  not 
talking,  but  in  speaking  only  when 
necessary  and  to  the  purpose;  and 
again,  in  holding  one's  tongue  at 
the  proper  time  and  place." — St. 
Francis  de  Sales. 

"Trust  the  past  to  the  mercy  of 
God,  the  present  to  His  love,  the 
future  to  His  providence."- — St.  Au- 

"Let  no  one  conscious  of  ancient 
sins  despair  of  divine  rewards.  The 
Lord  knows  how  to  change  His  sen- 
tence if  you  know  how  to  amend  your 
faults." — St.  Ambrose* 

"The  only  important  thing  in  good 
works  is  the  amount  of  love  we  put 
into  them.  The  soul  of  an  action  is 
its  motive."— Father  Faber. 



The  Indian's  Mode  of  Life. 

(By  Fr.  Casimir  Vogt,  0.  F.  M.) 

IN  1878,  the  Franciscan  Fathers 
of  the  Province  of  the  Sacred 
Heart,  at  the  request  of  Rt. 
Rev.  Michael  Heiss  of  La  Crosse, 
Wisconsin,  took  up  the  work  of  the 
former  missionaries  among  the  Chip- 
pewa Indians  in  the  northern  part 
of  the  state.  The  Fathers  were  given 
charge  of  a  territory  250  miles  in 
length  and  200  miles  in  width;  south 

the  mode  of  Indian  life  as  he  found 
it  on  his  arrival  among  them. 

The  dwellings  of  the  Indians  at 
that  time  were  wigwams,  that  is, 
huts  made  of  birch-bark,  which,  seen 
from  a  distance,  appeared  very  much 
like  large  mole  hills.  These  wigwams 
had  one  small  and  low  entrance  cov- 
ered with  a  piece  of  blanket.  In 
the  middle  of  the  wigwam,  there  was 

Chippewa  Indians  Building  Canoes 

from  Bayfield  on  Lake  Superior  to 
Chippewa  Falls  and  St.  Croix  Falls, 
and  thence  north  to  the  St.  Louis 
river  above  Duluth  in  Minnesota. 
At  first  only  two  Fathers  were  sent 
to  labor  among  the  Indians  of  this 
large  territory.  One  of  them  suc- 
cumbed in  1896  to  the  hardships  and 
privations,  and  was  called  to  his 
eternal  reward.  The  companion  of 
his  labors  is  still  alive,  and  submits  to 
the  readers  of  the  Franciscan 
Herald    the    following    account    of 

a  fireplace,  and  above  the  fireplace, 
an  opening  to  allow  the  smoke  to 
escape.  Naturally,  all  the  smoke 
did  not  escape  through  this  opening, 
and  consequently  the  inmates  of 
the  wigwam  were  obliged  to  spend 
much  of  their  time  enveloped  in 
smoke.  A  smoky  smell  is,  therefore, 
peculiar  to  all  Indians  as  long  as 
they  live  in  wigwams.  Even  the 
churches  they  visit  are  penetrated 
with  this  smell.  Around  the  fire  the 
Indians  spread  their  mats  made  of 



grasses,  flexible  rushes,  or  roots. 
These  mats  served  as  beds  at  night, 
and  as  tables  and  chairs  during  the 
day.  At  the  fireplace  the  dogs  and 
other  domestic  animals  also  found 
a  resting  place  for  the  night.  They 
often  disturbed  the  slumbers  of 
the  inmates  by  their  noisy  fights. 
The  wigwams  were  warm,  often 
unbearably  warm,  in  summer,  and 
sometimes  very  cold  in  winter,  par- 
ticularly when  dry  wood  could  not 
be  found  nearby,  and  green  birch 
or  maple  had  to  be  used. 

How  did  the  Indians  make  their 
living  at  that  time?  By  fishing, 
hunting,  picking  berries  during  the 
berry  season,  and  by  farming.  Agri- 
culture, however,  was  limited  to 
planting  some  corn  and  vegetables. 
The  lakes  and  rivers  swarmed  with 
fish,  and  the  forests  were  full  of 
game.  Whenever  provisions  failed, 
the  Indian  could  obtain  a  new  sup- 
ply within  a  few  hours.  Even  in 
winter  he  made  a  fair  living  by 
fishing  on  the  ice;  though  the  ice  at 
times  reached  a  thickness  of  three 
to  four  feet,  he  proved  himself  a 
successful  fisherman.  Cutting  a  hole 
through  the  ice,  he  placed  some 
evergreen  around  its  edge  and  thus 
made  a  kind  of  bed,  on  which  he  lay 
motionless  for  hours.  Having  covered 
his  head  with  a  blanket  in  order 
not  to  be  blinded  by  the  light  from 
above,  he  could  see  through  the 
clear  water  to  a  depth  of  twenty  to 
thirty  feet,  and  notice  every  fish 
passing  by.  To  draw  the  fish  to  the 
hole,  where  he  could  easily  spear 
them,  he  used  a  wooden  herring  as  a 
bait  to  attract  their  attention. 

In  early  spring  the  Indians  gather- 
ed the  sap  of  the  maple,  from  which 
they  made  maple  syrup  and  sugar. 
From  June  till  the  month  of  October, 
they  made  their  living  by  picking 
strawberries,  raspberries,  and  black- 
berries. Cranberries  were  gathered 
in  marshes  in  the  fall  of  the  year. 

They  always  found  a  market  for  these 

During  the  month  of  August, 
they  gathered  the  so-called  Indian 
rice.  The  plant  grows  in  rivers 
in  which  the  current  is  not  very 
swift.  Its  stalk  and  kernel  resemble 
those  of  oats.  As  soon  as  the  kernel 
is  ripe,  the  Indians  in  their  small 
birch-canoes  gather  the  ears  into 
little  bunches,  tie  them  together,  and 
let  them  dry  for  two  or  three  weeks. 
They  then  harvest  the  crop  by  open- 
ing each  bunch  and  emptying  the 
dry  kernels  into  the  bottom  of  their 
canoes.  They  were  often  not  very 
particular  in  cleaning  the  canoes 
beforehand  of  sand,  and,  in  conse- 
quence, we  sometimes  had  dis- 
agreeable experiences  when  eating 
a  dish  of  the  boiled  rice. 

Thus  it  was  at  the  time  of  our 
arrival.  At  the  present  time  all 
valuable  timber  on  the  Reserva- 
tions has  been  cut  down  by  the  whites 
and  shipped  to  distant  markets. 
Game  is  now  very  scarce,  as  the 
whites  upon  their  arrival  began  to 
slaughter  the  deer  and  other  game 
inconsiderately.  Fish  also  became 
scarce;  several  companies  employed 
a  large  number  of  men,  who  would 
fish  the  whole  year  round,  and  by 
using  pound  nets,  haul  even  small 
fish  from  the  bottom  of  the  lakes. 
The  maples  have  been  cut  down-  for 
stove  wood,  and  therefore  the  making 
of  sugar  is  to  a  great  extent  at  an 
end.  And  since  the  lumber  com- 
panies drove  their  logs  through  the 
rivers  in  which  the  rice  plant  grew, 
and  thus  destroyed  the  roots  of  the 
plants,  little  rice  can  be  gotten  at 

Thus  have  the  Indians  been  de- 
prived of  the  means  of  sustenance 
offered  by  the  forest,  the  lakes  and 
rivers;  and  since  they  showed  little 
inclination  to  apply  themselves  to 
agriculture,  they  gradually  became 
very  poor,  even  destitute. 



Among  the  Pimas  of  Arizona. 

(By  Fr.  Tiburtius  Wand,  0.  F.  M.,  Missionary  among  the  Papago  Indians.) 

CONTENTS:  Instruction  in  the  Government-Schools;  Instruction  in  the  Sacatan  School; — 
Christmas-celebration;  sickcall. 

IN  the  state  of  Arizona  there  are 
about  5000  Indian  children  who 
attend  no  school  whatsoever. 
Of  late,  however,  the  government, 
in  whose  care  these  children  have 
been  placed,  has  made  some  endeavor 
to  provide  an  education  for  them. 
The    Catholic    schools,    which     are 

receive  no  encouragement  or  assist- 

On  the  Pima  Reservation  agency 
there  is  an  Indian  school  with  an 
enrollment  of  about  220  pupils, 
chiefly  of  the  Pima  tribe,  some  few 
being  Papagos.  Of  these  pupils 
one-half    are    Catholics.       The    late 

&  <*  5  gk  fS  £>  9 



Pima  Children  at  St.  John's  School,  Arizona. 

slowly  being  erected,  are  sustained 
solely  by  the  charity  of  the  faithful 
and  they  can  barely  subsist  for  want 
of  the  necessary  funds.  This  is  all 
the  more  deplorable  because  ex- 
perience amply  proves  that  the  re- 
ligious instruction  imparted  in  even 
the  best  of  public  or  government 
schools,  is  insufficient  for  a  Catholic 
child.  Moreover  it  is  just  these 
public  Indian-schools  where  the  var- 
ious sects  are  busy  with  their  prose- 
lytizing methods.  Thanks  to  the 
efforts  of  the  Catholic  Indian  Bureau 
much  has  been  done  to  put  a  stop 
to  this  nefarious  business;  but  it  is 
still  an  open  secret  that  the  Catholics 

lamented  Father  Mathias  Rech- 
steiner,  0.  F.  M.,  endeavored  to 
procure  a  good  Catholic  training  for 
these  children  and  was  greatly  as- 
sisted in  his  good  work  by  some  of 
the  agents  and  employees.  For  a 
long  time  after  his  untimely  death 
nothing  further  could  be  done  until 
about  a  year  ago.  Mr.  Bartholemeau, 
a  zealous  and  wide-awake  Catholic, 
was  appointed  disciplinarian  in  the 
said  school,  and  since  his  happy 
appointment  a  revival  has  taken 
place.  Many  of  the  Catholic  children 
had  been  attending  services  in  the 
Presbyterian  church,  but  he  began 
to  assemble  them  in  his  office  during 



these  services,  where  he,  together 
with  a  few  more  employees,  would 
give  them  instructions.  One  of  his 
ablest  assistants  was  Mr.  John  Kelly, 
an  educated  Pima  Indian,  who  for 
some  years  already  has  done  much 
for  his  coreligionists.  Mr.  Barthol- 
emeau  soon  applied  for  and  also 
secured  the  services  of  one  of  the 
Franciscan  Fathers.  The  Father  now 
gives  instructions  to  the  children 
thrice  a  month  on  Wednesday  even- 
ings; Mr.  Bartholemeau  and  his 
assistants  performing  the  same  spirit- 
ual work  of  mercy  on  Sunday  even- 
ings. The  instructions  can  be  given 
only  in  the  evening,  and  since  the 
rules  of  the  school  demand  of  the 
children  to  retire  early,  many  can 
not  attend,  though  between  fifty 
and  sixty  attend  regularly.  The 
missionary  in  charge  of  that  dis- 
trict has  about  sixteen  hundred 
Catholic  Indians  in  the  various  settle- 
ments to  care  for  and  it  was  impos- 
sible for  him  to  have  holy  Mass  for 
these  children  on  Sunday.  The 
agent  had  conceded  us  full  per- 
mission to  use  the  so-called  chapel 
for  any  religious  services*  we  pleased 
and  also  at  any  desirable  time;  but 
it  was  not  found  possible  to  make 
use  of  this  kind  permission  owing 
to  a  want  of  priests.  Some  time  ago, 
however,  I  summoned  up  enough 
courage  to  go  to  the  agent,  Mr. 
Thakery,  a  kind  and  unbiassed  man, 
and  asked  him  to  send  the  Catholic 
children  to  San  Miguel  station,  about 
five  miles  off,  where  the  children 
could  comply  with  their  Sunday 
obligations.  To  the  joy  of  all 
this  permission  was  granted.  On 
the  Sunday  preceding  Christmas 
the  children  availed  themselves  of 
this  opportunity  for  the  first  time. 
In  two  large  wagons  about  sixty 
children  were  conveyed  to  San 
Miguel.  They  attended  holy  Mass 
and  the  sermon  with  great  devotion, 
and  remained  there  for  the  instruc- 
tions and  rosary  devotion  in  the 
afternoon.  They     have     already 

learned  the  more  necessary  prayers 
as  also  some  beautiful  hymns;  and 
they  have  edified  not  a  few  at  the 
boarding  school  by  piously  kneeling 
beside  their  little  beds  when  saying 
their  morning  and  evening  prayers. 
In  the  near  future  about  twelve 
will  receive  the  grace  of  holy  Bap- 
tism, thereby  becoming  children  of 
God  and  heirs  of  Heaven. 

Christmas  at  the  Indian  villages 
is  a  day  of  great  solemnity.  At 
St.  John,  a  solemn  High  Mass  was 
celebrated  at  5:00  A.  M.,  during 
which  about  four  hundred  children 
and  adult  Indians  approached  Holy 
Communion.  At  10:00  A.  M.  a 
second  solemn  High  Mass  was  sung. 
Many  of  the  Indians  remained  for  a 
third  holy  Mass.  For  many  this 
Christmas  was  an  occasion  of  special 
solemnity,  it  being  the  day  of  their 
first  Holy  Communion. 

Christmas  is  also  the  time  of  the 
annual  feast  among  the  Indians  of 
Arizona.  For  weeks  before  money  is 
collected  to  buy  a  choice  ox,  fruits, 
etc.  After  the  religious  services  on 
Christmas  Day  this  feast  is  held,  and 
all,  young  and  old,  give  themselves 
up  to  feasting  and  merry-making. 
Small  presents,  such  as  tobacco, 
scarfs,  cloth,  etc.,  are  also  inter- 
changed. Very  important  meetings 
are  held  before  the  feast  to  determine 
on  the  price  to  be  paid  for  the  un- 
lucky ox,  and  to  find  some  ways  and 
means  of  collecting  the  necessary 
money.  These  councils  are  held  in 
the  open  air  and  often,  as  it  happened 
last  year  at  St.  Peter's,  they  are 
prolonged  to  the  hours  of  the  morn- 
ing. There  is,  however,  no  happier 
man  on  this  great  earth  than  the 
Arizona  Indian  on  his  annual  feast. 

We  must  all  admire  the  wonderful 
ways  of  Divine  Providence,  but  no 
one  more  so  than  the  Indian  mis- 
sionary. Although  the  territory  of 
the  missionary  here  in  Arizona  is  vast 
and  difficult,  but  few  Indians,  at 
least  the  well-meaning,  die  without 



the  last  sacraments.  I  had  just  re- 
turned to  St.  John  last  week  from  my 
station  thirty  miles  distant,  when 
a  young  man  approached  me  and 
said  that  an  aged  unbaptized  Indian 
lay  dying  about  twenty  miles  out  in 
the  country  and  that  he  desired  to 
see  a  priest.  In  a  short  time  my 
wagon  was  fitted  out  for  a  long 
journey,  as  I  did  not  intend  to 
return  again  to  St.  John  for  at  least 
three  weeks.  Since  the  youthful 
messenger  could  give  me  but  a  meagre 
description  of  the  locality  where 
the  sick  man  was  to  be  found,  the 
journey  promised  to  be  an  inter- 
esting one.  Father  Gerard,  who  is 
to  take  my  place  in  this  district, 
accompanied  me,  this  being  his  first 
trip.  About  5:30  P.  M.  it  was 
already  dark  and  we  soon  noticed 
that  we  were  traveling  on  unknown 
roads.  On  we  rode  through  brush- 
wood and  thicket,  through  the  bed 
of  the  Gila  River,  dangerous  on 
account  of  the  treacherous  quick- 
sand, but  now  luckily  almost  dried 
out.  There  being  no  lights  from 
neighboring  farm-houses  to  guide 
us  and  the  night  being  dismally 
dark,  we  soon  wandered  entirely 
away  from  the  road  and  for  about 
two  hours  we  drove  to  and  fro,  back 
and  forth,  not  knowing  whither  to 
go  or  where  we  were.  At  last, 
about  8:45  the  barking  of  a  dog  in 
the  distance  told  us  that  we  were 
nearing  some  human  habitation, 
and  to  our  great  joy  it  was  the  house 
of  one  of  my  friends.  As  he  could 
give  us  no  information  concerning 
the  sick  man,  we  decided  to  encamp 
there  overnight,  the  more  so  because 
the  horses,  that  had  been  on  the  road 
all  day  already,  were  tired  to  death 
and  needed  rest.  We  first  cared  for 
the  horses,  and  then  hunted  up  some 
sleeping  apartment  for  ourselves, 
which  we  found  in  an  old  dilapidated 
hovel.  It  was  a  cold,  bitter  night  and 
the  unmerciful  hut  permitted  the 
fresh  night-air  to  enter  unmolested 
from  all  nooks  and  corners.    Dividing 

the  blankets  we  had  brought  along 
between  us,  Father  Gerard  sought 
rest  and  sleep  on  a  camping  cot, 
whilst  I  made  myself  miserable  on 
the  damp  floor. 

At  an  early  morning  hour  we 
continued  our,  as  we  thought,  now 
useless  journey,  but  we  had  not 
gone  far  when  we  met  a  boy  who 
pointed  out  to  us  the  distant  house 
of  the  sick  Indian.  We  found  the 
poor  man  cowering  on  the  floor  and 
suffering  great  pain.  With  the  aid 
of  his  equally  aged  wife,  we  gave  him 
a  little  instruction  necessary  for  the 
reception  of  the  sacrament  of  Bap- 
tism. He  was  then  baptized  and 
received  also  the  last  sacraments. 
Having  thus  accomplished  with  the 
grace  of  God  the  purpose  of  our 
trip,  we  drove  ten  miles  to  the  next 
station,  where  we  both  said  holy 
Mass.  Later  on  I  learned  that  the 
poor  man  had  died  on  the  very  clay 
of  his  baptism. 

Useful  if  not  Ornamental. 

One  of  the  strongest  arguments  in 
favor  of  decent  treatment  of  the 
American  Indians  is  found  in  this 
statement  by  an  army  officer  in  a 
recent  Herald. 

"The  Alaskan  Indian  is  self- 
supporting  and  is  a  tremendous  asset 
of  the  country.  The  business  of 
guiding,  trapping,  canoeing,  fishing 
and  lumbering  is  dependent  almost 
entirely  upon  him,  and,  in  addition, 
he  does  carpentering,  plastering, 
mining,  teaming,  and  hunting  about 
as  well  as  the  white  race,  and,  being- 
more  accustomed  to  the  environment, 
is  the  more  valuable." 

If  the  Alaskan  Indian  "is  self- 
supporting"  and  a  "tremendous 
asset,"  why  cannot  the  Indian  of 
"the  States"  be  likewise?  Why  can- 
not the  Great  Father  in  the  White 
House  give  him  a  chance,  in  health 
and  on  his  own  land,  to  work  out  his 
own  destiny? 


Current  Comment. 

Thoughts  on  Lent. 

The  holy  season  of  Lent  is  a  time 
of  mortification.  Man  instinctively 
shrinks  from  every  kind  of  suffering, 
and  there  is  nothing  that  he  dreads 
so  much  as  to  inflict  pain  on  himself. 
Yet  sprung  as  he  is  from  a  corrupted 
stock,  mortification  is  indispensably 
necessary  for  him.  No  sooner  had 
he  transgressed  the  divine  command 
than  pain  and  suffering  were  de- 
clared to  be  his  inseparable  lot. 
From  that  moment  all  nature  was 
in  some  measure  to  disclaim  the 
sovereignty  of  its  fallen  lord.  Even 
within  his  own  breast  that  trans- 
gression occasioned  the  most  baneful 
revolution.  A  furious  and  inter- 
minable war  arose  within  him.  His 
inferior  appetites,  rebellious  to  rea- 
son, incessantly  demanded  grati- 
fication at  the  expense  of  duty.  All 
the  powers  of  his  soul  were  corrupted 
and  brutalized.  His  will  became 
perverse,  sluggish  to  good,  impetuous 
to  evil;  his  heart  was  elated  with 
pride;  his  affections  were  either  fixed 
and  centred  on  himself,  or  enslaved 
and  chained  to  the  objects  around 
him;  virtue  from  that  moment  on 
assumed,  in  his  jaundiced  eye,  a 
repulsive  aspect,  and  the  service  of 
his  Creator,  which  in  innocence  had 
been  his  sweetest  occupation,  became 
in  guilt  an  employment  of  toil  and 

From  this  fatal  propensity  to  evil, 
we  learn  the  necessity  of  mortifica- 
tion. Here  we  find  the  apology  for 
that  holy  anger  with  which  so  great 
a  saint  as  Francis  of  Assisi  mortified 
the  deeds  of  the  flesh,  by  giving  his 
body  to  fasting,  his  will  to  unre- 
served obedience,  his  whole  life  to 
the  severest  exercise  of  penance. 
Here -we  read  the  condemnation  of 
the  world,  and  of  all  its  voluptuous 
maxims,    the    condemnation    of    its 

pleasures  and  its  pastimes,  its  vani- 
ties and  its  excesses.  Here  we  find 
the  reason  why  the  Church  has  in- 
stituted the  fast  of  forty  days,  why 
she  wishes  her  children  during  this 
season  to  abstain  from  worldly 
amusements  and  to  devote  them- 
selves to  the  practice  of  prayer  and 
penance  and  meditation  on  the 
Sacred  Passion.  Like  a  good  physi- 
cian she  undertakes  to  cure  the  deep- 
struck  malady  of  our  soul,  by  point- 
ing out  the  antidote  that  she  would 
have  us  employ  if  we  would  coun- 
teract the  pernicious  consequences 
that    sin    has    entailed. 


Owing  to  its  deep  significance, 
Easter  may  be  called  the  greatest 
and  most  joyful  festival  of  the  year. 
The  Church,  unable,  as  it  were,  to 
contain  her  joy  at  the  thought  of 
Christ's  most  glorious  Resurrection, 
ever  and  anon  breaks  into  the  rap- 
turous strain,  "This  is  the  day  that 
the  Lord  hath  made:  let  us  be  glad 
and  rejoice  therein." 

Our  Easter-rejoicings,  however, 
should  not  be  merely  conventional, 
inspired,  perhaps,  by  the  genial 
breath  of  Spring,  or  by  the  thought 
that  fasting  has  given  way  to  feast- 
ing, and  ashes  and  sackcloth  to  a 
fashionable  Easter-bonnet  or  a  sty- 
lish suit  of  clothes.  Ours  should  be 
a  more  rational  joy,  founded  on  the 
deep-laid  truths  that  lie  beneath  it 
all.  .These  truths,  as  St.  Paul 
enumerates  them,  may  thus  be  sum- 
marized: if  Christ  is  risen  from  the 
dead,  then  our  faith  is  not  vain  and 
human,  but  true  and  divine;  then 
they  that  have  died  in  the  Lord,  have 
not  perished,  but  will  rise  again; 
then  we  are  no  longer  in  our  sins, 
but    our    Redemption    is    complete. 



True  Easter-joy,  therefore,  is  a  joy 
of  faith. 

Faith  must  have  a  solid  founda- 
tion, a  certainty  without  the  shadow 
of  a  doubt,  a  divine  sanction  and 
confirmation.  Only  then  will  it 
readily  and  joyfully  embrace  the 
truths  proposed;  only  then  can  it 
exert  a  beneficent  influence  on  our 
moral  actions.  Now,  this  solid 
foundation,  this  unerring  certainty, 
this  divine  confirmation,  our  faith 
has  received  through  the  Resurrec- 
tion of  Christ.  With  this  fundamental 
truth  stands  and  falls  the  whole 
superstructure  of  our  faith.  Let  it  be 
conclusively  proved  that  the  story 
of  Christ's  Resurrection  is  a  myth, 
and  in  a  moment  we  are  infidels; 
but  let  it  be  satisfactorily  shown  that 
Christ  "is  risen  indeed,"  and  in  that 
instant  we  conceive  a  faith  broad 
enough  to  accept  all  the  teachings 
of  Christ.  For,  if  Christ  rose  from 
the  dead,  then,  beyond  all  pread- 
venture,  He  is  God,  and  every  word 
He  uttered,  and  every  truth  He 
taught  must  be  unquestionably  and 
infallibly  true.  This,  then,  should 
be  the  reason  and  the  keynote  of  our 
Easter-joy:  because  Christ  is  really 
risen  from  the  dead,  therefore  our 
faith  is  not  vain,  and  as  Christ  our 
head  has  gloriously  risen  from  the 
dead,  so  we,  the  members  of  his 
mystic  body,  shall  also  rise  trium- 
phant from  the  grave. 

Tertiaries  and  Frequent 
Holy  Communion. 

The  practice  of  frequent  Com- 
munion is  so  salient  a  feature  of 
Catholic  life  that  Tertiaries  will  bear 
with  us  if  we  call  their  attention 

While  it  must  be  admitted  that 
the  increased  frequency  of  Holy 
Communion  is  very  marked  at  the 
present  time,  it  can  not  be  denied 
that  many  of  our  best  and  most 
edifying  Catholics,  and  among  them 

also  Tertiaries,  have  not  yet  learnt 
to  overcome  a  certain  hesitancy  in 
approaching  the  Holy  Table.  Their 
fears  are  no  doubt  the  result  of  in- 
adequate views  that  may  be  traced 
to  a  certain  mistaken  sense  of  rev- 
erence. Since  the  Holy  Father, 
however,  has  declared  that  only 
two  conditions  are  requisite  for 
frequent  reception  of  Holy  Commun- 
ion, namely,  the  state  of  grace  and  a 
right  intention,  and  that  Catholics 
who  find  themselves  so  disposed, 
should  partake  of  the  Divine  Ban- 
quet frequently  and  even  daily,  if 
possible,  Tertiaries  ought  not  stand 
in  need  of  further  impulsion  .from 
their  pastors  or  confessors. 

There  is  many  a  zealous  priest 
who,  animated  with  the  desire  of 
fulfilling  the  instructions  of  the 
Supreme  Pontiff,  and  of  increasing 
the  love  and  honor  of  the  Eucharis- 
tic  God  in  the  hearts  of  his  parish- 
ioners, is  racking  his  brains  to  find 
some  means  of  introducing  the  prac- 
tice of  frequent  and  daily  Commun- 
ion in  his  parish.  The  people  are 
indifferent  or  at  least  slow  to  re- 
spond to  his  wishes  and  exhorta- 
tions. Now  might  not  Tertiaries  come 
to  the  assistance  of  their  pastors 
by  setting  the  example  to  the  other 
parishioners  in  this  as  in  all  other 
matters?  What  matters  it  if  they 
have  been  brought  up  in  a  more 
timid  practice  than  is  now  so  dis- 
tinctly taught  by  the  Church?  Let 
them  reflect  and  be  reassured.  Let 
them  remember  that  Christ's  in- 
tention in  instituting  the  Blessed 
Eucharist  was  not  that  he  might 
be  reverenced  but  that  he  might  be 
received.  Let  them  not  flatter  them- 
selves that  they  are  doing  their 
duty  as  Tertiaries  if  they  receive 
Holy  Communion  once  a  month,  as 
their  Rule  prescribes.  More  is  de- 
manded of  them,  because  more  has 
been  given  them.  Besides  the  duty 
of  seif-sanctificatinn,  they  have  the 
obligation  of  laboring  for  the  better- 
ment of  society.     But  it  is  evident 


that  there  will  be  no  help  for  the 
world  at  large  until  frequent  and 
daily  Communion  becomes  a  general 
practice  among  Christians  of  every 
rank  and  state.  To  expedite  this 
blessed  time  should  be  the  fervent 
prayer  and  pious  endeavor  of  every 

The  Catholic  Encyclopedia 

The  last  volume  of  the  Catholic 
Encyclopedia  has  lately  made  its 
appearance.  This  marks  the  suc- 
cessful termination  of  one  of  the 
greatest  literary  enterprises  ever 
undertaken  by  Catholics.  The  work 
is  too  well  known  to  need  an  intro- 
duction or  recommendation.  The 
editors  of  this  monumental  work 
have  had  a  truly  herculean  task, 
but  they  proved  themselves  fully 
equal  to  it.  The  Catholic  clergy 
and  laity  have  been  loud  in  their 
praise,  and,  indeed,  they  are  de- 
serving of  the  warmest  thanks  and 
heartiest  congratulations  of  all  Eng- 
lish-speaking Catholics.  The  pro- 
gress of  the  work  was  watched  with 
keenest  interest  by  Catholics  and 
Protestants  alike,  and  each  forth- 
coming volume  evoked  new  praise 
and  admiration.  Some  years  ago 
The  American  Review  of  Re- 
views brought  a  lengthy  appre- 
ciation, teeming  with  all  sorts  of 
encomiums.  Lately  the  Chicago 
Record-Herald  has  likewise  added 
its  meed  of  praise.  Says  Edwin 
Shuman  in  the  issue  of  February  4: 

"One  of  the  most  noteworthy 
publication  enterprises  of  our  time, 
'The  Catholic  Encyclopedia'  is  now 
complete  in  fifteen  large  volumes — 
save  for  an  index  volume  soon  to 
follow.  Those  who  have  watched  its 
progress  must  feel,  regardless  of 
creed,  that  congratulations  are  due 
to  the  editors,  Dr.  Charles  Herber- 
mann,  Dr.  Edward  A.  Pace,  Dr. 
Conde    B.    Pallen,    Dr.    Thomas    J. 

Shahan,  Rev.  John  J.  Wynne,  S.  J., 
and  their  numerous  contributors. 
They  have  created  a  complete  and 
thoroughly  up  to  date  encyclo- 
pedia that  must  long  remain  a  land- 
mark in  the  field  of  religious  refer- 
ence books.  While  it  is  Roman 
Catholic  and  orthodox  in  its  view- 
point throughout,  as  the  imprimatur 
of  Cardinal  Farley  attests,  its  spirit 
is  as  modern  as  one  could  reasonably 
expect  and  its  handling  of  themes 
that  have  been  bitterly  debated  for 
centuries  is  unfailingly  good  tem- 

"As  the  Record-Herald  has  said 
before,  'The  Catholic  Encyclopedia' 
is  as  great  a  boon  to  Protestants  as 
to  Catholics,  for  it  offers  a  vast  fund 
of  information  never  before  so  easily 
accessible,  including  an  authoritative 
statement  of  the  church's  faith  and 
practice  at  the  present  moment  in  a 
thousand  details  of  dogma,  ritual 
and  tradition.  Its  historical  articles 
cover  the  whole  procession  of  the 
centuries  and  its  biographies  include 
all  Catholic  persons  of  prominence, 
both  lay  and  ecclesiastical,  from  Bible 
times  to  the  twentieth  century.  The 
articles  covering  the  world's  cities, 
states  and  nations,  with  the  present 
standing  of  church  affairs  in  each, 
should  be  of  value  to  investigators 
regardless  of  their  beliefs." 

From  the  "Errata"  of  the  Catho- 
lic Encyclopedia  we  gather  that 
Ad.  F.  Bandelier,  the  author  of  the 
article  on  Columbus  (Vol.  IV),  who 
at  first  supported  the  contention 
that  Juan  Perez,  the  friend  and  ad- 
viser of  the  great  discoverer,  was  a 
Dominican,  has,  since  writing  the 
article  in  question,  become  a  con- 
vert to  the  original  belief  that  the 
grand  old  man  of  La  Rabida  was  a 
Franciscan.  Let  us  hope  that  this 
will  help  to  set  the  mooted  question 
at  rest. 



An   Eventful  Night. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

ON  the  outskirts  of  a  western 
mining  town,  there  stood  many 
years  ago  a  humble  little 
church.  Humble  as  it  was,  it  soon 
became  the  pride  of  the  little  con- 
gregation and  its  zealous  pastor. 
The  latter,  Father  Nolton,  had  been 
appointed  by  his  bishop  to  build 
up  the  parish  and  collect  the  faithful 
scattered  in  the  mountains.  This 
arduous  task,  fraught  with  many 
difficulties  and  great  sacrifices,  the 
pious  priest  fulfilled  with  heroic 
patience.  In  consequence,  all  loved 
Father  Nolton;  and  Father  Nolton 
loved,  and  lived  for  his  "good  people 
from  the  hills,"  as  he  was  wont  to 
style  them. 

One  day  as  Father  Nolton  was 
saying  his  breviary  in  his  little  room 
adjoining  the  sacristy,  a  young  man 
entered,  and  greeting  politely,  asked: 
"Father,  did  Mr.  Reynolds  bring 
the  oil  for  the  sanctuary  light?" 

"No,  John,  he  did  not;  1  suppose 
the  roads  are  too  rough  for  him. 
But  it  would  be  a  pity  if  we  would 
have  to  leave  the  holy  light  go  out." 

"Father,  I'll  go  over  to  Kirkville 
and  fetch  the  oil,  if  you  wish." 

"  Yes,  do,  John,"  replied  the  priest. 
You  know  tomorrow  is  Sunday,  and 
it  would  not  do  to  wait  till  the  last 

"All  right,  I'll  go  over  on  horse- 
back," said  John;  "the  trip  will  do 
Prince  good." 

"But  be  sure  to  bundle  up  well," 
the  priest  warned,  "because  the  wind 
has  shifted  to  the  north.  I  fear  you 
will  have  a  rough  trip,  John,  for  this 
is  regular  blizzard  weather." 

"Just  the  weather  for  me,  Father. 
Why,  look!  it  is  snowing  now.  I 
must  be  off."  With  this  John 
slipped  his  brown  fur  cap  over  his 
ears,  buttoned  his  overcoat,  and  with 
a    hearty    "Goodbye,    Father,    I'll 

surely  be  back  before  eight,"  left 
the  room.  In  a  few  minutes  the  fa- 
miliar clatter  of  hoofs  brought  Father 
Nolton  to  the  window  just  in  time  to 
answer  John's   wave   of  goodbye. 

"There  goes  a  good  soul,"  mused 
the  priest  as  he  saw  John's  broad 
figure  disappearing  in  the  fleecy  veil 
of  snow.  Indeed,  John  Gorman 
was  a  noble-hearted  fellow.  Every- 
body knew  John,  or  "Jack"  as  he 
was  familiarly  called.  Only  three 
years  ago  he  had  settled  down  with 
his  wife  and  an  only  child  on  a  little 
farm  not  far  from  the  church.  The 
humble  home,  a  quaint  little  cottage, 
harbored  peace  and  happiness  such 
as  only  Heaven  can  bestow.  The 
reason  was  not  far  to  seek.  Both 
John  and  his  wife  led  a  life  pleasing 
in  the  sight  of  God  and  man.  It  was 
no  other  than  John  who  brought 
food  and  raiment  to  the  aged  widow 
beyond  the  creek;  and  it  was  a  source 
of  pleasure  for  his  young  wife  to  visit 
and  console  the  old  lady  in  her 
sickness.  When  arrangements  were 
to  be  made  for  any  festival  of  the 
parish,  John  was  the  first  to  lend  a 
helping  hand.  He  frequently  visited 
Father  Nolton  and  assisted  in  the 
work  about  the  church.  When  a 
sick-call  came,  John  would  leave  his 
work  and  hasten  to  aid  the  priest 
on  his  important  mission.  How  his 
heart  beat  with  noble  pride  when, 
seated  in  the  carriage  beside  Father 
Nolton,  he  could  urge  his  faithful 
horse  at  a  lively  pace  over  the  coun- 
try road  to  save  a  dying  soul!  What 
sentiments  of  love  and  adoration 
filled  his  simple  heart  at  the  thought 
that  he  was  conveying  his  Lord  and 
God — the  Life  and  Salvation  of  all! 
On  such  a  man  and  such  a  family 
Heaven  must  needs  shower  blessings 
and  graces  superabundant. 

Night  had  set  in.    The  seemingly 



harmless  flurry  which  had  gladdened 
the  heart  of  John,  was  but  the  har- 
binger of  a  heavy  blizzard.  It.  was 
a  quarter  to  nine.  Father  Nolton 
was  seated  beside  the  stove  rehears- 
ing the  points  of  his  sermon  for  the 
morrow.  "John  promised  to  be 
back  by  eight,"  he  said,  looking  at  his 
watch.  "Oh  well,  the  roads  are 
pretty  bad;  besides,  a  person  must 
pick  his  way  mighty  carefully  in 
such  a  storm  as  this."  The  little 
clock  on  the  table  was  ticking  merrily, 
as  if  bent  on  keeping  time  with  the 
crackling  of  the  bright  log-fire. 
Nine  o'clock — and  no  sign  of  John 
Gorman.  Father  Nolton  grew  some- 
what alarmed.  He  arose,  and  going 
to  the  window,  listened.  But  no 
sound  greeted  his  ears  save  the  raging 
storm  and  the  sweeping  of  the  snow 
against  the  window  panes.  "Has 
something  happened?"  queried  the 
priest  as  he  paced  across  the  room 
with  nervous  tread.  But  what  was 
that!  A  faint  sound  as  of  rumbling; 
it  grew  stronger  and  more  distinct, 
revealing  at  length  the  welcome  thud 
of  hoofs  in  the  soft  snow.  The  next 
minute  Prince  was  heard  passing  the 
door  on  his  way  to  the  barn. 

"Thank  Heaven,"  exclaimed  Fa- 
ther Nolton,  "come  at  last!"  and 
snatching  up  the  poker,  he  stirred  the 
fire  vigorously,  sending  myriads  of 
sparks  whirling  into  the  dismal 
night.  Five  minutes — ten  minutes — 
fifteen  minutes  passed,  but  John 
failed  to  appear.  Presently  the 
neighing  of  Prince  brought  Father 
Nolton  to  his  feet.  Hastening  to 
the  door  he  called  out:  "John,  oh 
John!"  But  a  suppressed  neigh  of 
the  horse  was  the  only  answer. 
"What  is  this!"  cried  the  priest  as 
he  rushed  towards  the  barn.  There 
before  the  closed  door  stood  the  old 
horse — riderless.  "John!"  again 
shouted  Father  Nolton.  No  re- 
sponse. The  biting  blast  of  the  bliz- 
zard seemed  to  rebuke  him  for  dis- 
turbing its  sombre  wail.  In  an  in- 
stant all  was  clear  to  Father  Nolton. 

To  don  his  fur-coat  and  cap,  and  slip 
on  his  overshoes,  was  but  the  work 
of  a  few  moments;  then  springing 
into  the  saddle  he  passed  out  into 
the  night  in  search  of  John.  Prince 
was  limping  slightly  in  the  right 
fore-leg.  Had  he  stumbled  and 
thrown  his  rider?  The  priest  trembled 
with  anxiety  as  he  strained  his  eyes 
to  scour  the  lonely  country  road. 
Onward  they  pressed  at  a  cautious 
gait — but  no  trace  of  John;  every- 
where the  same  velvety  spread  of 

The  storm  had  ceased;  through  the 
rifts  in  the  clouds  the  silent  stars 
began  to  appear,  inspiring  senti- 
ments of  hope.  Father  Nolton  grew 
impatient;  swinging  the  reins  over 
Prince's  head,  he  soon  brought  the 
animal  into  a  brisk  gallop.  Past 
hedges,  lanes,  and  farm-yards  they 
sped — but  John  was  nowhere  to  be. 
found.  At  length  they  neared  the 
creek  with  its  old  wooden  bridge. 
As  they  reached  the  ascent,  Prince 
grew  unruly;  he  pointed  his  ears 
nervously  now  to  the  right,  now  to 
the  left,  and  finally  refused  to  go  any 
farther.  "This  looks  suspicious," 
thought  Father  Nolton;  he  dis- 
mounted to  investigate.  Reaching 
the  bridge  he  stooped  over  the  edge 
and  peered  into  the  darkness  below. 
"John,"  he  called;  but  as  before  no 
response.  Just  as  he  was  turning, 
he  espied  at  the  opposite  angle  of 
the  bridge  evident  marks  of  a  struggle 
in  the  snow.  Undoubtedly,  Prince, 
blinded  by  the  storm,  had  fallen 
here  and  thrown  John  to  the  rocky 
bed  below!  Quick  as  lightning  Father 
Nolton  hurried  across  the  bridge 
and  was  soon  struggling  down  the 
rough  bank.  How  his  heart  beat  with 
expectation;  he  hoped  to  find  his 
faithful  John,  but  dreaded  to  see 
him  dead. — But  what  was  that  across 
the  ice,  against  the  rocky  bank! 
Lo!  there  lay  John  silent  in  death. 
The  wintry  night  had  covered  him 
with  its  pall  'of  white.  As  Father 
Nolton  raised  the  body,  the  moon 



passed  from  behind  a  cloud  as  if  to 
view  the  sad  spectacle  below.  Those 
eyes  that  greeted  all  with  their  genial 
brightness,  were  closed;  the  hands 
that  were  so  often  extended  in  char- 
ity, were  now  cold  and  clenched  in 
death.  John  had  gone  to  his  re- 
ward. After  a  hearty  prayer,  Father 
Nolton  hastily  prepared  to  remove 
the  body.  With  considerable  dif- 
ficulty he  bore  John  up  the  rugged 
bank;  then  placing  him  across  the 
horse,  he  took  the  reins,  and  the 
homeward  inarch  was  begun.  What 
a  dreary  trip  for  Father  Nolton. 
Anxious  thoughts  weighed  heavily 
upon  his  soul.  He  had  lost  a  dear 
friend,  a  kind  benefactor.  How  was 
he,  moreover,  to  break  the  dreadful 
news  to  John's  wife?  Learn  it  she 
must,  this  very  night;  for  evidently 
she  was  still  awake  and  waiting  for 
him.  One  consolation  cheered  the 
priest's  heart:  John  had  received 
Holy  Communion  just  on  the  pre- 
vious morning — the  first  Friday. 
These  and  similar  thoughts,  com- 
mingled with  an  occasional  prayer, 
were  the  sole  companions  of  Father 
Nolton,  until  at  length  he  arrived 
weary    and    foot-sore    at    his    little 


*     *     * 

Across  the  neighboring  field,  not 
far  from  the  church,  lay  a  little 
cottage.  A  young  mother  sat  by  the 
fireside  telling  her  beads.  On  her 
lap  an  only  child,  a  boy  of  four 
years,  was  sleeping  peacefully.  Pre- 
sently the  child  awoke  and  finding 
his  mother  alone,  said  in  a  whim- 
pering tone,  "Where  is  papa?" 

"Oh,  darling,  he  is  coming  soon," 
answered  the  mother.  "Shall  I 
put  you  to  bed?  You  can  see  papa  in 
the  morning,  Julius." — Just  then 
someone  was  heard  at  the  door 
stamping  the  snow  from  his  feet. 
Instantly  the  child  glided  from  his 
mother's  embrace  and  went  tripping 
to  the  door.  Mrs.  Gorman,  following, 
opened,  and  there  was — Father  Nol- 
ton.      For    a    moment    the    woman 

stood  perplexed.   Then  she  exclaimed 
anxiously:  "Father,  where  is  John?" 

"John  is  all  right  where  he  is," 
rejoined  the  priest  as  he  entered  the 
room — "but  he  met  with  a  mishap 
on  his  return."  After  a  series  of 
ingenious  answers  and  questions, 
Father  Nolton  at  last  broke  the 
terrible  news  to  her.  The  poor  widow 
clutched  her  rosary  to  her  bosom, 
and  falling  on  her  knees,  wept 
bitterly.  Little  Julius  stood  at  her 
side  crying  piteously  and  looking 
up  at  Father  Nolton  as  if  to  reproach 
him  for  causing  his  mama  to  cry. 
The  priest  consoled  Mrs.  Gorman 
with  words  of  unction,  such  as  only 
religion  can  prompt.  Then  she 
arose,  saying:  "Father,  I  must  see 
John  tonight."  Throwing  over 
a  heavy  shawl,  she  took  the  child  in 
her  arms  with  the  words:  "Come, 
darling,  we  shall  go  and  see  papa." 

We  may  easily  imagine  the  scene 
that  followed  when  the  bereaved 
mother  saw  her  own  dear  husband, 
her  loyal  and  loving  John,  stretched 
out  cold  and  lifeless.  She  cried — 
she  spoke  with  him — she  prayed. 
Then  raising  the  child  in  her  arms, 
she  said:  "See  papa,  Julius,  kiss  him, 
won't  you?" — and  the  child's  little 
tears  dropped  on  his  papa's  pallid 
brow  as  he  bent  over.  "Father,  I 
would  like  to  pray  in  church  for  a 
few  moments,"  she  said  turning  to 
Father  Nolton.  The  permission  was 
readily  granted,  and  she  passed  out 
into  the  sanctuary.  The  few  mo- 
ments, however,  proved  to  be  long 
minutes,  so  Father  Nolton  stepped 
cautiously  to  the  sacristy.  There 
through  the  window  he  beheld  by 
the  faint  glimmer  of  the  sanctuary 
lamp  the  mother  and  the  child  kneel- 
ing before  the  Lord  and  Master  of 
life  and  death.  Who  can  tell  what 
passed  between  that  stricken  mother 
and  her  God?  There  in  the  little 
tabernacle  was  He  who  had  consoled 
the  poor  widow  of  Nairn;  there  was 
He  who  cast  His  dying  gaze  from  the 
cross   upon   His   own   dear   Mother. 



Would  He  forsake  the  poor  afflicted 
mother  lying  prostrate  before  Him 
now? — The  pious  woman  arose  after 
some  time,  and  as  she  entered  the 
room  where  her  husband  lay,  she 
exclaimed:  "Father,  I  am  resigned. 
I  have  placed  all  in  the  hands  of 
Almighty  God.  He  will  protect  me 
and  my  child;  may  He  also  show 
mercy  to  my  husband."  And  out  into 
the  night  she  passed,  along  the  path 
that  John  had  so  often  trodden. 

It  was  a  glorious  June  morning. 
Many  winters  had  moaned  over  the 
lonely  grave  of  John  Gorman.  As 
many  summers  had  matured  his  only 
child'  and  adorned  him  with  the 
flower  of  manhood.  Time  had 
wrought  wonders  in  and  around  Fa- 
ther Nolton's  parish.  The  modest 
little  mining  town  had  grown  to  a 
busy  and  flourishing  city.  An  im- 
posing Gothic  structure  had  sup- 
planted the  quaint  little  frame 
church  of  yore.  But  what  festive 
occasion  had  called  forth  this  ela- 
borate display  of  banners  and  fes- 
toons? Why  were  the  bells  voicing 
their  most  powerful  melodies  and 
prolonging  their  jubilant  strain  on 
this  bright  summer  morning?  What 
celebration  was  this  that  attracted 
the  faithful  from  all  parts  of  the  city 
towards  the  church?  Let  us  enter 
the  sacred  edifice  and  see.  The 
great  tower  clock  strikes  ten,  and 
all  eyes  turn  towards  the  altar. 
Amid  the  joyful  peals  of  the  organ, 
the  little  altar  boys  swarm  into  the 
sanctuary;  the  larger  boys  in  their 
varied-colored  cassocks;  the  clergy; 
and  there  is  good  old  Father  Tsolton 
too  with  his  venerable  gray  locks; 
— then  follows  the  young  celebrant 
— Father  Julius  Gorman.  A  mother's 
heart  leaps  for  joy  at  sight  of  her 
only  son  vested  for  the  first  time  in 
his  priestly  garb.  "introibo  ad 
altare  Dei,"  All  present  in  the 
sanctuary  answer — except  the  aged 
Father  Nolton.  The  sentiments  of 
joy   and  gratitude  that   flooded   his 

heart,  choked  his  voice  and  brought 
tears  to  his  eyes.  His  long  cherished 
hope  had  at  length  been  realized, 
his  prayers  heard,  and  the  solemn 
promise  he  had  made  on  that  fatal 
night  beside  the  body  of  John  Gor- 
man, was  now  fulfilled.  He  had 
protected  the  child,  provided  for  an 
education,  and  finally  led  him  to  the 
crowning  point  of  his  life — to  the 
foot  of  the  altar  as  priest  of  the 
Most  High. 

C.  B.,  O.  F.  M. 

No  time  is  ours  but  the  present. 
The  time  gone  comes  no  more.  The 
time  to  come  may  find  us  gone  when 
it  comes. 

A  kind  act,  a  gentle  work,  a  loving- 
smile,  a  modest  demeanor  are  so 
many  seeds  that  we  can  scatter 
every  moment  of  our  lives,  and  which 
will  always  spring  up  and  bear 

"Mens  faces  looking  into  a  sunset 
are  golden;  so  will  our  lives  be  if  tirey 
are  always  looking  into  the  face  of 
coming  death". — Father  Faber. 

The  members  of  the  Third  Order 
in  Yiego,  Spain,  have  purchased  the 
El  Noticiero,  a  daily  paper,  and 
converted  it  into  a  daily  organ  for 
Tertiaries.  An  English  Catholic 
daily  for  the  twenty  millions  of 
Catholics  of  the  United  States  seems 
to  be  regarded  as  the  one  impossi- 
bility in  this  land  of  unlimited  possi- 

In  answer  to  inquiries  we  wish  to 
state  that  Father  Cuthbert's  Life  of 
St.  Francist  reviewed  in  these  col- 
umns in  our  last  issue,  may  be  pur- 
chased at  Messrs.  Longmans,  Green, 
and  Co.,  New  York. 

Franciscan  News. 

Rome  —  (Correspondence).  —  The 
Vicar  Apostolic  of  North  Shansi, 
Msgr.  Massi,  had  asked  the  Most 
Rev.  Father  General  to  send  to  the 
Chinese  missions  two  fathers,  to 
teach  the  English,  German  and 
French  languages  at  a  high  school 
that  the  Chinese  government  had 
erected  in  that  district.  In  com- 
pliance with  this  request  Father 
Maurus  Kluge,  of  the  German 
province  of  Silesia,  Father  Ephrem 
Piebourg,  of  the  French  province 
of  St.  Denis,  and  Father  Hyacinth 
Balachi,  of  Bologna,  Italy,  set  sail 
for  the  far  East  January  7.  They 
were  accompanied  by  Father  Ed- 
ward Boedefeld,  and  Father  James 
Giardelli,  who  will  devote  themselves 
to  the  missions  of  North  Shantung 
and  East  Hupe. 

Father  Juniper  Doolin,  0.  F.  M., 
of  the  Sacred  Heart  province,  re- 
turning from  his  missionary  labors 
in  China,  spent  a  few  days  in  the 
eternal  city.  In  a  private  audience 
with  the  Holy  Father,  His  Holiness, 
among  other  things  said:  "Pray 
often  for  the  Holy  Father  and  the 
needs  of  the  Church." 

The  Rev.  Honoratus  Carcaterra, 
O.  F.  M.,  who  was  lately  appointed 
Gustos  of  the  Holy  Land,  left 
Naples  January  11,  to  enter  upon 
his  important  and  difficult  office  in 
the  Holy  City. 

On  Tuesday,  January  21,  in  the 
Altemps  Palace,  the  residence  of 
His  Emminence,  Cardinal  Vives  y 
Tuto,  O.  M.  Cap.,  was  held  a  pre- 
paratory congregation  of  the  Sacred 
Rites  in  which  the  prelates  and  con- 
suitors     discussed     and     gave     their 

votes  on  three  miracles  said  to  have 
been  wrought  by  God  at  the  inter- 
cession of  the  Venerable  Maria 
Crocifissa,  Franciscan  Tertiary,  and 
which  are  proposed  for  her  Beati- 
fication. Preparations  have  also 
been  made  for  the  Beatification  of 
the  Venerable  Mother  Maria  Fran- 
cisca  Schervier,  founder  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan Sisters  of  Aix  la  Chapelle, 
Germany.  This  congregation  which 
developed  rapidly  has  also  a  number 
of  houses  in  the  United  States. 
The  Beatification  of  Venerable  Mo- 
ther Schervier  will,  therefore,  cause 
great  joy  not  only  to  all  Tertiaries 
of  the  Seraphic  Order,  but  also  to 
all  friends  and  patrons  of  the  con- 
gregation in  these  parts. 

In  the  Chamber  of  Deputies  a 
measure  was  recently  introduced  to 
erect  a  magnificent  monument  at 
Henni,  Lybia,  where  a  number  of 
Italian  soldiers  were  crucified  by  the 
Arabs  during  the  late  Turko-Italian 
war.  Characteristic  of  the  intense 
hatred  of  the  massonic  government 
every  symbol  of  the  Christian  re- 
ligion, even  the  cross,  is  to  be  ex- 
cluded. Against  this  unchristian 
measure  Father  Geroni  of  Florence, 
one  of  the  many  Franciscans  that 
accompanied  the  Italian  troops  as 
chaplains  voiced  a  vigorous  protest 
by  addressing  an  open  letter  to  the 
government,  in  which  among  other 
things  he  says:  "Public  opinion  will 
never  permit  that  the  cross,  the 
symbol  of  victory  and  eternal  life, 
be  banished  from  the  monument  to 
be  erected  over  the  remains  of  our 
heroes  fallen  in  battle.  Why  should 
this    sacred    sign,     that    alone    has 


given  courage  to  our  soldiers  in 
battle,  and  consolation  to  the  widows 
and  orphans,  be  banished  from  their 
tomb?  Many  noble  sons  of  Italy 
have  died  in  my  arms,  on  the  battle- 
field, in  the  hospitals,  in  dreadful 
captivity,  but  not  one  of  them — 
not  one,  I  repeat, — feared  to  give  up 
his  life  gladly  when  his  breaking  eyes 
rested  on  the  image  of  his  crucified 

Manchuria. — At  the  very  out- 
break of  the  Chinese  revolution, 
many  cities  of  the  Yang-tse  District 
opened  their  gates  to  the  enemies 
of  the  old  dynasty.  Kingchu  alone 
made  ready  for  strenuous  resistance. 
The  27,000  Manchus  of  this  city 
were  not  minded  to  turn  over  to 
the  hated  Chinese  the  old  fortress, 
which  for  centuries  had  been  the 
pride  of  their  tribesmen. 

Soon  a  Republican  army  of  10,000 
men  advanced  and  with  their  modern 
cannon  began  a  vigorous  bombard- 
ment of  the  city.  The  Manchus  now 
realized  that  resistance  meant  de- 
struction. They  would  gladly  have 
made  overtures  to  the  besiegers; 
but  in  their  mortal  fear  of  the  Re- 
publicans, nobody  dared  act  as 
mediator.  In  this  emergency,  the 
city  authorities  begged  Fr.  Mar- 
celius,  of  the  local  Franciscan  mis- 
sion, to  make  the  necessary  ad- 
vances. Fr.  Mareellus  volunteered 
to  meet  the  enemy.  But  though  the 
Republicans  received  him  most 
courteously,  their  terms  were  sum- 
mary; unconditional  surrender  of 
all  arms  and  ammunition,  and  of  the 
city  itself.  The  demand  personally 
to  turn  over  their  arms  to  the 
despised  Chinese,  was  too  much  for 
the  racial  pride  of  the  Manchus;  and 
there  was  much  higgling  before  they 
were  willing  even  to  stack  their  arms 
in  the  local  Catholic  church  and 
thus    surrender   them.  However, 

under  the  presidency  of  Fr.  Angelus, 
O.  F.  M.,  a  parley  was  held  between 
the  Manchu  marshal  and  the  Chinese 
generals.      Here   an   agreement  was 

reached  on  the  following  terms:  1. 
The  Manchus  lay  down  their  arms 
in  the  Catholic  church  and  surrender 
the  city;  2,  the  Republicans  pay  an 
indemnity  of  ten  dollars  for  every 
gun  surrendered;  3,  the  Republicans 
pledge  themselves  for  the  lives  and 
property  of  the  Manchus;  4,  the 
Republic  gives  the  Manchus  their 
regular  soldiers'  salary  for  the  next 
six  months. 

The  very  next  day  some  300  guns 
were  deposited  as  agreed;  soon  there 
were  3000.  Sixteen  cannon  were 
drawn  up  at  the  church  door,  and 
boxes  of  ammunition  were  piled 
about  the  courts.  But  when  the  time 
came  to  surrender  the  city,  no  one 
could  be  induced  to  hoist  the  white 
flag.  Here  again  the  marshal  turned 
to  Fr.  Mareellus,  and  the  affair  was 
happily  terminated.  On  December 
17,  1911,  the  Republicans  entered 
Kingchu.  At  the  head  of  their  col- 
umns rode  three  generals  of  the 
Republic  accompanied  by  the  mis- 
sioners.  Boundless  enthusiasm  pre- 
vailed in  the  city, — among  the  Man- 
chus for  their  unexpected,  honorable 
relief,  among  the  Chinese  for  the 
speedy  capitulation  of  the  city.  The 
ingenious  services  of  the  missioners 
were  on  every  tongue, — and  much 
good  was  to  come  of  it. 

Even  previous  to  the  war,  not  a 
few  Manchus  had  shown  favor  to  the 
Catholic  church.  Now  that  they 
owed  their  lives  to  the  courageous 
Franciscans,  and  had  no  hope  for 
the  future  if  not  in  the  missioners,  the 
favor  of  a  few  grew  into  the  enthu- 
siasm of  multitudes.  In  a  hand's 
turn  Kingchu  had  become  a  great 
mission  center.  Applications  of 
adult  converts  came  so  thick  upon 
one  another  that  the  missioners 
could  not  keep  account  of  them. 
According  to  Mgr.  EverJbrts,  O.  F. 
M.,  Apostolic  Vicar  of  that  region, 
upwards  of  6000  have  since  been 
formally    enrolled    as    catechumens. 

This  unexpected  turn  of  affairs 
embarrassed  the  clergy  not  a  little. 



In  the  Manchu-Tatars  they  confront 
a  peculiar  class  of  people.  Three 
hundred  years  of  high-handed  sway 
in  China  have  marked  them  with  a 
kind  of  haughty  self-consciousness. 
Besides,  up  to  this  time  all  had  been 
soldiers  or  pensioners  of  the  govern- 
ment, knowing  never  a  care  for  the 
morrow.  What  were  they  to  do  for 
a  livelihood  upon  the  lapse  of  their 
pensions?  Again,  how  were  those 
thousands  of  converts  to  be  properly 
instructed?  And  what  of  the  child- 
ren? Mgr.  Everaerts  hurried  to  the 
scene  to  direct  the  organization  of  a 
church.  Six  missioners  and  several 
nuns  were  called  in  from  district 
posts,  the  city  was  divided  into 
various  catechumenates,  three  splen- 
did Tatar  palaces  were  converted 
into  oratories.  'Fifteen  schools  were 
established  for  the  convenience  of 
male  converts;  the  women  were  con- 
signed to  the  charge  of  the  Fran- 
ciscan Sisters.  Thus  the  spiritual 
needs  were  met.  The  greater  difficul- 
ty was  to  find  work  for  the  converts. 
One  blow  had  cut  them  off  from  their 
profession  and  livelihood,  and  not 
having  the  faintest  knowledge  of  any 
other  occupation,  they  were  bound 
to  be  demoralized.  The  bishops 
tegan,  rather  diffidently,  by  opening 
up  workshops  for  the  men  and  sewing 
schools  for  the  women.  But  it  was 
hard  for  these  born  grandees  to  take 
to  servile  work.  However,  the  al- 
ternative of  pinching  need  was  still 
harder,  and  soon  the  catechumenates 
of    Kingchu   were  abuzz  with  work. 

Conditions  now  are  in  the  highest 
degree  encouraging.  "The  days  .of 
St.  Xavier  have  returned,"  writes  Fr. 
Noel  Gubbels.  It  seems  God  wishes 
to  give  the  Manchus  the  Kingdom  of 
Heaven  in  return  for  their  lost 
empire  on  earth. — (Kath.  Mission- 
en.)  • 

China. — Fr.  Joseph  Gerenton,  0. 
F.  M.,  missionary  in  Linku,  East 
Shantung,  reports  the  discover}-  of  a 
proof  that  Catholicity  was  known 
in  his  district  200  years  ago.     The 

tombstone  of  a  man  named  Lian  was 
found,  bearing  the  date  1713.  The 
epitaph  consisted  of  our  Creed  and 
a  summary  of  Catholic  truths  ending 
with  the  doctrine  of  the  Immaculate 
Conception.  By  the  inscription, 
Lian  was  a  thorough  Christian  as  well 
as  a  scholar  of  public  note. 

France. — A  flourishing  congrega- 
tion is  that  of  the  Franciscan  Mis- 
sionary Sisters  of  Mary.  There  is 
something  touching  in  the  mere 
recital  of  the  following  eloquent 
facts:  Oct.  30,  seven  of  the  Sisters 
embarked  for  Madagascar;  Oct.  31, 
three  for  Damascus  in  Syria;  Nov. 
1,  seven  for  Casablanca,  Morocco; 
Nov.  3,  twelve  for  the  Philippines; 
Nov.  17,  a  detachment  for  China. 
When  the  Turko-Balkan  hostilities 
were  at  their  height,  ten  of  the  con- 
gregation were  sent  to  do  ambulance 
duty  for  the  allies,  while  ten  others, 
headed  by  Mother  Mary  Magda- 
lene, a  niece  of  Count  Albert  de  Mun 
and  the  superior  at  the  house  of 
Paris,  went  to  Constantinople  to  aid 
their  Sisters  of  that  place,  who  were 
overworked  with  the  care  of  the 

At  Puy,  the  Third  Order  is  con- 
ducting a  noble  work  of  charity. 
Several  young  ladies  of  the  frater- 
nity have  united  to  assist  the  aged 
and  helpless  about  their  households. 
Regularly,  after  attending  to  their 
own  day's  duties,  they  meet  to 
prepare  and  to  mend  linens  for  distri- 
bution, working  till  late  in  the  even- 
ing. It  is  not  necessary  to  say  that 
their  visits  are  like  sunbeams  into 
the  cheerless  homes  of  the  unfor- 
tunate, where  often  they  find  every- 
thing wanting:  food,  fuel,  and — love. 
A  friendly  greeting,  a  word  of  sym- 
pathy, tidying  the  room,  making  the 
beds,  a  little  fuel,  an  alms  here  and 
there,  the  promise  to  return, — and 
the  world  looks  more  cheerful  to 
God's  poor. 

Italy. — At  Ancona  a  venerable 
matron  of  104  years  has  entered  the 
Third   Order.      After   receiving   the 



habit,  she  said  to  the  religious  in 
attendance:  " The  last  in  religion  and 
the  first  in  age,  I  send  my  greeting  to 
all  my  fellow-religious." 

Spain. — The  Third  Order  is  in  a 
flourishing  condition  in  Spain.  Mad- 
rid alone  numbers  6000  Tertiaries. 
In  Catalonia,  owing  to  the  united 
efforts  of  Franciscans,  Capuchins, 
and  Conventuals,  headway  has  been 
made  toward  the  federation  of  the 
various  fraternities,  and  the  con- 
vention held  at  Compostella  in  1909 
justifies  the   brightest   outlook. 

Austro-Hungary. — Two  years  ago 
the  Tertiaries  of  Trent  erected  a 
protectory  for  children,  out  of  their 
funds.  The  well-furnished  buildings, 
excellently  situated  on  an  eminence, 
already  number  one  hundred  child- 
ren, aged  from  four  to  fourteen 

Portugal. — From  the  unscrupulous 
fashion  in  which  the  new  government 
of  Portugal  ruptured  connections  with 
the  Church,  the  Catholic  world  was 
prepared  for  any  ruthless  measures 
of  repression  from  these  "champions 
of  liberty."  But  what  no  body  dreamt 
of  is,  that  the  government  should  call 
upon  the  Third  Order  promptly  to 
disband,  lest  they  be  disbanded 
forcibly.  This  step  is  the  prompting 
of  a  devilish  hatred  of  Christianity. 
The  atheistic  pettifoggers  see  in 
the  Third  Order  a  nursery  of  Christ- 
ian faith  and  virtue,  and  a  firm, 
though  unpretentious,  countercheck  to 
their  godless  schemes.  Hence  the 
venom.  Viewed  in  this  light,  the 
suppression  of  the  Third  Order  in 
Portugal  is  a  credit  to  the  Order;  it 
is  a  declaration  from  the  enemies  of 
religion  that  the  Third  Order  strength- 
ens and  supports  Catholic  life. 

Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church. — 
The  parochial  school  connected  with 
St.  Peter's  is  a  free  school  and  is  now 
attended  by  some  three  hundred 
children.  More  than  three-fourths 
of  these  are  Italians,  and  the  rest 
are  Syrians,  Arabians,  Germans, 
Irish  and  Poles. 

For  some  time  the  school  buildings 
were  too  small  and  last  fall  an  addi- 
tion was  built.  New  sanatory  lava- 
tories were  also  installed.  To  defray 
the  expenses  a  bazaar  was  held  in 
November  lasting  three  days.  The 
Tertiaries  and  other  friends  of  St. 
Peter's  responded  very  generously, 
so  that  a  little  over  $5,000  were 

The  Sisters  of  Notre  Dame  from 
Milwaukee  are  in  charge  of  the  school 
since  1868,  and  their  gentle  and 
efficient  work  has  done  very  much  for 
the  poor  children  of  the  neighbor- 

.  A  very  successful  retreat  for  the 
members  of  the  St.  Vincent  de  Paul 
Society  was  conducted  by  Rev. 
Fr.  Christopher  Guithues,  Ol  F.  M., 
at  St.  Peter's.  The  retreat  com- 
menced on  Ash  Wednesday,  and  the 
Rev.  Father  spoke  on  the  "duties 
of  a  member  of  the  society  towards 
God,  towards  his  neighbor,  and  to- 
wards himself."  On  Sunday,  Feb- 
ruary 9,  about  two  hundred  members 
received  Holy  Communion. 

The  year  1912  was  very  successful 
for  the  German  branch  of  the  Third 
Order.  During  this  time  121  new 
members  were  received,  and  59 
made  their  profession. 

The  monthly  meeting  of  the  Eng- 
lish branch  of  the  Third  Order,  on 
the  third  Sunday  of  January,  was 
well  attended.  After  the  sermon  55 
candidates  asked  to  be  received  into 
the  Third  Order.  They  all  had  pre- 
viously received  an  instruction  on 
the  nature,  obligations  and  privi- 
leges of  the  Third  Order.  These 
instruction,  which  are  given  on  the 
fourth  Sunday  of  the  month  at 
3  P.  M.  in  the  basement  hall  of  the 
church,  were  commenced  in  January, 
1912.  They  are  primarily  intended 
for  the  candidates  and  novices,  but 
many  professed  members  avail  them- 
selves of  this  opportunity  to  learn 
more  fully  their  obligations  as  Ter- 

St.   Augustine's   Church. — A  very 



successful  mission  was  given  at  St. 
Boniface  church,  Hastings,  Minn., 
nineteen  miles  south  of  St.  Paul. 
Rev.  Fr.  William  Eversmann,  0.  S. 
B.,  the  zealous  pastor  of  this  church, 
had  done  all  in  his  power  to  prepare 
the  congregation  for  this  extraor- 
dinary time  of  grace.  The  people 
came  fervently  to  all  the  exercises. 
Although  the  weather  was  below 
zero  nearly  all  the  time,  the  divine 
services  were  always  well  attended. 
More  than  1450  Holy  Communions 
were  received. 

During  the  past  year  54  novices 
were  admitted  to  the  Third  Order, 
whilst  30  made  their  profession,  and 
9  Tertiaries  passed  to  their  eternal 
reward.  Three  Tertiaries  who  had 
belonged  to  other  branches  of  the 
Third  Order  were  incorporated  in  the 
local    branch. 

Humphrey,  Neb. — The  new  resi- 
dence of  the  Franciscan  Fathers  was 
solemnly  blessed  by  the  Very  Rev. 
Fr.  Provincial  Benedict  Schmidt,  O. 
F.  M.,  on  February  13.  The  Rev. 
Fathers  Pacificus  Kohnen,  Casimir 
Hueppe  and  Cyriac  Stempel,  Su- 
periors of  Omaha,  St.  Bernard  and 
Columbus,  Neb.,  respectively,  as 
also  other  Fathers  from  the  neigh- 
borhood, took  part  in  the  celebra- 
tion. Fr.  Florentius  Kurzer,  0.  F. 
M.,  is  the  superior  of  the  community 
at  Humphrey. 

Dubuque,  la. — The  formal  de- 
dication of  the  new  residence  of  the 
Fathers  at  Dubuque  will  take  place 
March  2.  At  this  time  it  is  expected 
that  Very  Rev.  Fr.  Provincial  will 
come  to  Dubuque  and  the  Most  Rev. 
Archbishop  will  solemnly  dedicate 
the  new  house.  The  part  of  Holy 
Trinity  church  which  was  left  un- 
finished at  the  time  of  the  erection  of 
the  edifice  is  also  about  complete. 
The  Fathers  have  been  very  active 
since  their  arrival  in  Dubuque  a 
little  over  a  year  ago,  having  built  the 
residence  and  completed  the  church 
in  that  time. 

Keshena,   Wis. — An   aged   Indian 

woman,  familiarly  known  as  "  grand- 
ma" Susan  Wabano,  was  called  to 
her  eternal  reward  several  weeks 
ago.  She  left  behind  to  bewail  her 
loss  sons  and  daughters  from  60  to 
70  years  of  age,  grandchildren  of  45, 
and  great-grandchildren  from  15  to 
20  years  of  age.  The  funeral  was 
held  at  St.  Mary's  of  the  Woods, 
Kinepoway  Settlement,  Wis.  Though 
there  was  no  long  line  of  carriages 
nor  a  display  of  wreaths  and  flowers, 
the  attendance  of  the  whole  congre- 
gation— the  greater  part  of  which 
received  Holy  Communion  at  the 
Requiem  for  the  repose  of  the  soul 
of  the  deceased — amply  showed  the 
genuine  sympathy  universally  felt 
for  the  beloved  "grandma."  The 
Indians  seem  to  have  an  inborn 
reverence  for  old  age;  every  person 
of  advanced  age  is  "grandpa"  or 
"grandma"  to  nearly  everybody  you 
meet.  They  likewise  have  the  praise- 
worthy custom  of  receiving  Holy 
Communion  at  the  funeral  Mass  of  a 
deceased  relative  or  friend — a  custom 
well  worthy  of  being  imitated  by 
their  white  brethren. 

The  feast  of  St.  Blase  on  February 
3  was  celebrated  at  Keshena  with  the 
usual  solemnity.  For  the  last  thirty 
years  this  feast  has  been  a  red- 
letter  day  among  the  Menominee 
Indians,  not  only  because  on  that 
day  the  Indians,  ever  enthusiastic  for 
ceremonies  and  sacramentals,  flock 
to  the  house  of  God  to  have  their 
throats  blessed,  but  especially  be- 
cause that  is  the  Saint's  Day  of  Fr. 
Blase  Krake,  O.  F.  M.,  who  for  thirty 
years  was  their  "  Machkotachkonia" 
(priest)  and  the  superior  of  the 
Keshena  Mission.  And  even  now, 
after  Fr.  Blase,  for  reasons  of  ill 
health,  has  left  the  difficult  mission- 
field,  the  devoted  Indians  continue 
to  observe  the  day  by  attending  the 
High  Mass  at  9  o'clock,  while  the 
school-children,  one  and  all,  approach 
the  Lord's  Table  in  grateful  remem- 
brance of  the  countless  blessings, 
temporal   and   spiritual,   which  they 



received  from  their  good  priest,  Fr. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — At  the  last 
monthly  meeting  of  the  Third  Order. 
St.  Boniface  church  was  filled  to  its 
capacity,  which  speaks  more  elo- 
quently than  words  can.  of  the  zeal 
of  its  Spiritual  Director,  the  Rev. 
Fr.  Josaphat.  O.  F.  M.  Women  as  a 
rule  naturally  take  to  religion,  but 
it  was  certainly  gratifying  to  note 
the  large  attendance  of  young  and 
old  men  at  the  meeting.  This  shows 
that,  after  all.  men  are  not  entirely 
indifferent  to  religion,  if  they  can 
only  be  made  to  see  the  advantages 
derived  from  the  consolations  of  our 
holy  faith  and  especially  the  spiritual 
benefits  accruing  to  them  by  being  a 
son  of  our  holy  Father  Francis.  The 
Spiritual  Director,  after  the  usual 
announcements  and  reading  of  the 
indulgences  to  be  obtained  during 
the  month,  made  the  announcement 
that  the  Rev.  Fr.  Michael,  O.  F.  AL, 
Commissary  of  California,  would 
deliver  the  sermon. 

Fr.  Michael,  whom  we  had  the 
pleasure  of  seeing  for  the  first  time, 
gave  a  very  powerful,  as  well  as  in- 
structive sermon — his  theme  being 
principally  to  drive  home  to  the 
minds  of  his  hearers  and  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Third  Order  the  neces- 
sity of  doing  cheerfully  the  will  of 
God  in  all  things,  in  whatsoever 
form  it  may  be  made  manifest  to 
us.  His  eloquent  words  made  a 
deep  impression  on  all  who  heard 
him.  Fr.  Michael  is  a  grand  char- 
acter and  he  has  impressed  all  who 
have  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  him 
and  hearing  him  speak. 

After  the  regular  meeting  18 
members  were  professed  and  22 
were  admitted  to  the  Order.  The 
private  meeting  which  takes  place 
immediately  after  services  was  pre- 
sided over  by  the  Prefect.  Air. 
John  Wellbank.  It  is  inspiring  to 
see  the  large  attendance  at  the  regu- 
lar monthly  meetings,  as  well  as  the 

wonderful  amount  of  good  the  Third 
Order  is  doing  in  this  their  patron- 
saint  City  of  St.  Francis. 

The  following  report  was  made  at 
the  meeting  held   December  30,1912: 

During  the  past  month  21  visits 
to  the  sick  were  made. — Aliss  Chirst- 
ina  Moran.  consultor,  Aliss  Lena 
Cole.  Miss  Elizabeth  Merrill  and 
Airs.  Chabot  were  called  to  their 
heavenly  reward.  138  pieces  of 
literature  were  distributed  among 
the  various  hospitals,  almshouse  and 
other  charitable  institution-. — About 
75  of  the  members  were  present  at 
the  wakes  and  funerals  during  the 
past  month.  Eight  members  were 
received  and  12  novices  professed  at 
the  last  general  meeting.  $65.00 
was  paid  out  in  charity,  and  the  other 
miscellaneous  expenses  amounted  to 
S25.00. — Two  of  the  members,  Aliss 
Josephine  Mascelli  and  Aliss  Irene 
Blanchard  entered  the  convent. 

Phoenix,  Ariz. — Some  weeks  ago 
a  Papago  Indian  boy  contracted  a 
very  serious  case  of  preimonia; 
but.  thanks  to  a  novena  to  the 
Sacred  Heart  and  the  fruits  of  a 
Holy  Alass,  the  boy  is  again  improv- 
ing very  nicely. 

A  very  sudden  death  overtook  a 
Pima  Indian  boy  of  Casa  Blanca. 
On  the  morning  of  January  25  he 
took  sick  and  at  7  o'clock  P.  AI.  he 
died.  The  physician  gives  the  burst- 
ing of  a  blood  vessel  in  the  brain  as 
the  probable  cause  of  death. 

On  February  2  thirty-four  boys 
were  received  into  the  Sodality  of  St. 

Cowlitz,  Wash. — The  new  resi- 
dence of  the  Fathers  was  dedicated 
January  14.  This  mission  was  begun 
in  1909;  three  Fathers  have  been 
stationed  there  for  some  time  and  it 
became  necessary  to  erect  more 
commodious  quarters.  Seven  mis- 
sions, all  of  which  are  in  a  flourishing 
condition,  and  nine  stations  are 
attended  from  Cowlitz. 



Our  Colleges. 

St.  Joseph's  Seraphic 

Regarding  the  value  of  examina- 
tions, educators  may  entertain  opin- 
ions diametrically,  opposed  to  each 
other.  Some  attach  to  them  the 
utmost  importance  and  would  make 
them  the  sole  test  for  promotion, 
whilst  others  see  no  advantage  what- 
ever in  such  oral  and  written  tasks 
and  would,  if  possible,  discard  them 
entirely.  Nevertheless,  the  experi- 
ence of  centuries  and  the  practice  of 
most  institutions  of  learning  war- 
rant their  usefulness  and  necessity. 
Examinations  evidently  urge  the 
student  to  thoroughly  revise  the 
matter  treated  in  the  class-room, 
they  arouse  a  worthy  emulation 
among  the  pupils,  and  they  bring 
out  the  student's  proficiency  and 
fitness  for  promotion.  For  such 
reasons  St.  Joseph's  College  also  has 
its  examinations,  both  oral  and  writ- 
ten, twice  a  year,  that  is  at  the  end 
of  each  school-term. 

On  January  22  and  23  the  Very 
Rev.  Provincial  Benedict  Schmidt, 
accompanied  by  the  Rev.  Father 
Rector  and  two  members  of  the 
faculty  visited  each  class,  and  in 
their  presence  the  professor  of  the 
class  examined  the  students  in  two 
branches  assigned  by  the  Rector. 
January  24  and  25  were  set  apart  for 
the  written  examinations  in  all 
branches.  On  January  29  the  stu- 
dents assembled  in  the  study-hall, 
and  the  Rev.  Father  Rector  pub- 
lished the  results  of  the  examina- 
tions, the  notes  merited  by  each 
boy  during  the  last  term  both  in 
conduct  and  application,  and  the 
standing  of  every  student  in  his 
class.  The  boys  that  obtained  the 
first  seat  in  their  class  (John  Sailer, 
II  Collegiate;  Joseph  Kola,  I  Col- 
legiate;  Joseph     Hermes,    IV    Aca- 

demic ;John  Schmidt,  III  Academic; 
Henry  Bene,  II  Academic)  were 
loudly  applauded  by  their  fellow- 

We  are  again  compelled  to  chron- 
icle the  sad  news  that  two  of  our 
aspirants  were  summoned  home  on 
account  of  serious  sickness  or  death 
in  their  families.  Lawrence  Vonder 
Haar  went  to  Quincy,  111.,  to  attend 
the  funeral  of  his  mother,  while 
Robert  Maslowski  was  called  to 
Ashland,  Wis.,  where  his  father  is  in 
a  critical  condition. 

(Fr.  R.  M.,  0.  F.  M.) 

St.  Anthony's  College. 

The  Faculty  and  students  of  St. 
Anthony's  College  extend  a  hearty 
welcome  to  the  attractive  grey- 
robed  Herald  that  came  with  the 
New  Year  to  greet  the  Golden  West, 
and  bring  even  to  these  "ends  of  the 
earth"  the  kindly  message  of  the 
Great  King. 

We  gratefully  accept  the  courteous 
offer  of  the  Management  to  bring  in 
their  columns  monthly  reports  of  our 
College-doings  and  happenings.  Our 
one  regret  is  that,  owing  to  our  far 
distance  from  the  office  of  the  Her- 
ald, the  data  sent  in  will  not  be  as 
recent,  and  therefore  not  as  inter- 
esting, as  would  be  desirable. 

The  students  closed  their  truly 
happy  Christmas  vacation  by  a  full 
day's  outing  in  the  mountains.  On 
January  3,  they  entered  upon  their 
annual  retreat,  a  fit  preparation  for 
the  second  semester  of  the  scholastic 
year.  The  retreat  was  conducted 
by  the  Rev.  Turibius  Deaver,  O.  F. 
M.,  former  Professor  of  the  College, 
and  present  Master  of  Novices  in 
Oakland,  California. 

On  Sunday,  January  19,  there  was 
established  at  the  College  a  new 
society,  called  "St.  Anthony's  Lit- 
erary Circle."      Rev.   Linus  Koene- 



mund.  0.  F.  M.,  Rector,  was  ac- 
claimed Honorary  President,  and 
Rev.  De  Sales  Gliebe,  0.  F.  M., 
Moderator;  the  officers  were  chosen 
from  among  the  students  of  the 
highest  class.  Walter  Wollensch- 
lager,  President.  John  Clark,  Vice 
President:  and  Rudolph  Eiche.  Sec- 
retary. Regular  meetings  of  the 
Circle  will  be  held  every  third  week. 
The  program  will  comprise  the  read- 
ing of  carefully  prepared  papers, 
delivery  of  orations  and  select  re- 
citations as  well  as  occasional  de- 

Under  the  direction  of  Rev.  De 
Sales  Werhand,  0.  F.  M.,  the  mem- 
bers of  the  senior  and  junior  choirs 
have  faithfully  practiced  and  learned 
the  new,  or  rather  the  old,  Gregorian 
Chant,  and  are  now  able  to  furnish 
the  singing  at  all  the  service-  held  in 
the  College  chapel. 

The  students  enjoyed  a  full  holiday 
on  January  29.  being  the  Saint  "s 
dav  of  the  two  Fathers  Francis  De 

In  the  course  of  the  month  Very 
Rev.  Michael  Richardt,  0.  F.  M., 
Commissary  Provincial,  and  Rev. 
Florian  Zettel.  0.  F.  M..  former  Sub- 
Rector  of  the  College,  were  welcome 

John  Clark. 

St.  Francis   Solanus 

On  Saturday,  January  18,  the 
Faculty  and  students  of  St.  Francis 
College  performed  the  sad  duty  of 
assisting  in  St.  Francis  Church  at 
the  funeral  services  of  Professor 
William  Timpe,  who  went  to  his 
eternal  reward,  Wednesday,  January 

Mr.  William  Timpe  was  born  in 
Quincy.  111.,  February  27,  1854 
of  a  highly  respected  Catholic  family. 
In  1881  he  became  a  member  of  the 
Faculty  of  this  institution,  a  posi- 
tion which  he  retained  uninter- 
ruptedly for  thirty-two  years,  teach- 

ing his  classes  up  till  Christmas  va- 
cation a  month  before  his  death. 
Prof.  Timpe  was  a  man  of  high  in- 
tellectual ability  and  attainments, 
an  earnest  student  of  deep  and  varied 
erudition,  devoted  with  heart  and 
soul  to  his  life's  work  and  to  the  in- 
stitution of  which  he  was  a  conspic- 
uous ornament.  A  true  Christian 
gentleman,  a  model  husband  and 
father,  a  sympathetic  friend  and 
companion,  he  endeared  himself  to 
all  with  whom  he  came  in  contact, 
above  all  to  his  fellow-professors  and 
to  his  students.  May  he  rest  in 

The  annual  retreat  for  the  stu- 
dents of  St.  Francis  College  began 
Wednesday  evening,  January  29, 
and  closed  the  following  Sunday 
morning.  It  was  conducted  by  the 
Rev.  Philip  Marke,  0.  F.  M.,  of  Du- 
buque, Iowa,  whose  interesting  lec- 
tures commanded  rapt  attention  on 
the  part  of  the  boys.  The  deport- 
ment of  the  students  was  most  edify- 
ing, and  the  result  is  further  justi- 
fication, if  such  were  necessary,  of 
the  part  that  religion  plays  in 
Catholic  education. 


Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church: 
Mary    Murphy,    Sister    Angelina; 

Margaret     Duncan,     Sister     Agnes; 

Patrick     Breen.     Brother     Francis; 

Catherine     Gaffney,     Sister     Mary; 

Catherine  McCarthy,  a  novice. 
St.    Augustine's   Church: 
Ida    Causemann;     Maria    Miller; 

Juliana  Henkel;  Maria  El.  Schmitt. 

St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St.  Antony's  Church: 
Ellen    Sullivan;    Anna    Dotwart; 
August  Rizzo;  Mary  McGrath;  Anna 
Moran;  Daniel  Antony  Sheehan. 

San    Francisco,    Cal.,    St.    Boniface 
Church:     Christina  Moran;    Lina 

Cole;  Elizabeth  Merrill. 

Teutopolis,  111. : 

Maria  Angela  Xiehaus. 
R.  I.  P. 



Franciscan  Calendar. 

MARCH,   1913 

Dedicated  to 
St.  Joseph 

















Bl.  Mathia,  V.  2d  Order. 


4th  Sunday  of  Lent. — Bl.  Agnes  of  Prague,  V.  2d  Order. 

Gospel:     The  miracle  of  the  loaves  and  fishes.     John  vi,  1-15. 




St.  Titus,  Bp.  C. — St.  Cunegundis,  Empress.     (P.  I.J 

St.  Casimir,  King  of  Poland. — St.  Lucius,  P.  M. 

St.  John  Joseph,  ().  F.  M.,  C.-(P.  I.) 

St.  Colette,  V.  2d  Order.  (P.  I.) 

Most  Precious  Blood. — St.  Thomas  Aquinas,  C.  D. 

St.  John  of  God,  C,  Patron  of  Hospitals. 


Passion  Sunday. — St.  Catherine  of  Bologna,  V.  2d  Order.  (P.  I.) 
Gospel:     The  Jews  try  to  stone  Jesus.     John  viii,  46-59. 


The  Forty  Holy  Martyrs  of  Sebaste. 

St.  Frances  of  Rome,  \V. 

St.  Gregory  the  Great,  P.  C.  D. 

Bl.  Roger,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Euphrasia,  V. 

Our  Lady  of  Sorrows.— Bl.  Peter,  O.  F.  M.,  C. 

SS.  Perpetua  and  Felicitas,  MM. 



Palm  Sunday.— Bl.  Peter,  C.  3d  Order.— St.  Herbert,  Bp.  (G.A.,  P.I.) 
Gospel:     Entry  of  Jesus  into  Jerusalem.     Matt,  xxi,  1-9. 








St.  Patrick,  Bp.  C,  Apostle  of  Ireland.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Bl.  Salvator,  O.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Cyril,  Bp.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Solemn  Commemoration  of  St.  Joseph.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Maundy  Thursday.— Bl.  John  of  Parma,  O.  F.  M.,  C.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Good  Friday.— St.  Benedict,  Ab.  (G.  A.,  P.  .1) 

Holy  Saturday.— St.  Benvenutus,  0.  F.  M.,  Bp.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 






Easter  Sunday.— St.  Peter  Damian,  C.  D.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 
Gospel:     The  Resurrection  of  Our  Lord.     Mark  xvi,  1-7. 



St.  Gabriel,  Archangel.— Bl.  Didacus,  Cap.,  C.  (P.  I.) 

Annunciation  of  the  B.  V.  M.  (G.  A.,  P.  I.) 

Bl.  Rizzerius,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Ludger,  Bp.  C. 

St.  John  Damascene,  C.  D.— Bl.  Peregrine,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 

Bl.  Mark,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 

Bl.  Paula,  \Y.  3d  Order. 



Low  Sunday.— Bl.  Angela,  W.  3d  Order.  (P.  I.) 

Gospel:     Jesus  appears  to  His  Disciples.     John  xx,  19-31. 



Bl.  Mark,  0.  F.  M.,  C.       * 

Abbreviations.— St.— Saint;  BL— Blessed;  Ap.— Apostle;  M.— Martyr;  C— Con- 
fessor; P. — Pope;  Bp. — Bishop;  D. — Doctor;  V. — Virgin;  O.  F.  M. — Order  oL  Friars 
Minor;  < ).   M.  Cap. — Order  of  Minors  Capuchin;  P.  I. — Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession, 
communion  and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of  St. 
Francis;  2d.  once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of 
monthly  meeting  for  those  who  attend,  usual  conditions. 


jfratutscan  Heralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  Third  Order  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions 


Vol.  I.  APRIL,  1913.  No.  4. 

Our  Lady  of  Good  Counsel, 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

Her  thoughts  are  more  vast  than  the  sea,  and  her  counsel 
more  deep  than  the  great  ocean.— Eccl.  XXIV,  39. 

Mother,  once,  thy  counsel  guiding, 

Jesus  o'er  life's  pathway  trod; 
Now,  in  thy  sure  help  confiding, 

Seek  we  grace  to  reach  our  God. 
Life  hath  much  of  deep  illusion; 

Complex  ways  lead  us  astray; 
Mother,  through  the  dark  confusion, 

Counsel  us  each  passing  day! 

Hold  us  back  when  tinselled  glitter 

Fain  would  lead  us  from  the  right; 
Be  our  lives  or  glad  or  hitter, 

Mother,  keep  us  in  the  light. 
Make  us  deaf  to  siren-voices; 

Strengthen  us  when  we  are  weak; 
In  thy  love  each  heart  rejoices, — 

Counsel  us  when  aid  we  seek! 

— Amadeus,  0.  S.  F. 



Blessed   Luchesius,  or  Lucius, 
The  First  Tertiary. 

April  28th. 

LUCHESIUS,  or  Lucius,  was  a 
native  of  Gaggiano,  a  village 
in  northern  Tuscany.  In  his 
youth  and  early  manhood  he  took 
a    very    active    part    in    the    strifes 

Italian  cities,  whilst  the  Ghibellines 
supported  the  emperors  in  their 
endeavors  to  become  supreme  in 
Church  and  State.  Luchesius  is 
represented    in    the    old    chronicles 


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fj£m/Mrr*£k  fm  *. 


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I^R  BB^l  1 

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w — *" 




Blessed  Luchesius  Receiving  the  Habit  of  the  Third  Order. 

between    the    Guelphs    and    Ghibel-  as    a    "furious    Guelph. "       At    this 

lines,  which  for  a  long  time  disturbed  time  he  carried  on  a  thriving  trade 

the   peace   of    Italy.      The    Guelphs  as    a    meat     and    grain     merchant, 

were    adherents    of    the    popes    and  combining    with    it    the    occupation 

upheld    the     independence     of    the  of    a  money   changer.      His   business 



dealings,  however,  were  not  at 
all  in  accordance  with  the  principles 
of     the     Christian     religion.  He 

was  intent  only  on  temporal  gain, 
and  his  unscrupulous  methods  gained 
for  him  the  unenviable  reputation 
of  an  avaricious  man;  and  as  he 
was  also  of  a  very  violent  character, 
he  became  so  unpopular,  that  he 
found  it  best  to  leave  Gaggiano, 
and  take  up  his  abode  elsewhere.  He 
therefore  removed  to  the  fortified 
city  of  Poggibonsi,  near  Sienna. 
Here  he  went  into  business  with  the 
same  energy  and  desire  for  gain 
that  had  ruled  him  at  Gaggiano. 
But  the  grace  of  God  at  length 
gradually  overcame  his  worldly- 
mindedness  and  wrought  a  great 
change  in  him.  In  quiet  moments 
he  began  to  see  that  the  riches  of 
this  world  cannot  satisfy  the  human 
heart;  that  they  take  possession  of 
the  mind  and  heart  in  proportion 
as  they  are  increased,  so  as  frequent- 
ly to  stifle  nobler  sentiments  and 
aspirations,  and  to  disregard  the 
laws  of  charity  and  justice;  and 
finally,  he  became  deeply  impressed 
with  the  thought  that  riches,  illusive 
and  uncertain  as  they  are  in  life, 
forsake  us  entirely  in  death.  Thus 
did  the  grace  of  God  knock  at  the 
dour  of  his  heart;  and  it  did  not 
knock  in  vain.  Struck  with  the 
thought  that  he  had  risked  the 
eternal  riches  of  heaven  for  the 
uncertain  and  transient  riches  of 
this  world,  he  gradually  detached 
his  heart  from  earthly  things  by 
performing  works  of  mercy  and  by 
fulfilling  his  religious  duties  with 
great  exactness;  and  to  his  great  joy, 
he  also  succeeded  in  inducing  his 
wife,  Bonadonna,  who  had  encour- 
aged him  in  his  worldly-mindedness, 
to  follow  his  example.  As  there  was 
no  one  dependent  on  them,  'their 
children  having  died  at  an  early  age, 
they  could  give  full  vent  to  their 
pious  disposition.  Luchesius,  fear- 
ing a  relapse  into  avarice,  gave  up 
his  business  entirely.     But  this  was 

not  enough  for  his  fervor.  With  the 
consent  of  his  wife,  he  distributed 
all  his  possessions  among  the  poor, 
retaining  only  a  small  piece  of  land, 
sufficient  to  provide  him  and  his  wife 
with  the  necessaries  of  life.  This 
land  he  tilled  with  his  own  hands. 

About  this  time  St.  Francis  on  one 
of  his  apostolic  journeys  came  to 
Tuscany.  The  example  of  his  holy 
life  and  his  fervent  preaching  exerted 
a  wonderful  influence  on  his  hearers 
and  inspired  many  with  the  desire 
to  imitate  his  life  of  poverty  and 
self-denial.  Not  only  did  the  young 
and  unmarried  long  to  forsake  the 
world,  but  husbands  were  prepared 
to  separate  from  their  wives,  and 
wives  from  their  husbands,  to  em- 
brace evangelical  perfection  in  the 
cloister.  The  Saint,  however,  did 
not  wish  to  disturb  the  order  es- 
tablished on  earth  by  Divine  Provi- 
dence, and  advised  these  good  souls 
to  remain  in  the  state  of  life  to  which 
God  had  called  them,  and  promised 
to  give  them  a  Rule  which  would 
enable  them  to  serve  God  in  a  per- 
fect  manner   in   the   world. 

St.  Francis  also  visited  Poggibonsi. 
As  soon  as  Luchesius  heard  of  his 
arrival,  he  hastened  to  him  and 
asked  him  for  instructions,  how  he 
and  his  wife  might  serve  God  in  a 
perfect  manner.  After  giving  them 
some  general  advice,  Francis  said: 
"I  have  for  some  time  been  think- 
ing of  instituting  a  Third  Order 
in  which  married  persons  may  serve 
God  with  greater  perfection.  I  think 
you  cannot  do  better  than  enter  it." 
He  then  explained  his  design  to  them 
and  showed  them  the  obligations  and 
advantages  of  the  new  Order.  Full 
of  joy  Luchesius  and  Bonadonna 
begged  him  to  receive  them  at  once 
into  the  Order.  St.  Francis  granted 
their  request  and  gave  them  a  plain 
habit  of  ashen  grey,  girded  by  a  cord 
with  several  knots.  Luchesius  and 
his  wife  thus  became  the  first  Ter- 

From  this  time  on  Luchesius  made 



even  greater  exertions  to  advance 
in  perfection.  He  performed  works 
of  the  severest  mortification  and 
exercised  himself  in  the  spirit  of  the 
greatest  recollection.  His  charity 
towards  the  poor  knew  no  bounds. 
One  day  an  unusually  large  number 
of  beggars  came  to  his  door  to  ask 
for  food,  and  to  the  disgust  of  Bona- 
donna, who,  though  pious  and  chari- 
table, did  not  approve  of  his  holy 
prodigality,  Luchesius  gave  to  all 
until  he  had  distributed  the  last  loaf 
of  bread.  When  yet  other  beggars 
presented  themselves,  the  holy  man 
requested  his  wife  to  see  whether 
she  could  not  find  something  for 
them.  That  exhausted  the  patience 
of  Bonadonna.  She  upbraided  her 
husband  severely;  his  mortifications, 
she  declared,  had  turned  his  head, 
he  would  give,  until  they  both  would 
have  to  suffer  hunger.  Luchesius 
quietly  asked  her  to  place  her  con- 
fidence in  God  and  see  whether  there 
was  something  in  the  cupboard.  She 
reluctantly  did  as  requested,  and 
to  her  greatest  astonishment,  found 
a  large  number  of  loaves.  Hence- 
forth Bonadonna  vied  with  her 
husband  in  works  of  mercy  and  in 
the  practice  of  all  Christian  virtues. 
The  time  at  length  came,  when 
Luchesius  was  to  receive  the  reward 
for  the  years  spent  in  the  service  of 
the  Lord.  He  fell  seriously  ill.  When 
it  became  evident  that  there  was  no 
hope  for  his  recovery,  Bonadonna 
said  to  him:  "Pray  God  to  let  us 
die  together,  since  he  has  made  us 
companions  in  life".  Luchesius 
fulfilled  her  wish;  •  Bonadonna  was 
seized  with  a  fever  and  died  before 
her  husband.  Luchesius  gave  back 
his  beautiful  soul  to  God  and  entered 
into  glory  on  April  28,  1260.  He 
was  buried  in  the  church  of  the  Friars 
Minor  at  Poggibonsi.  Many  miracles 
were  performed  at  his  intercession, 
wherefore  Pope  Pius  VI  approved 
the  veneration  accorded  to  him  from 
time  immemorial. 


What  an  inspiring  lesson  does  not 
the  life  of  Bl.  Luchesius  teach  all 
Christians,  but  especially  the  Ter- 
tiaries.  He  was  at  one  time  a  child 
of  the  world, —ambitious,  unchari- 
table, avaricious,  and  careless  in  the 
service  of  God,- — but  when  divine 
grace  had  entered  into  his  soul, 
and  especially  after  he  had  received 
the  habit  of  the  Order  of  Penance 
from  St.  Francis,  he  became  a  child 
of  light, — humble,  meek,  charitable, 
and  fervent  in  the  fulfillment  of  his 
duties  towards  God.  What  the  Third 
Order  was  for  him.  it  will  be  for  all 
who  enter  it  and  live  in  it  in  the  right 
spirit.  Every  Christian  of  every  age 
and  condition  in  life, — the  great  and 
the  lowly,  the  rich  and  poor,  the 
laborer  and  the  prosperous  business- 
man,— will  find  it  a  safeguard  against 
the  dangers  of  the  world,  an  easy  and 
powerful  means  to  grow  in  virtue 
and  perfection.  All  the  obligations 
of  the  Rule  tend  to  this  end:  the 
practice  of  self-denial,  detachment 
from  the  things  of  this  world,  meek- 
ness and  charity.  And  how  many 
special  graces  and  advantages  does 
not  the  church  grant  to  the  Tertiaries 
to  enable  them  to  accomplish  more 
easily  the  will  of  God,  their  sanctifica- 
tion?  It  is  therefore  the  supreme  duty 
of  the  Tertiaries  to  make  a  good  use 
of  these  graces,  that  they  may  be 
children  of  St.  Francis  in  truth  and 
not  only  in  name. 


O  God,  rich  in  mercy,  who  hast 
called  blessed  Luchesius  to  penance 
and  hast  made  him  shine  by  his 
piety  and  charity,  grant,  we  beseech 
thee,  that  through  his  intercession 
and  by  his  example,  we  may  bring 
forth  worthy  fruits  of  penance  and 
obtain  thy  pardon  by  active  piety 
and  love.     Amen. 

Fr,  Silas  Barth,  O.  F.  M, 

Leaves  of  Laurel 


Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  0.  M.  Cap.) 

3.     Public  Activity  of  St.  Francis. 

"Brethren,  we  are  made  a  spectacle  to  the 
world,  and  to  angels,  and  to  men" 

-I  Cor.  IV,  9. 

TO  our  saint,  a  very  difficult  mis- 
sion had  been  entrusted.  This 
assurance,  however,  he  had 
received,  "The  execution  of  it  de- 
pends not  on  men,  but  on  God."1 
Let  us  now  enquire  how  Francis  did 
justice  to  his  task,  and,  on  this 
point,  we  will  take  the  testimony 
of  Leo  XIII. 

"With  wondrous  constancy  and 
no  less  fortitude,  he  undertook  by 
word  and  deed  to  furnish  for  the 
world's  consideration  an  ideal  pic- 
ture of  genuine  Christian  perfection. 
In  fact,  just  as  St.  Dominic,  at  that 
time,  took  a  firm  stand  for  the  purity 
of  heavenly  doctrine,  and,  by  the 
light  of  Christian  wisdom,  dispelled 
the  pernicious  errors  of  the  enemies 
of  the  Christian  faith,  so  did  St. 
Francis,  guided  from  above  to  deeds 
of  greatness,  succeed  in  stimulating 
Christians  to  a  life  of  virtue,  and  in 
leading  those  who  had  wandered 
far  and  wide  back  again  amongst 
the  followers  of  Christ.  Surely,  no 
mere  chance  it  was  that  in  his  youth 
he  heard  the  words:  "Do  not  pos- 
sess gold,  nor  silver,  nor  money  in 
your  purses;  no  scrip  for  your  jour- 
ney, nor  two  coats,  nor  shoes,  nor 
a  staff."2  And  again:  "If  thou  wilt 
be  perfect,  go,  sell  what  thou  hast, 

and  give  to  the  poor,«and  come,  follow 
me."3  "To  his  mind,  these  words 
seemed  uttered  personally  to  him; 
without  delay,  he  adopted  this  com- 
plete renunciation;  changed  his  mode 
of  dress;  for  all  his  future  life  chose 
poverty  as  companion  and  confed- 
erate, and  willed  that  these  virtues, 
so  generally  and  courageously  em- 
braced by  him  should  form  the 
basis  of  his  future  Order."4 

Poverty,  then,  had  Francis  chosen 
for  his  bride,  and  to  her  he  was  de- 
voted with  intense  and  glowing  love. 
Poverty,  and  love  for  it,  he  wished 
to  preach  by  word  and  deed  to  a 
pleasure-loving  world.  In  harmony 
with  this,  we  find  his  popular  ac- 

"From  that  time  on,  in  rough, 
repulsive  garb,  he  wandered  through 
an  enervated  world  that  offered 
pleasures  manifold  and  exquisite; 
he  begged  his  bread  from  door  to 
door,  and,  severest  test  in  common 
estimation,  the  ridicule  of  foolish 
people  he  not  only  bore  with  patience, 
but  found  therein  a  source  of  won- 
drous happiness."5 

Not  only  poverty  did  Francis  choose 
to  be  his  portion,  but  likewise  all  that 
follows  in  its  train,  the  scorn  and  ridi- 
cule of  fellow-men.  Poor  he  wished 
to  be,  and  that  in  all  perfection  and 
by  free,  untrammeled  choice.  To 
be  poor,   because  one's  lot  is  thus 

1  S,  Bonav.;Life.  2  Mat.  X,  9,  10.  3  Mat.  XIX,  21.  ■*  Auspicato.  5  Leo  XIII:  Auspicate. 



decreed,  and  adapt  one's  life  con- 
tentedly for  better  or  for  worse  to 
such  a  state, — even  that  is  something 
great  and  meritorious.  To  be  poor 
of  one's  own  free  choice,  to  be  in- 
flamed with  love  for  poverty  and  its 
consequences — that  is  the  real  and 
genuine  virtue.  This  it  was  that 
Francis  preached  by  word  and  deed 
and  bequeathed  unto  his  Order  as 
a  priceless  legacy.  He  enjoins  on 
his  disciples:  "For  the  name  of  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ,  never  desire  to 
possess  anything  else  under  heaven."1 
To  safeguard  this  precious  treasure, 
he  summons  up  his  whole  authority 
and  solemnly  declares:  "I  strictly 
enjoin  on  all  the  brothers  that  in 
no  wise  they  receive  coins  or  money, 
either  themselves  or  through  an 
interposed  person."-'  That  glitter- 
ing object,  which  in  popular  phrase 
is  said  to  rule  the  world,  he  wished 
to  keep  forever  far  removed  from 
any  influence  in  his  Order. 

To  be  poor  and  to  love  poverty — 
that  was  the  distinctive  idea  that 
dominated  Francis  and  by  which  he 
delivered  a  powerful  body-blow  to 
a   gold   and   pleasure   loving   world. 

Another  virtue,  which  St.  Francis 
held  before  the  eyes  of  a  selfish 
world,  was  charity,  the  love  of  fellow 

The  world  indeed  gives  recogni- 
tion to  a  certain  spurious  imitation 
of  this  virtue.  They  call  it  nowadays 
humanity,  or  philanthropy.  For  all 
it  gives  and  does,  though  dignified 
by  fulsome  designation,  it  seeks 
acknowledgment  and  compensation, 
a  Cross  of  Honor,  or  some  such 
decoration.  Philanthropy  builds 
hospitals  and  founds  benevolent 
associations;  but  from  the  poor  and 
sick  themselves  it  stands  aloof, 
and  evades  too  proximate  a  contact. 
According  to  its  point  of  view,  the 
social  scale  of  Lazarus  is  far  too  low 
to  justify  defilement  by  a  contact 
with  his  rags  and  sores. 

"In  all  this  humanity  there  lurks  a 
certain    inhumanity;     namely,     this 

iRule:  Chap.  VI.     '■JRule:  Chap.  IV.     :'The  Christian  W. 

idea:  I  certainly  wish  every  blessing 
to  the  poor  and  suffering,  since  all 
that  is  hideous  and  painful  grates 
on  my  nerves.  I  too,  love  progress, 
and  I  most  assuredly  will  gladly 
contribute  money,  agitate  for  laws, 
and  help  to  found  societies, — any- 
thing you  wish;  but  the  people  them- 
selves with  their  filth,  their  misery, 
and  their  stupid  lack  of  all  refine- 
ment— let  them  keep  their  distance."3 
Thus  the  noted  Protestant  writer, 
Dr.  F.  W.  Foerster,  described  the 
humanity  or*  philanthropy  of  our 
day.  In  like  manner  it  was  prac- 
tised in  the  twelfth  century.  That 
charity  which  takes  direct  and  loving 
interest  in  the  poor  and  abandoned 
had  ceased  to  exist. 

Then  it  was  that  St.  Francis 
restored  the  lost  ideal  of  charity  as 
taught  by  Jesus  Christ  Himself, 
and  by  word  and  example  sought 
to  impress  it  on  an  uncharitable 
world.  "All  men  he  embraced  in 
the  ardor  of  his  charity,  especially 
the  poor  and  despised;  and  just  ex- 
actly intercourse  with  these  he 
loved  the  most,  because  they  were 
avoided  and  superciliously  repelled  by 
others.  Thus  he  rendered  untold 
service  in  the  welfare  of  that  brother- 
hood, to  which  the  entire  human  race 
belongs,  and  which  our  Savior,  Jesus 
Christ,   restored  and  perfected."4 

All  men  are  "Children  of  the  Fa- 
ther who  is  in  heaven;  who  maketh 
his  sun  to  rise  upon  the  good  and 
bad,  and  raineth  upon  the  just  and 
the  unjust."5  With  how  much  more 
reason  should  we  practise  charity, 
when  we  consider  what  we  are  and 
what   we   have   received. 

How  much  more  intensely  should 
the  members  of  the  Franciscan  Order 
love  one  another.  Be  ever  mindful 
of  that  sublime  example  of  true  christ- 
ian charity  which  our  holy  Founder, 
glowing  with  Seraphic  love,  has  given 
us.  With  perfect  right  he  could  ap- 
ply to  himself  and  to  his  first  com- 
panions the  words  of  St.  Paul: 
"Brethren:  we  are  made  a  spectacle 

nan:   X<> .  1.  11»I7.      4Leo  XIII:  Auspicato.     JMat.V,45. 



to  the  world,  and  to  angels,  and  to 

Brothers,   sisters,   children  of  our 
loving  father,  Francis!    Serve  ye  one 

another,  avoid  all  strife  and  quarrel, 
walk  in  the  footsteps  of  your  father 
that  you  may  be  a  spectacle  to  the 
world,  to  angels,  and  to  men. 

Little  Catechism  of  the  Third  Order.* 

Chapter  I.     St.  Francis  and  His  Orders. 

1.  Who   is  St.  Francis? 

St.  Francis  is  the  illustrious  found- 
er of  three  great  religious  orders:  the 
Order  of  Friars  Minor,  the  Order  of 
Poor  Clares,  and  the  Third  Order. 
The  life  of  this  perfect  disciple  of 
our  Savior  is  as  interesting  as  it  is 

2.  Which  are  the  principal  traits 
of  his  character? 

The  Seraphic  Patriarch  was  a  man 
of  lofty  ideals,  chivalrous  sentiments, 
and  great  strength  of  character, 
a  man  thoroughly  "Catholic  and 
wholly  apostolic,"  entirely  devoted 
to  the  Church  and  to  the  salvation 
of  souls.  He  is  frequently  called 
"the  poor,  the  humble,  or  the  sera- 
phic" Francis. 

3.  By  what  means  did  he  attain 
to  sanctity? 

By  his  profound  and  childlike 
piety  which  led  him  to  an  intimate 
union  with  God,  his  Father  in 
Heaven,  and  filled  him  with  a  burn- 
ing zeal  for  His  glory  and  the  welfare 
of  his  neighbor. 

4.  Which  were  his  favorite  devo- 

He  was  particularly  devoted  to  the 
mysteries  of  the  lives  of  our  Savior 
and  of  His  Blessed    Mother. 

5.  What  was  the  mission  assigned 
him  by  God? 

His  mission  was,  to  bring  about 
in  the  world  a  revival  of  evange- 
lical poverty  and  of  the  imitation 
of  our  Savior's  life  and  virtues. 

6.  What  influence  did  he  exert? 
The    Poor    Little    Man    of    Assisi 

was  the  reformer  of  Christian  life 
and  morals  in  the  thirteenth  century. 
The  impression  he  left  on  his  own 
and  on  succeeding  ages,  was  deep 
and  lasting,  his  influence  making 
itself  felt  even  to  the  present  day. 

7.  How  many  Orders  did  St. 
Francis  institute? 

The  Seraphic  Father  instituted 
three  distinct  Orders:  the  first  of 
these  is  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor; 
the  second,  that  of  the  Poor  Ladies  or 
Poor  Clares;  the  third,  that  of  Pen- 
ance, popularly  known  as  the  Third 

8.  Why  did  he  give  to  the  members 
of  the  first  Order  the  name  of  Friars 


or  Lesser  Bretfa 

He  gave  them  this  name  to  remind 
them  that  of  all  the  religious  in  the 
Church  they  were  to  account  them- 
selves the  least,  and  that  by  their 
vocation  they  were  called  to  minister 
to  the  spiritual  wants  of  the  poor 
and  lowly. 

9.  Of  what   nature   is   this  Order? 
It    is    a    mixed    Order,    i.    e.    the 

members  thereof  lead  both  an  active 
and  a  contemplative  life,  thus  follow- 
ing one  of  the  most  perfect  forms  of 
religious   life. 

10.  Has  this  Order  faithfully 
served  the  Church? 

Yes;  this  Order  has  always  served 
the  Church  with  great  fidelity,  by 
prayer  and  penance,  by  word  and 
deed.  Its  missions,  above  all,  have 
greatly  contributed  to  the  spread 
of  the  Christian  faith. 

*  Adapted  from  "Petit  Manuel  du  Tiers-Ordre,  a  l'usage  des  Novices  Tertiaires  de  Saint  Francois," 
Librairie  Saint  Francois,  Paris. 

Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among 
the  Indians  of  the  Early  Days. 


(By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  O.  F.  M.) 

FLORIDA,  of  all  the  States  in 
the  Union,  enjoys  the  distin- 
ction of  having  received  the 
first  invitation  to  enter  the  fold  of 
Christ.  But  for  more  than  half  a 
century  its  inhabitants  refused  to 
heed  the  call,  or  to  recognize  Him 
who  extended  the  call,  as  their  God 
and  Savior.  Nor  would  the  savage 
natives  yield  to  the  sweet  yoke  of 
Christianity  till  many  a  zealous 
messenger  had  shed  his  blood  at 
their  hands:  In  very  truth,  the  his- 
tory of  Florida's  conversion  may  be 
said  to  have  been  written  in  blood. 
Satan  loathed  to  surrender  what 
he  claimed  as  his  own;  and,  when  at 
length  he  was  compelled  to  relin- 
quish his  deadly  hold,  he  in  fury 
turned  upon  his  former  slaves,  and 
had  them  massacred  or  tortured  to 
death  by  thousands. 

Before  we  proceed  to  describe 
the  most  important  incidents  in 
the  toilsome  efforts  of  the  mission- 
aries, it  will  be  necessary  to  relate 
briefly  the  various  attempts  made 
by  the  Spaniards  to  conquer  Flor- 
ida, which  in  the  early  days  included 
stretches  of  land  far  to  the  north  of 
the  present  commonwealth,  and  ex- 
tended as  far  west  as  the  Mississippi. 
Juan  Ponce  de  Leon,  governor 
of  Puerto  Rico,  in  1511  found  him- 
self superseded,  and  thus  thrown  out 
of  power  and  employment,  by  Diego 
Columbus,  son  of  the  great  dis- 
coverer.    From  the  natives  of  Cuba 

he  had  heard  of  an  island  of  Bimini 
lying  to  the  north  of  Hispaniola,  as 
the  present  Haiti  and  Santo  Do- 
mingo were  then  called.  This  island 
was  said  to  possess,  besides  gold  a 
spring  of  such  wonderful  virtue  that 
all  who  drank  of  it  were  restored  to 
youth  and  vigor.  Also  a  river  was 
reported  to  exist  there  having  sim- 
ilar properties,  as  it  renewed  the 
youth  of  all  who  bathed  in  its  waters. 
The  story  took  such  a  firm  hold  on 
the  Spaniards  that  for  fifty  years 
there  was  not  a  river,  creek,  lake  or 
pond  in  all  Florida  in  which  the 
Spaniards  would  not  bathe  in  the 
hope  of  at  last  discovering  the 
fabled  restorer. 

Thirsting  for  the  recovery  of  lost 
prestige,  as  well  as  for  gold  and  fame, 
if  not  for  the  restoration  of  his 
youth  and  strength,  Ponce  de  Leon 
determined  to  make  himself  master 
of  Bimini.  Accordingly  he  applied 
to  Charles  V  for  a  permit  to  discover 
and  colonize  that  wonderful  island. 
Charles  granted  the  petition  at 
Burgos  under  date  of  February 
23,  1512;  he  required,  however,  that 
Ponce  equip  the  fleet  at  his  own 
cost.  Thereupon  Ponce  de  Leon 
hastened  to  fit  out  three  ships  at  his 
own  expense.  As  an  evidence  of 
the  thoroughly  worldly  character 
of  the  undertaking,  we  must  note 
that  there  is  no  mention  of  either 
priests  or  religious  going  along,  as 
was  customary,  to  convert  the  na- 



tives  or  to  attend  the  spiritual  needs 
of  the  explorers.  The  Indians  who 
might  be  found  on  the  island  were 
to  be  alloted  as  servants,  practically 
as  slaves,  to  the  adventurers.  Not 
a  word  was  said  about  religion.  It 
is  a  matter  of  painful  surprise  that 
such  a  doc.ument  should  have  been 
countersigned  by  no  less  a  person- 
age than  the  Bishop  of  Palencia. 
Ponce  de  Leon  was  not  bent  on  an 
apostolic  errand. 

Fortified  with  his  royal  grant, 
Ponce  on  Tuesday,  March  3,  1513, 
set  sail  from  the  port  of  San  German, 
Puerto  Rico.  Easter  Sunday,  March 
27,  he  descried  what  he  thought  was 
an  island;  still  he  continued  in  his 
course  and  did  not  land  until  Satur- 
day, April  2.  Impressed  with  the 
beauty  of  the  flower-covered  land, 
and  having  first  sighted  it  on  Easter 
Sunday,  which  the  Spaniards  call 
Pascua  Florida,  he  named  the  land 
Florida.  The  Indians  spoke  of  it  as 
Caucio,  or,  according  to  others, 
Cancio.  The  landing-place  may  have 
been  at  the  mouth  of  St.  John's 
river,  or  in  the  vicinity  of  the  pre- 
sent city  of  St.  Augustine. 

Reembarking,  Ponce  sailed  farther 
on,  and  on  April  20  saw  the  first 
evidences  of  human  life,  a  number 
of  Indian  huts.  The  natives  by 
means  of  signs  invited  the  Spaniards 
ashore,  and  then  immediately  at- 
tacked them,  wounding  two  of  the 
adventurers.  Ponce  retired  to  his 
ships.  Wherever  he  attempted  to 
land,  he  was  greeted  with  darts  from 
the  bows  of  enraged  Indians.  On 
Monday,  June  14,  Ponce  resolved 
to  return  to  Puerto  Rico.  He  had 
signally  failed  to  conquer  the  island, 
to  enslave  the  natives,  or  to  secure 
gold  and  youthful  vigor.  As  this 
expedition  discovered  Florida  in 
1513,  the  present  year  1913  is  the 
quadricentennial  of  that  event.  Pre- 
sumably the  inhabitants  of  the 
Peninuslar  State  will  solemnize  the 
anniversary  in  a  manner  worthy  of 
their  commonwealth. 

Once  more,  September  26,  1514, 
the  king  empowered  Ponce  to  take 
possession  of  "Bimini  and  the  Island 
of  Florida;"  but  this  time  the  com- 
mand was  inserted  in  the  patent 
that  the  Indians  must  be  brought 
to  the  knowledge  of  the  Catholic 
Faith.1  Priests  had  therefore  to 
be  provided.  In  1521,  after  much 
vexatious  delay,  Ponce  embarked  in 
two  ships,  with  two  hundred  men  and 
fifty  horses.  He  took  along  a  variety 
of  domestic  animals  and  agricul- 
tural implements.  Some  priests 
and  religious  accompanied  the  ex- 
pedition; but  their  names  have  not 
been  reported,  nor  is  it  known  to 
which  order  the  religious  belonged. 
Misfortune  came  upon  the  under- 
taking from  the  very  beginning. 
Landing  upon  the  Florida  coast, — 
it  is  not  known  where — the  Span- 
iards were  furiously  set  upon  by  the 
Indians.  Ponce  bravely  led  his 
men  against  them,  but  he  was  badly 
wounded,  and  many  of  his  followers 
were  killed.  Driven  off  again  by  the 
determined  savages,  Ponce  finally 
took  to  his  ships  and  sailed  back  to 
Cuba,  where  he  died  a  few  days  later; 
his  body  was  sent  to  Puerto  Rico  for 
burial.  His  expedition  had  accom- 
plished nothing  for  Christianity  or 
civilization.  Quite  probably,  the 
Indians  had  in  some  way  heard  of 
the  treatment  accorded  the  natives 
of  Cuba  and  other  islands  by  the 
Spaniards,  and  for  this  reason  re- 
sisted the  invasion  so  fiercely. 

Lucas  Vasquez  de  Ayllon  next 
received  a  royal  charter  to  colonize 
the  land  north  of  Ponce's  grant. 
In  the  middle  of  July  1526,  he  sailed 
from  Hispaniola  with  a  fleet  of  six 
vessels  and  a  tender.  His  company 
consisted  of  five  hundred  men  and 
women,  and  a  few  negro  slaves. 
He  also  took  along  eighty-nine 
horses  and  everything  necessary  for 
a    colony.        In    Ayllon's    company 

iBoth  patents  issued  to  Ponce,  entire,  may  be  found 
in  the  Records  of  the  Am.  Cath.  Hist.  Society,  Philadel- 
phia, December  1912  issue. 



there  were  three  Dominican  friars, 
Fr.  Antonio  Montesino,  who  at 
Santo  Domingo  had  courageously 
preached  against  the  enslavement  of 
the  natives,  Fr.  Antonio  de  Cer- 
vantes, and  Brother  Pedro  de  Es- 
trada. Ayllon  landed  at  the  mouth 
of  a  river  in  thirty-three  degrees  and 
forty  minutes.      While   the   Indians 

of  that  region  did  the  Spaniards  no 
harm,  fevers  and  hardships  carried 
off  nearly  three-fourths  of  the  colon- 
ists. Ayllon  himself  succumbed  Octo- 
ber 18,  1526.  The  one  hundred  and 
fifty  sickly  and  destitute  survi- 
vors returned  to  Hispaniola.  Of 
the  labors  of  the  missionaries  we 
know  nothing. 

(To  be  continued.) 

A  Sick  Call  in  Lac  du  Flambeau 

(By  Fr.  Odoric  Derenthal,  O.  F.  M.,  Missionary  among  the  Chippewas  ) 

Among  the  many  obstacles  with 
which  an  Indian  missionary  has  to 
contend,  the  most  difficult  and  at 
times  even  dangerous  are  the  wiles 
and  evil-doings  of  the  medicine- 
man. In  the  following  I  will  narrate 
an  encounter,  which  I  but  recently 
had  with  some  of  them  on  the  Lac 
du  Flambeau  Reservation  in  upper 

The  Indians  of  this  place,  num- 
bering about  700,  are  for  the  greater 
part  still  heathen.  In  the  last  years, 
however,  a  fair  number,  mostly 
boys  and  girls  from  the  government 
school,  have  been  received  into  the 
true  faith.  Amongst  the  latter  was 
Ella  Eniwigabor  or  La  Belle,  a  girl 
of  17  summers.  A  month  ago  some 
of  the  children  approached  me  after 
instructions  and  said:  "Father,  Ella 
La  Belle  is  very  sick."  On  visiting 
her  the  next  day  in  the  "Old  Village," 
about  four  miles  off,  I  found  Ella 
in  a  far  advanced  stage  of  consump- 
tion. Soon  after  my  arrival  at  the 
home  of  the  sick  girl,  the  Eniwali,  a 
crafty  and  shrewd  medicine-man, 
also  made  his  appearance  with  a 
few  followers.  His  presence  seemed  to 
me  a  foreboding  of  evil  and  the 
sequence  proved  that  my  fears  were 
not  unwarranted.  All  my  attempts 
to  prepare  Ella  for  the  hour  of  death, 

which  seemed  near  at  hand,  were 
unavailing,  and  with  a  sad  and  heavy 
heart  I  had  to  leave  her  for  the  time 
being  in  the  clutches  of  those  fiends. 
Upon  considering  the  matter,  how- 
ever, it  struck  me,  that  with  a  little 
pomp  and  ceremony,  which  the  In- 
dians love  so  well,  I  could,  perhaps, 
gain  my  point.  Emboldened  by  this 
hope,  I  confided  my  trouble  to  the 
Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  Schinner  and  to  the 
Father  Guardian  of  the  Franciscan 
Convent  at  Ashland,  Bernardine 
Weiss,  at  the  same  time  entreating 
them  to  accompany  me  to  the  home 
of  the  sick  girl,  to  which  they  nobly 

Upon  our  arrival  at  Ella's  home  we 
found  only  two  old  Indian  women 
present,  the  grandmother  and  the 
step-mother  of  the  dying  girl.  Not 
finding  any  of  the  dreaded  medicine- 
men about  the  house,  we  had  hopes 
of  accomplishing  our  purpose.  The 
old,  half-blinded  grandmother  lay 
stretched  out  in  truly  Indian  style 
upon  the  floor,  whilst  the  other  wo- 
man stood  at  the  foot  of  the  bed. 
I  said  a  few  words  to  the  youthful 
patient  and  then  Bishop  Schinner, 
who  had  but  a  short  time  ago  con- 
firmed the  girl,  began  to  speak  to 
her.  The  sick  girl  sat  upright  in 
bed    and    though    attentive    seemed 



dazed  and  perplexed.  All  of  a  sudden 
the  old  grandam  on  the  floor,  in- 
terrupted his  Lordship  with  a  harsh 
cry  of:  "Madjan,"  "Madjan."  These 
summons,  "get  out  of  here,"  the 
good  Bishop  did  not  see  fit  to  obey. 

wetawaken!"  i.  e.,  "Do  not  speak  to 
him,  give  him  no  answer!"  And  the 
child,  fearing  the  stern  old  woman 
and  the  medicine-men,  who  had  suc- 
ceeded in  scaring  it  by  their  soul-de- 
stroying doctrines,  refused  to  answer. 

A  Chippewa  Medicine-man. 

Angered  by  his  refusal  the  woman 
cried  out  with  still  greater  vehe- 
mence: "Geget  madjan,"  "Now  do 
clear  out  of  here."  As  even  this  did 
not  bring  the  desired  result,  she  then 
said   to   the   sick   girl:   "Kego  nak- 

The  medicine-men  never  tire  ad- 
monishing the  converts  and  above 
all  the  sick  to  give  up  their  religion: 
"  Forsake  it,"  they  say,  "  and  you  will 
recover.  But  if  you  do  not  drop  it, 
you  are  and  always  will  be  unhappy." 



"  The  Indians,"  they  say,  "  have  their 
own  religion  (medeniwin)  which  the 
great  Being  has  given  to  them  alone, 
and  to  this  religion  they  must  re- 
main true.  Those  who  give  up  this 
religion  for  the  Catholic  faith,  will 
after  their  death  be  in  a  sorrowful 
plight.  The  soul,  namely,  will 
attempt  to  enter  the  heaven  of  the 
pale-faces,  whose  religion  she  has 
assumed,  but  will  be  refused  be- 
cause she  is  an  Indian;  she  will 
then  attempt  to  enter  the  heaven  of 
the  Indians,  but  will  also  be  excluded 
here  because  she  is  Catholic,  and 
thus  she  will  be  doomed  to  wander 
forever  without  a  resting  place." 
This  doctrine,  ridiculous  as  it  is  to 
us,  finds  much  credit  among  the 
Indians,  and  it  will  take  years  of 
patient  instruction  before  we  shall 
be  able  to  convince  the  poor  Indian 
of  its  foolishness,  and  lead  him  to  the 
truth.  Years  ago  an  Indian  of 
Odanah  said  to  me:  "Father,  you 
must  not  judge  the  Indians  too 
severely.  They  are  convinced  that 
God  has  given  them  their  own  re- 
ligion and,  therefore,  they  stubbornly 
cling  to  their  inborn  ideas."  It  is 
from  this  stand-point,  therefore,  that 
we  must  judge  the  rudeness  and 
peremptory  commands  of  Ella's 
grandmother.  John  Twobirds,  an 
Indian  of  Odanah  Reservation  re- 
marked to  me  that  in  time  the  situa- 
tion would  become  more  favorable. 
Forty  years  ago  the  Indians  of 
Odanah  were  for  the  greater  part 
still  adherents  of  heathenism, whereas 
today  they  are    mostly  all  followers 

of  Jesus  of  Nazareth.  And  with 
your  prayers  and  assistance,  kind 
reader,  we  shall  be  able  to  gain  them 
all  for  the  true  faith. 

But  we  have  forgotten  the  step- 
mother, what  has  she  been  doing 
during  this  time?  Leaning  against 
the  bed,  she  stood  a  silent  witness  to 
all  that  was  going  on.  Soon  we 
noticed  heavy  tears  streaming  down 
her  wrinkled  features.  But  why 
these  tears?  It  is  a  safe  and  easy 
guess.  The  child,  whom  she  has 
learned  to  love  and  cherish  as  her 
own,  is  lying  before  her,  soon  to 
be  snatched  away  by  death.  What 
is  now  the  best  for  this  her  dear  one 
in  the  hour  of  death,  the  religion  of 
her  forefathers,  or  the  new  religion 
of  these  three  Black-robes,  who  have 
been  so  good  to  her  child?  She  is 
willing  to  choose  the  best  for  her 
child,  but  she  is  unable  to  make  the 
choice.  The  tears,  therefore,  are 
unmistaken  signs  of  the  anguish 
that  is  breaking  her  motherly  heart. 

Kind  reader,  Ella  is  dead  and  was 
buried  according  to  the  Indian 
custom.  Her  face  was  painted  with 
different  colors  and  she  was 
borne  to  the  grave  with  much  noise 
and  beating  of  drums.  After  her 
death  a  small  crucifix  was  found  on 
her  body,  and  we  sincerely  hope  that 
she  did  not  forget  the  crucified 
Redeemer  in  the  hour  of  death. 
And  may  you,  who  read  these  lines, 
remember  poor  Ella,  the  victim  of 
the  medicine-men,  in  your  prayers, 
as  also  the  other  Indians  of  Lac  du 

How  I   Reached  My  Mission. 

(By  Fr.  Nicholas  Christoffel,  O.  F.  M.,  Missionary  among  the  Menominees.) 

When  the  professional  or  business 
man  of  the  city  finds  the  streets 
impassable,  so  that  he  must  leave 
his  automobile  in  the  shed  and  con- 
tent himself  with  the  street-car  to 
reach   his   office   or   business   apart- 

ments; when  the  laborer,  going  to 
and  from  his  workshop,  finds  the 
weather  disagreeable  and  the  way 
difficult,  or  the  car  cold  and  uncom- 
fortable, he  may  reap  no  little  con- 
solation from  the  thought  that  there 



are  others  who  must  undergo  as 
great  hardships  to  reach  their  de- 
stination. A  practical  example  from 
the  Menominee  mission-field  may, 
perchance,  drop  a  little  consolation 
into  the  impatient  heart  of  one  or 
the  other  of  our  readers. 

One  of  my  missions,  Little  Oconto, 
lies  sixteen  miles  northeast  of  Ke- 
shena.  This  mission  I  visit  every 
two  weeks,  however  disagreeable  the 
weather,  or  difficult  the  roads  may 
be.  My  means  of  conveyance  are 
a  horse  and  buggy,  or  horse  and 
cutter,  as  the  case  may  be.  These 
long  drives  through  underbrush  and 
forests,  and  over  sandy  plains,  are 
anything  but  a  pleasure  at  any  time 
of  the  year;  but  at  times  the  mis- 
sionary is  confronted  with  difficulties 
that  border  on  human  impossibilities. 
On  February  22  a  terrible  blizzard 
swept  over  the  country,  leaving 
nearly  a  foot  and  a  half  of  snow  on 
the  ground.  As  one  may  imagine, 
no  one  was  anxious  to  be  the  first 
to  break  a  way  over  the  long  country 
road,  and  for  several  days  the  snow 
lay  still  and  became  hard  and 
crusty.  A  week  passed,  and  the  Satur- 
day came  for  me  to  start  on  my  mis- 
sion. Believing  the  road  to  be  trodden 
and  passable  by  this  time,  I  started 
with  my  pony  and  cutter,  without 
any  special  fears  of  serious  difficulties. 
For  several  miles  the  way  was  well 
beaten,  and  I  was  just  congratu- 
lating myself  on  my  good  furtune 
in  finding  the  road  passable,  when 
the  boy  I  was  taking  with  me  to  serve 
Mass,  expressed  the  fear  that  this 
track  was  made  by  woodmen,  and 
was  leading  us  off  the  right  road 
into  the  depth  of  the  forest.  And 
so  it  was.  We  were  obliged  to  turn 
back  and  look  for  the  road  to  Little 
Oconto.  But  here  was  a  difficulty. 
The  snow-banks  rose  to  a  threaten- 
ing height  on  either  side  of  the  road. 
I  made  an  attempt  to  turn,  but  the 
pony  made  a  few  steps  into  the  snow 
and  stopped.  So  we  had  to  get  off 
and  lift  the  cutter  around  right  on 

the  trodden  road.  In  this  we 
succeeded  tolerably  well,  only  filling 
our  shoes  with  snow  in  the  attempt, 
■ — which  means  something  when 
there  is  a  cold  fourteen  mile  drive 
ahead.  With  this  and  a  half  hour's 
delay  as  reward  for  my  ignorance 
of  the  way,  we  started  out  again 
for  Little  Oconto,  but  came  almost 
to  a  standstill,  when  we  entered 
upon  untrodden  ground.  It  required 
all  the  strength  the  pony  had  to 
move  the  sleigh  along  at  all  through 
the  deep  snow.  At  my  wits'  end  what 
to  do  in  these  straits,  I  had  in  mind 
to  turn  back,  but  saw  no  advantage 
in  that,  as  we  had  no  other  means 
of  conveyance.  Again  I  thought 
there's  nothing  like  trying;  I  am 
expected  at  Little  Oconto  tomorrow 
morning;  with  God's  help  the  trip 
is  possible.  So  I  told  my  pony  to 
prepare  for  a  hard  tug.  And  he  did 
tug  along  for  several  miles  with 
astonishing  perseverance,  being  ani- 
mated again  and  again  by  word  and 
whip.  But  there  are  circumstances 
in  which  the  most  heroic  courage 
fails,  and  so  our  pony  also  finally 
gave  up  the  tug  and  stopped  abruptly 
without  being  asked  to  do  so.  He 
seemed  to  be  quite  exhausted,  for 
after  starting  him  up  again,  his 
voluntary  stops  became  continually 
more  frequent.  Then  a  snow-storm 
suddenly  arose,  which  increased  the 
difficulty  and  the  danger. 

At  this  juncture  we  had  about  ten 
miles  more  to  go,  and  were  about 
eight  miles  from  the  nearest  human 
habitation.  The  boy  naturally 
sympathized  with  the  pony,  and 
agreed  to  lighten  its  burden.  He 
volunteered  to  walk  the  rest  of  the 
way.  So  he  started  on  ahead,  and 
being  fleet  of  foot  like  all  Indians, 
was  soon  lost  to  sight,  in  spite  of  the 
deep  snow.  The  pony  seemed  re- 
lieved, and  encouraged  too  at  seeing 
someone  ahead,  and  plodded  on 
little  by  little.  I  was  moving  at  the 
rate  of  about  one  and  one-half  miles 
an  hour.    If  my  pony  had  been  the 



least  bit  inclined  to  balk  and  rebel, 
he  would  have  done  so  now.  Supper 
time  was  past  and  hunger  was 
added  to  exhaustion.  Every  moment 
I  expected  him  to  drop.  I  would 
have  unhitched  and  left  the  sleigh 
in  the  wilderness;  but  I  had  my 
provisions  and  the  articles  for  divine 
service  in  it.  which  I  had  to  have 
at  the  mission.  My  next  resort  was 
to  follow  the  example  of  the  boy 
Levi  and  walk.  Again  the  pony 
seemed  encouraged  by  this  act  of 
sympathy  and  with  a  few  hardy 
snorts  renewed  the  attempt.  I 
drudged  on  through  the  deep  snow 
behind  the  cutter,  occasionally  lend- 
ing what  strength  I  had  to  help  the 
horse  through  the  snow-banks.  The 
distance  to  Little  Oconto  never 
seemed  so  long  before.  It  seemed 
to  be  sixty  miles  rather  than  sixteen. 
The  pony  was  apparently  of  the 
same  opinion,  and  refused  to  go 
again.  I  was  already  looking  for 
a  suitable  spot  to  leave  my  sleigh. 

when  I  conceived  the  happy  idea  of 
recommending  my  distress  to  St. 
Raphael,  the  patron  of  travelers. 
This  I  did  with  all  my  heart,  and  the 
effect  seemed  wonderful.  Unable 
to  explain  how  or  why,  the  horse 
now  regained  strength;  and  although 
the  road  was  equally  difficult,  he 
plodded  along  slow  but  sure,  without 
stopping,  unless  I  commanded  a 
halt.  Thus  he  tugged  along  over 
the  remaining  five  miles,  and  I 
was  only  too  glad  to  plod  on  behind, 
secretly  rejoicing  at  the  rapid  pro- 
gress I  was  now  making.  I  finally 
reached  the  mission  church  at  eight  - 
o'clock  P.  M.,  after  having  been 
on  the  road  for  seven  hours.  My 
fleet-footed  server-boy  had  reached 
the  nearest  dwelling-place  before 
dark,  quite  exhausted,  and  found 
shelter  there  for  the  night.  Luckily 
the  day  was  not  very  cold,  nor  the 
storm  very  fierce:  otherwise  the  trip 
might  have  proved  extremely  dan- 

The  Sodality  of  th 
St.  John's 

St.     John's     Mission     School,     Gila 

Crossing,   Ariz.,   Feb.  28,   1913. 
Dear  Father  Provincial: 

Today  I  write  you  a  letter  to  tell 
you  about  our  Sodality.  In  the  pic- 
ture which  we  send  along,  you  will 
see  the  new  members  of  the  boys' 
sodality  of  St.  John's  Mission  School, 
also  me  holding  the  banner.  On 
February  2  we  celebrated  the  nice 
feast  of  the  Candlemass  and  on  that 
day  forty-two  boys  were  received 
as  members  of  the  sodality.  They 
are  all  on  that  picture.  In  the  after- 
noon we  all  went  to  the  church,  and 
the  boys  that  were  to  be  received 
were  kneeling  in  front.  Then  we 
sang  a  song  and  after  this  our  director 
preached  a  little  sermon.  Then  he 
blessed  the  badges  and  received  them 
into  the  sodality,  after  that  he  gave 
Benediction    with    the    Blessed    Sac- 

e  Blessed  Virgin  at 

rament.  We  say  our  office  every 
Sunday,  when  all  the  people  are  out 
of  church.  We  also  wear  our  badges 
when  we  go  to  Holy  Communion 
in  common,  and  we  have  meetings 
once  a  month. 

About  three  weeks  ago  we  had 
our  last  meeting,  shortly  after  Father 
Justin,  0.  F,  M.,  got  home  from  his 
long  trip  through  the  Papago  coun- 
tries of  the  desert.  In  this  meeting 
he  told  us  to  praj'  earnestly  and  some- 
times offer  up  Holy  Communion 
for  the  poor  Indians  scattered  all 
over  that  country.  Those  children 
do  not  go  to  any  school  and  most 
of  them  are  not  even  baptized,  nor 
able   to  make  the  sign  of  the  cross. 

And  I  know  it  myself.  Some  time 
last  year  we  went  to  Santa  Rosa, 
about  a  hundred  miles  southwest 
from  here,  and  then  I  saw  how  the 



Papagos  live  over  there.  I  saw  some 
boys  riding  on  burros  one  behind 
the  other  on  one  burro,  and  they 
were  all  glad  to  go  to  a  place  where 
they  could  play.  The  next  day  I 
saw  some  girls,  forty  or  more,  play 
some  kind  of  Indian  game.  While 
they  were  playing  they  were  happy. 
but  afterwards  when  the  game  was 
over  all  was  quiet  and  dead.  This 
is  the  way  those  poor  Indians  live. 
They  think  only  of  the  little  fun  in 
this  world  and  don't  think  much 
about  that  there  is  a  greater  happi- 
ness coming  to  those  that  work  for 

founded,  the  Pimas  were  happy  in 
their  own  way  and  about  their  own 
games  just  as  now  the  Papagos. 
Our  fathers  did  not  hear  or  see 
any  tiling  about  the  Church  and  about 
that  there  is  a  God  who  made  all 
things,  nor  how  our  first  parents 
were  made  in  the  beginning,  and 
many  died  unbaptized  as  now  still 
among  the  Papagos.  But  now  with 
the  Pimas  it  is  different.  They  have 
churches  along  the  Gila  River  and  one 
on  Salt  River,  and  there  are  about 
a  thousand  communions  every  month 
and  the  children  go  to  school  here, 

Sodality  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  at  St.  John's  Mission  School. 

it.  That  is  not  their  true  happiness, 
their  true  happiness  is  that  their 
souls  be  saved  by  the  good  Catholic 
Missionaries  Father  Tiburtius  and 
Father  Bonaventure,  who  are  work- 
ing for  them  as  hard  as  they  can. 
When  I  think  about  Heaven.  I  thank 
God  and  you  all  who  have  been  so 
good  to  us  and  helped  us  that  we 
have  a  church  and  a  school  and  priests 
and  sisters  who  show  us  the  way  on 
which  we  all  are  going  one  behind 
the  other  to  our  home. 

Before    St.    John's    Mission    was 

and  have  a  good  Catholic  education, 
and  they  joined  the  league  of  the 
Sacred  Heart;  and  go  to  Holy 
Communion  every  month,  some  go 
every  week,  some  even  oftener. 

In  December  my  brother  was  out 
again  among'  the  Papagos  of  Santa 
Rosa  and  he  heard  how  the  people 
are  wishing  to  have  a  priest  and 
church,  as  they  are  wishing  to  be- 
come Catholics.  May  they  soon 
enter  the  fold  of  our  Savior  Jesus 
Christ.     I  remain  yours  truly, 

Frank  John  Mathias. 



Current  Comment, 

The  Third   Order  in  Col- 
leges and  Academies. 

IT  is  gratifying  to  note  that  our 
Catholic  colleges  and  academies 
are  annually  sending  out  great 
numbers  of  well-educated  men  and 
women  who  are  fully  able  to  hold 
their  own  in  the  fierce  struggle  for 
existence.  Yet,  there  is  no  gainsaying 
the  fact  that  the  influence  they  exert 
on  public  life,  is  not  so  marked  as 
might  be  expected  from  so  large  a 
body  of  educated  Catholics.  Without 
attempting  criticism,  we  should  like 
to  call  attention  to  a  certain  defect 
in  the  education  of  many  of  our 
young  people,  a  defect  which  we 
think  may  be  traced  to  a  lack  of 
systematic  instruction  on  modern 
social  duties  and  activities. 

Man  is  a  social  being  and  as  such 
has  social  obligations.  To  remind 
the  pupils  of  these  obligations  occa- 
sionally in  sermons  and  instructions 
will  not  satisfy  the  exigencies  of  the 
present  day.  There  is  need  of  more 
thorough  and  systematic  instruction. 
Pupils  should  be  taught  to  take  a 
lively  and  active  interest  in  the  cor- 
poral and  spiritual  needs  of  others; 
to  look  upon  the  poor  and  unfortu- 
nate as  brethren  of  Christ  and  mem- 
bers of  the  one  great  family  of  which 
our  Father  in  Heaven  is  the  head; 
to  be  ready  to  lend  them  a  helping 
hand;  and,  what  is  vastly  more  im- 
portant, to  be  willing  to  bring  sacri- 
fices for  them  whenever  necessity 
demands  or  opportunity  invites.  On 
leaving  their  Alma  Mater  Catholic 
graduates  should  know  that,  no 
matter  what  is  their  vocation,  they 
will  be  confronted  with  difficult 
social  problems  in  the  solution  of 
which  they  will  be  called  to  take  an 
active  part.  They  of  all  others  should 
know  that  to  be   Catholic  in  faith 

implies  to  be  Catholic  in  sympathy. 
Now,  what  is  to  be  done  to  educate 
our  Catholic  pupils  to  effective  social 
action?  To  introduce  a  course  of 
sociology  is  out  of  the  question,  for 
in  the  matter  of  branches  there  is 
already  a  satis  svpcrqve.  By  way  of 
suggestion  we  should  like  to  ask: 
why  not  introduce  the  Third  Order 
of  St.  Francis?  This  is  an  institution 
which,  in  the  opinion  of  Sovereign 
Pontiffs,  is  admirably  adapted  to 
meet  present-day  wants.  Like  its 
holy  founder,  this  Order  has  for  its 
motto,  "Non  sibi  soli  vivere,  sed 
aliis  proficere — Not  to  live  for  one's 
self,  but  to  benefit  others."  T*he 
spirit  of  St.  Francis  is  essentially 
social;  it  is  the  spirit  of  charity 
coupled  with  poverty  and  humility. 
Moreover, — and  this  is  a  point  not 
to  be  made  light  of  in  educating 
social  workers — the  Third  Order  is 
an  effective  means  of  self-sancti- 
fication  and  perseverance.  A  su- 
perior of  a  convent-school  writes  that, 
having,  with  little  or  no  success, 
tried  every  means  to  insure  the  con- 
tinuance of  the  pious  practices  of 
her  charges  after  graduation,  she 
finally  had  the  Third  Order  intro- 
duced into  the  institution  with  the 
result  that  her  graduates,  long  after 
discarding  the  badge  of  the  Children 
of  Mary,  for  the  most  part  continued 
to  wear  the  chord  and  scapular  of  the 
Third  Order,  and  in  every  way  lived 
up  to  her  expectations  and  to  their 
obligations  as  Franciscan  Tertiaries. 
Might  this  experiment  not  be  pro- 
ductive of  like  results  elsewhere? 
We  do  not  hesitate  to  say  that  if 
the  Third  Order  were  established  in 
our  Catholic  colleges  and  academies 
and  conducted  in  the  spirit  of  the 
Rule  and  in  the  manner  desired  by 
the  Supreme  Pontiffs,  we  should 
soon  have  modern  men  and  women 
as  we  need  them — educated  Catho- 



lie  social  workers  with  the  necessary 
qualifications  to  cooperate  effectively 
in  the  settlement  of  the  burning- 
social  question. 

That  the  idea  of  establishing  the 
Third  Order  in  Catholic  colleges  is 
by  no  means  a  novel  one,  may  be 
inferred  from  the  fact  that  in  the 
northern  provinces  of  Italy  practi- 
cally all  the  theological  students  are 
Tertiaries.  Flourishing  congrega- 
tions of  clerical  Tertiaries  exist  in 
the  seminaries  of  Portogruaro,  Vero- 
na, Mantua,  Feltre,  Venice,  Treviso, 
Padua,  Udine,  and  Rovigo. 

The  Catholic  Church  and 

More  than  once  has  the  Church 
been  accused  of  intolerance  because 
she  has  not  received,  as  cordially 
as  was  expected,  overtures  of  recon- 
ciliation from  enthusiastic  and  earnest 
individuals,  claiming  to  represent 
national  churches.  Even  Catholics  are 
sometimes  puzzled  at  this  seemingly 
irreconcilable  attitude  of  the  Church. 

But  how  can  she  receive,  or  even 
consider,  such  overtures,  without 
denying  those  very  claims  and  pre- 
rogatives the  existence  of  which 
alone  makes  union  with  her  desira- 
ble? These  offers  of  reconciliation 
proceed  from  the  assumption  that 
the  unity  of  the  Church  has  been 
broken,  and  imply,  therefore,  on  the 
part  of  the  church  the  admission  of 
an  error  that  would  be  destructive 
of  her  very  essence  and  existence. 
The  unity  of  the  Church  has  not 
been  and  could  not  be  destroyed. 
The  Church,  intended  by  her  divine 
Founder  to  be  one  and  to  endure 
until  the  end  of  time,  could  not  in 
her  organic  structure  be  broken  at 
any  period  of  her  existence  without 
losing  her  title  as  the  Church  of 
Christ.  Individuals,  communities, 
and  even  nations  as  such,  have  sep- 
arated from  her.  But  has  the  church 
on  that  account  ceased  to  be  one?  Not 

at  all;  in  virtue  of  the  promise  of 
Christ  her  organic  structure  has 
remained  one  and  unbroken  through 
all  vicissitudes  of  time.  Is  there  on 
earth  an  institution  which  schism, 
heresy,  and  political  ambition,  have 
tried  to  destroy,  and  have  tried  in 
vain?  There  is;  it  is  the  Catholic 
Church.  For  she  has  the  solemn 
assurance  of  her  Founder  that  the 
gates  of  hell  will  not  prevail  against 
her,  and  the  history  of  nineteen 
centuries  witnesses  to  the  fulfil- 
ment of  this  promise. 

If  there  is  no  institution  on  earth 
that  has  a  valid  title  to  be  the  con- 
tinuous Church  of  Christ,  all  efforts 
will  be  vain  to  supply  the  gap  of 
centuries  by  an  establishment  at 
this  late  date.  A  union  of  churches 
will  not  satisfy  the  design  or  promise 
of  our  Lord,  when  he  founded  the 
unity  of  his  Church.  If  the  Christian 
Church  has  really  been  broken  into 
pieces,  it  will  be  in  vain  to  gather  up 
the  fragments;  for,  on  that  sup- 
position, the  divine  principle  has 
long  since  departed,  and  the  gates 
of  hell  have  prevailed.  To  deny 
that  the  one  Church  of  Christ  is  now 
existing,  and  that  she  has  existed 
continuously  for  ages,  is  to  deny 
not  merely  a  fact  of  history,  but  it 
is  to  deny  the  word  of  our  Lord; 
and  to  do  that,  is  to  deny  his 
sanctity  and  divinity. 

That  is  precisely  what  the  "Joint 
Commission  of  the  Protestant  Epis- 
copal Church"  are  unwittingly  ask- 
ing us  to  do,  notwithstanding  their 
protestation  "that  the  prescribed" 
purpose  of  this  Conference  demands 
that  each  participant  shall  proclaim 
the  faith  that  is  within  him,  without 
being  called  upon  to  compromise 
that  faith  by  the  acceptance  of  any 
resolutions  or  definitions."  This 
however,  will  not  hinder  Catholics 
from  praying  earnestly  that  all  the 
younger  sons  that  have  gone  astray, 
may  in  due  time  return  with  peni- 
tential alacrity  to  their  Father's 



Maurice  Egan's  "Every- 
body's St.  Francis." 

Some  time  ago  we  had  occasion 
in  these  columns  to  commend  Fr. 
Cuthbert's  excellent  Life  of  St. 
Francis.  Almost  simultaneously  with 
this  life  there  appeared  another 
biography  of  the  Saint,  Everbody's 
St.  Francis,  by  Maurice  Francis 
Egan,  which,  however,  has  not  met 
with  quite  so  favorable  a  reception. 
Regarding  the  literary  and  scientific- 
value  of  the  book,  there  seems  to 
exist  a  great  diversity  of  opinions 
among  critics.  Some  are  lavish, 
others,  extremely  chary  of  their 
praise.  For  the  benefit  of  our  readers 
we  subjoin  a  criticism  from  Arch- 
ivum  Franc  ixcarwm,  [the  Franciscan 
Order's    great    historical    quarterly. 

"Mr.  Egan,  at  present  Ambassador 
of  the  United  States  to  Denmark, 
has  successfully  undertaken  to  por- 
tray St.  Francis  in  a  manner  attrac- 
tive to  the  modern  mind.  The  book, 
a  series  of  considerations  interwoven 
with  facts  from  St.  Francis's  life, 
serves  his  purpose  very  well.  Though 
written  in  an  elegant  style,  the 
biography  is  likely  to  appeal  neither 
to  the  learned  nor  to  the  common 
people,  but  to  people  of  medium 
culture.  The  former  professor  of 
literature  reveals  himself  in  various 
remarks  and  incidents.  Thus,  for 
instance,  he  never  cites  any  authori- 
ties, except  in  a  general  way.  For 
the  rest,  the  short  biography  is  quite 
accurate.  One  is,  however,  much 
surprised  to  find  the  author  laying 
the  scene  of  the  feeding  of  the  wolf 
of  Gubbio  at  Assisi.  Also,  he  places 
at  St.  Damian's  the  investment 
of  St.  Clare  on  the  night  of  March 
19,1212,  and  the  fruitless  attempt 
of  her  relatives  to  forcibly  remove 
her  sister  Agnes  from  the  monastery, 
when  all  the  world  knows  that  the 
first  of  these  scenes  was  enacted  at 
Portiuncula,  and  the  second,  at 
St.  Angelo  in  Panzo.  The  twenty 
engravings  by  the  celebrated  artist 

Boutet  de  Monvel  will  undoubtedly 
appeal  to  the  readers  of  this  short 
and  attractive  modern  life  of  St. 

This  is  qualified  praise,  to  be  sure. 
Yet,  we  see  no  reason  why  Mr. 
Egan's  Life  of  St.  Francis,  in  spite 
of  its  occasional  literary  and  histori- 
cal inaccuracies  should  not  prove 
interesting  and  instructive  to  that 
class  of  readers  for  whom  it  was 

Until  quite  recently  it  was  common- 
ly supposed  that  St.  Francis  de  Sales 
and  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  were  the 
first  to  call  into  life  congregations  of 
Sisters  for  visiting  and  nursing  the 
sick  in  their  homes.  Historical  re- 
searches of  the  Franciscan  Fathers 
at  Quarrachi,  however,  have  revealed 
that  the  idea  originated  with  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis.  An  ap- 
proved congregation  of  Tertiary  Sis- 
ters with  the  above  mentioned  purp- 
pose,  existed  as  early  as  1483.  On 
account  of  the  grayish  color  of  their 
habits  they  were  popularly  known 
as  ''Gray  Sisters".  Their  constitu- 
tions, as  recently  published  in  the 
.  1  rch  ivu  m  Fra  nevsca  n  u  m  Historwu  m , 
were  approved  by  the  Apostolic 
See  in  1483,  and  treated  in  seven 
chapters  of  the  admission  and  educa- 
tion of  novices,  of  visiting  and  nurs- 
ing the  sick  in  their  homes,  of  the 
manner  of  conducting  themselves 
outside  the  convent,  of  the  canonical 
visitation,  and  of  prayers  for  the 
deceased  Sisters. 

"We  should  never  speak  badly  of 
those  who  are  opposed  to  us;  we 
should  rather,  with  a  cheerful  heart 
accept  contempt  and  confusion,  so 
as  to  consult  for  our  neighbor's  good 
name." — St.  Vincent  de  Paul. 

"For  the  honor  of  God  yield  com- 
pletely to  His  will,  and  do  not  think 
that  you  can  serve  Him  better  an- 
other way;  for  we  serve  Him  well  only 
when  we  serve  Him  as  He  wills." 
— St.   Francis  de  Sales. 



Life  in   Death, 

By  Fr.  Celestine  V.  Strub,  O  F.  M. 

ANOTHER  victim  of  one  of 
those  'scab'  motormen."  Such 
was  the  first  thought  of  a 
score  of  pedestrians  as  they  crowded 
round  the  body  of  a  boy  of  about 
seven  years  whom  a  street-car  had 
just  dashed  senseless  to  the  earth. 
The  little  unfortunate  was  a  sturdy 
lad,  yet  superbly  formed;  and  the 
innocence  that  beamed  from  his 
half-upturned  countenance  lent  ad- 
ditional charm  to  the  exquisite 
beauty    of    his    features. 

Pierre  Belmont  elbowed  his  way 
through  the  crowd,  and  as  he  drew 
near,  a  rough-looking  workman 
among  the  bystanders,  recognizing 
him,  said: 

"Seems  to  have  been  a  mighty 
fine  chap,  don't  he,  Bel?" 

Belmont  did  not  reply;  at  the 
first  glimpse  of  the  neatly  appareled 
youth  his  face  turned  pale  with 
terror.  Then  his  eyes  sought  the 
number  of  the  street-car:  it  was  211. 

"Why,  what  the  thunder  ails 
you?"  continued  his  blunt  acquain- 
tance, astonished  at  the  terror  plainly 
printed  on  Pierre's  countenance. 

"Good  God!"  exclaimed  Pierre: 
"it  is  my  own  son  Louis;  and  I 
am  his  murderer!"  And  falling  on 
his  knees  beside  the  boy,  he  vainly 
called  upon  him  and  endeavored  by 
some  sign  to  discover  that  life  had 
not    been    completely    extinguished. 

Touched  with  sympathy  for  the 
stricken  father,  few  of  the  bystanders 
heeded  his  self-accusation;  and  those 
that  did,  attributed  it  to  his  sorrow 
for  having  permitted  the  lad  to 
walk  the  streets  alone.  But  there 
was  truth  in  Pierre's  confession, 
such  as  no  one  would  surmise,  but 
which  his  own  guilty  conscience 
made  him  feel  only  too  keenly. 

With  the  help  of  a  few  men 
Pierre  removed  the  unconscious  boy 

from  the  street;  and  as  they  laid  him 
clown  gently  on  the  side-walk  a 
richly  attired  woman,  who  just  then 
emerged  from  a  store,  seeing  the 
wounded  -child,  approached  and  ex- 

"Oh,  what  has  happened  to  him?" 

"Knocked  down  by  a  street- 
car,"   said    one    of    the    bystanders. 

"Oh,  the  poor  little  darling," 
she  continued  in  a  voice  melting  with 
tenderness.  And  drawing  forth  an 
elegantly  embroidered  handkerchief, 
she  began  to  staunch  the  flow  of 
blood  from  an  ugly  gash  in  his 
head.  Then  turning  to  Pierre  who 
was  kneeling  beside  the  boy,  she 

"Is  he  your  son,  sir?"  And  upon 
his  reply  in  the  affirmative  she  con- 
tinued: "Do  carry  him  there  to  my 
'auto,'  and  I  will  have  him  taken  to 
a  hospital." 

"They  done  'phoned  for  an  am- 
bulance," interposed  Pierre's  uncul- 
tured acquaintance;  and  Pierre  glad- 
ly urged  this  fact  in  excuse  for  not 
acquiescing  to  the  good  woman's 
request.  He  did  not  wish  to  incur  any 
further  obligation  towards  a  perfect 
stranger.  So  he  simply  mumbled 
a  few  broken  words  of  thanks,  and 
permitted  the  lady  to  continue  her 
ministrations.  The  ambulance  soon 
arrived;  and  a  few  minutes  later  it 
was  conveying  Pierre  and  his  charge 
to  the  city  hospital. 

It  was  a  long  way  to  the  hospital, 
and  the  peculiar  nature  of  the  occa- 
sion threw  Pierre  entirely  upon  his 
own  thoughts.  At  first  he  felt  in- 
clined to  pray  for  his  son's  recovery: 
but  it  seemed  to  him  useless  and 
cowardly  now  to  ask  help  of  a  God 
whom  he  had  abandoned  and  blas- 
phemed. Then  his  mind  wandered 
back  over  the  events  of  the  past 
year.      What   a   tragic   turn   to   his 



brief  career  of  irreligion!  What  a 
bitter  fruit  of  his  deep-rooted  hatred 
for  his  rival!  At  the  thought  of  his 
rival,  Harry  Ledding,  Pierre's  heart 
welled  over  with  bitterness.  Ledding 
and  Belmont  had  been  the  two  master 
mechanics  in  the  car-shops  of  the 
La  Salle  street-car  company.  Bel- 
mont being  the  elder  and  somewhat 
more  experienced,  was  universally 
accorded  the  title  "past  master"  by 
his  fellow-mechanics, —  a  title  which 
his  appointment  by  his  employers 
as  foreman  fully  sustained.  Though 
friends  at  first,  the  preference  con- 
tinually shown  for  Belmont  began 
gradually  to  nettle  Ledding's  pride, 
until  an  unlucky  chance  brought  on 
an  open  break. 

The  two  men  were  working  to- 
gether one  morning  when  Pierre, 
handling  a  pinchers  rather  leisurely, 
slipped  his  hold,  causing  a  heavy 
iron  bar  to  lose  its  bearings  and  fall 
to  the  earth,  grazing  Ledding's 
right  cheek  as  it  fell.  Trifling  as  was 
the  injury  inflicted,  the  accident 
could  easily  have  proved  serious  or 
even  fatal,  and  Ledding  was  vio- 
lently angered,  Pierre's  sincere  apol- 
ogy eliciting  only  an  ugly  oath  and  a 
sneer  at  the  "past  master"  mechanic. 
This  latter  fling,  which  cut  to  the 
quick,  was  more  than  Pierre  could 
bear;  and  the  quarrel  that  ensued 
was  the  beginning  of  an  estrange- 
ment that  grew  into  settled  hate  as 
time  went  on.  Ledding's  long  pent 
up  feelings  of  jealousy,  which  even 
previously  he  had  but  ill  concealed, 
now  found  full  vent.  No  oppor- 
tunity was  lost  of  belittling  his  hated 
rival.  Not  content,  however,  with 
undermining  his  influence  and  good 
name,  Ledding  soon  meditated  a 
move,  which,  if  successful,  would 
place  himself  at  the  height  of  his 
ambition  and  his  rival  humbled 
at  his  feet.  He  determined,  by  hook 
or  by  crook,  to  supplant  Belmont  in 
his  position  as  foreman. 

His  first  step  towards  the  accom- 
plishment   of    this    design    was    to 

enlist    the    sympathy    of    a    certain 
Mr.    Shallow,    the   treasurer   of   the 
street-car    company.       This  Shallow 
was    also    a    prominent    official    in 
the  secret  society  to  which  Ledding 
belonged,    and    bitterly   opposed   to 
Catholics.      Accordingly,  he   readily 
entered    into    Ledding's    plan,    pro- 
mising   to    secure    him  the  coveted 
position  as  soon  as  a  pretext  could 
be   found   for    Belmont's    discharge. 
Such    a    pretext    was    soon    found. 
A  serious  sickness  confined  Belmont 
to   his   bed  for   several   weeks,    and 
he  was  scarcely  restored  to   health 
when  his  wife  fell  ill  and   was   soon 
brought  to  the  brink  of  the  grave. 
During     her    illness     Belmont     fre- 
quently  absented   himself  from  the 
shops;  and  Ledding  avowed  that  he 
was  led  to  do  so  by  other  reasons 
than  concern  for  his  wife.     At  the 
same  time   he   accused   him   to  the 
treasurer  of  having  dismissed  several 
members   of   their   lodge   from   em- 
ployment in  order  to  make  room  for 
some   Catholics.      Though   the   first 
of  these   allegations  was  false,   and 
the    second    only   partly   true,    Bel- 
mont having  been  entirely  ignorant 
of  the  religion  of  the  men  in  ques- 
tion,   the    latter    alone    sufficed    to 
induce    the    treasurer    to    wield    his 
influence  in  Ledding's  favor;  and  it 
was    agreed    that    Ledding     should 
supersede    Belmont    at    the    end    of 
the   month   which   had  just   begun. 
Unhappily  for  Belmont,  the  whole 
matter  leaked  out  three  weeks  before 
he    was    officially    apprised     of     his 
discharge,    and    that    on    the    day 
of  all  days  on  which  he  was  least 
prepared    to    bear    the    blow    with 
patience, — the     day    of     his     wife's 
funeral.     Crazed  with  grief  and  al- 
ready    disposed     to     challenge     the 
justice  of  Providence,  this  piece  of 
spitefulness   was    more   than    Pierre 
was  willing  to  bear;  and  blasphem- 
ing God  in  his  heart,  he  swore  that 
he  would  be  revenged.     A  strike  of 
the     motormen     of     the     street-car 
company,    which    was    declared    ten 

Franciscan  herald 


days  before  Pierre  relinquished  his 
position,  suggested  to  him  the  first 
plan  for  the  accomplishment  of  his 
purpose.  He  determined  by  a  shrewd 
adjustment  of  the  car  brakes,  which 
would  temporarily  hamper  their 
operation,  to  discredit  the  street- 
car company  and  turn  the  current 
of  public  opinion  against  it.  Little 
did  he  think  that  he  himself  should 
reap  the  first  fruits  of  this  reckless 
scheme;  yet  so  it  happened.  Of 
the  five  cars  whose  brakes  he  thus 
tampered  with,  the  first  one  was 
No.  211,  and  his  only  son  was  its 
first  victim.  Louis  was  just  crossing 
the  street  when  the  car  came  speed- 
ing along.  Noticing  several  persons 
awaiting  the  car  on  the  corner  to 
his  right,  he  naturally  expected  it 
to  stop;  but  the  brake  failing  to 
operate,  the  car  dashed  onward  and 
hurled  him  to  the  pavement;  his 
head  striking  against  the  iron  tire 
of  a  coal  wagon  and  receiving  an  ugly 
gash  on  the  crown.  No  sooner,  how- 
ever, had  the  injury  been  done,  the 
brake  readjusted  itself,  and  the 
motorman  succeeded  in  bringing  the 
car  to  a  standstill. 

As  Pierre  reviewed  all  these  events 
in  his  mind,- — events  that  within 
the  short  space  of  a  twelve  month 
had  robbed  him  of  his  wife,  his 
position,  his  religion  and,  perhaps, 
also  of  his  child,  grace  began  to 
knock  loudly  at  his  heart,  and  again 
he  felt  a  strong  inclination  to  lift 
up  his  heart  to  God  in  prayer.  But 
the  picture  of  his  hated  rival  flitted 
across  his  fancy,  and  "the  prayer 
that  was  about  to  ascend  from  his 
bruised  heart  was  quenched  in 
feelings  of  revenge.  No;  first  he 
must  be  revenged;  and  then,  per- 
haps, he  might  begin  to  think  of 
repentance.  And  before  the  am- 
bulance had  reached  the  hospital, 
he  had  perfected  a  scheme  to  blow 
up  the  La  Salle  office  building  and 
car-shops  and  thus  by  one  decisive 
stroke  to  retaliate  upon  his  enemies. 

When  Pierre  visited  the  hospital 
the  following  morning,  he  found  that, 
contrary  to  the  doctors'  expecta- 
tions, Louis  had  regained  perfect 
consciousness.  There  was  even  a 
strong  probability,  he  was  told,  that 
his  son  would  completely  recover. 
And,  really,  a  week  had  hardly 
elapsed  when  Louis  was  declared  to 
be  out  of  danger.  His  father  hearing 
this,  had  him  removed  to  his  home, 
as  he  wished  to  see  him  daily,  and 
the  great  distance  to  the  hospital 
rendered  a  visit  inconvenient.  Ac- 
cordingly, Louis  was  soon  cozily 
couched  in  his  little  white  bed  on 
the  second  floor  of  his  father's 
house,  with  his  young  aunt  and  name- 
sake Louise  as  nurse  beside  him. 
Louise  Belmont  had  assumed  the 
management  of  her  brother's  house- 
hold during  the  last  illness  of  his 
wife;  and  when  the  latter's  death 
left  Pierre  alone  in  the  world  with 
an  only  child,  she  again,  though 
reluctantly,  acceded  to  his  request 
to  retain  her  charge  until  Louis 
could  be  sent  to  some  boarding- 
school.  Though  the  granting  of  this 
latter  request  entailed  a  great  sacri- 
fice on  the  part  of  Louise,  who  had 
intended  but  shortly  to  enter  the 
religious  life,  she  found  ample  com- 
pensation in  the  pleasure  of  waiting 
on  Louis,  who  proved  to  be  a  verit- 
able angel  in  the  flesh.  Nothing 
could  overcome  his  gentle  patience; 
no  medicine  seemed  bitter  to  him; 
no  loneliness,  weary. 

The  good  woman  who  had  shown 
such  sympathy  for  Louis  on  the 
day  of  the  accident,  did  not  forget 
"the  little  darling."  Almost  every 
second  day  brought  some  little  re- 
membrance from  her,  such  as  choice 
fruits  and  flowers;  but,  though  the 
maid  who  delivered  them  never 
failed  to  make  inquiry  about  Louis's 
condition,  she  as  constantly  declined 
to  reveal  the  name  of  his  generous 
benefactress.  Once,  indeed,  a  bou- 
quet of  flowers  bore  a  card  with  the 
initials  C.  T.;  but  whether  they  were 



real   and   whose   they   were,   it   had 
been  vain  to  conjecture. 

Meanwhile  Pierre  had  not  been 
idle.  The  mechanism  for  the  dyna- 
miting of  the  La  Salle  buildings  had 
been  perfected,  and  was  already 
placed  in  working  order;  the  laying 
of  electric  wires  and  the  repairing 
of  the  sewer  in  the  street  in  which 
they  stood  having  exceedingly  fa- 
cilitated the  execution  of  his  dark 
design.  The  mechanism  was  one 
not  unworthy  of  the  ingenuity  of 
the  "past  master."  Under  cover  of 
night  a  small  tin  box  containing  an 
electric  battery,  an  alarm  clock  and 
a  heavy  charge  of  dynamite  was 
showed  in  an  unfrequented  compart- 
ment of  the  basement  directly 
beneath  the  office  of  the  president 
and  the  office  of  the  adjoining  car- 
shops.  The  arrangement  of  the 
different  parts  was  such  that  the 
hammer  of  the  alarm,  instead  of 
ringing  a  bell,  would  connect  the 
wires  uniting  the  battery  with  ths 
dynamite;  while  the  clock  itself, 
though  wound  up,  was  by  a  special 
device  prevented  from  running  until 
supplied  with  an  electric  current 
from  the  same  battery.    To  connect 

the  battery  and  the  clock-works 
in  such  a  way  that  the  circuit  would 
not  be  complete  but  could  be  made 
at  any  time,  was  the  part  of  Bel- 
mont's scheme  that  was  most  diffi- 
cult of  execution.  But,  finally,  that 
too  was  accomplished.  One  wire 
united  the  battery  directly  with  the 
clock-works;  the  other  led  through 
a  crevice  in  the  floor  of  the  base- 
ment to  the  street,  where  it  was 
fastened  to  the  lower  end  of  a  bolt 
in  the  concrete  lid  of  a  man-hole 
in  the  side-walk.  From  another 
bolt  in  this  same  lid  a  wire  led  to 
the  alarm  clock.  All  that  was 
necessary,  therefore,  to  close  the 
circuit  was  to  connect  the  heads  of 
the  two  bolts,  which  protruded 
above  the  surface  of  the  lid.  To 
make  the  connection  Pierre  fitted 
a  common  shoe  on  heel  and  sole 
with  copper  plates,  which  he  united 
by  a  wire.  By  stepping  with  this 
shoe  only  for  a  moment  on  the  heads 
of  the  two  bolts,  the  clock  in  the 
tin  box  would  be  set  in  motion,  and 
eleven  hours  later  the  alarm  would 
sound  the  doom  of  the  La  Salle  and 
the  death  knell  of  its  inmates. 
(To  be  continued.) 

The  Hero  of  Belgrade. 

(By  Fr.  Ferdinand,  O.  F.  M.) 


THE  fall  of  Constantinople, 
1453,  had  plunged  the  whole 
Christian  world  into  the  deep- 
est gloom  and  consternation.  After 
eight  weeks  of  desperate  attack  on 
the  part  of  the  Turks  and  of  ob- 
stinate defence  on  the  part  of  the 
Christians,  that  stronghold  of  the 
Grecian  empire  at  length  was  carried 
by  assault — and  on  the  spire  of  St. 
Sophia's  the  crescent  supplanted 
the  cross.  This  mournful  event  not 
only  marked  the  overthrow  of  a 
throne  that  had  long  been  tottering 
and    the    extinction    of    an    ancient 

and  decaying  empire,  but  also  boded 
evil  for  all  "Christendom.  Never 
before  had  the  Turks  assumed  so 
threatening  an  attitude.  The  leader 
of  the  victorious  and  irrepressible 
Turkish  army  was  Mohammed  II, 
surnamed  the  Conqueror,  a  man  of 
undaunted  valor,  consummate  mili- 
tary skill,  indomitable  pride,  tower- 
ing ambition,  and  restless  activity. 
To  such  a  man  at  the  head  of  count- 
less numbers  of  well-trained  and 
fanatic  warriors,  who  were  ready,  at 
a  nod  of  his  imperial  head,  to  draw 
their  swords  and  sacrifice  their  lives 
in  the  holy  cause  of  Allah  and  his 



prophet,  the  destruction  of  one  em- 
pire was  mere  child's  play.  Filled 
as  he  was  with  an  implacable  hatred 
of  the  Christian  name,  and  impelled 
by  an  insatiable  thirst  for  aggran- 
dizement, he  thought  to  establish  a 
universal  empire  by  extending  his 
conquests  over  entire  Europe,  and 
to  this  end  he  immediately  began  to 
make  preparations  adequate  to  his 
designs.  His  plan  was,  first  to  invade 
Hungary  because  this  was  the  only 
country  from  which  he  expected  any 
show  of  resistance,  and  he  fondly 
hoped,  as  indeed  he  had  reason 
to  hope,  that  his  banners  would 
soon  be  waving  on  the  walls  of  Vienna 
and  Rome. 

1.     The  European  Princes. 

The  European  princes  saw  the 
storm  gathering  over  their  heads, 
but  instead  of  showing  signs  of 
alarm,  they  rather  professed  their 
sovereign  contempt,  and  chose  to 
remain  idle  and  unconcerned  spec- 
tators of  the  confusion  around  them. 
Unfortunately  for  Europe  faith  as 
well  as  chivalry  were  on  the  wane. 
The  flood  of  holy  enthusiasm  that 
had  swept  the  European  countries  at 
the  time  of  the  crusades,  had  long 
since  subsided.  The  great  family  of 
Christian  nations,  far  from  present- 
ing a  solid  and  united  front  against 
the  inroads  of  Mohammedanism, 
had  long  been  divided  into  numerous 
warring  factions  that  chose  rather 
to  cover  their  names  with  everlasting 
infamy  by  engaging  in  fratricidal 
wars,  than  to  gather  imperishable 
laurels,  as  their  ancestors  had  done, 
by  drawing  their  swords  in  the 
common  cause  of  Christianity. 

2.     Pope  Callistus  III. 

Such  was  the  alarming  state  of 
Europe  when  Pope  Callistus  III 
was  raised  to  the  see  of  Peter.  In 
vain  did  the  aged  Pontiff  in  public 
bulls  and  private  communications 
warn  the  rulers  of  the  dangers  that 
threatened    the     Christian     Church 

and  civilization;  in  vain  did  he  chide 
them  for  their  indolence  and  sel- 
fishness; in  vain  did  he  entreat  them 
to  forget  their  own  private  feuds  and 
petty  interests  and  range  themselves 
under  the  banner  of  the  cross.  Seeing 
that  his  efforts  to  arouse  the  sover- 
eigns from  their  fatal  lethargy  were 
in  vain,  the  Pope  determined  to 
appeal  to  the  faith  and  enthusiasm 
of  the  common  people.  Accordingly, 
he  dispatched  to  the  various  coun- 
tries of  Europe  a  number  of  the 
ablest  preachers  of  the  day,  chosen 
chiefly  from  the  ranks  of  the  Friars 
Minor,  authorizing  them  to  preach 
the  crusade  and  to  enlist  soldiers 
for  the  holy  war. 

3.     St.  John  Capistran. 

Foremost  among  these  preachers 
was  the  far-famed  and  indefatigable 
Franciscan  missionary  St.  John  Ca- 
pistran. This  was  the  man  whom 
Divine  Providence  raised  up  to 
check  the  progress  of  the  infidel 
Turks.  So  great  was  the  confi- 
dence that  this  humble  son  of  St. 
Francis  enjoyed  with  Popes  and 
sovereigns,  so  profound  and  uni- 
versal was  the  veneration  in  which 
he  was  held,  that  the  most  important 
and  delicate  affairs  of  Church  and 
state  were  often  entrusted  to  him. 
He  was  successively  employed  by 
four  Popes  in  ,  extremely  difficult 
commissions,  and  all  these  he.  exe- 
cuted with  rare  ability  and  brilliant 
success.  His  zeal  for  the  glory  of 
God  and  the  welfare  of  His  holy 
Church  knew  no  bounds.  Not  only 
as  apostolic  delegate  did  he  labor 
unceasingly  for  the  welfare  and  peace 
of  Church  and  state,  but  also  as 
missionary  he  was  indefatigable  in 
his  efforts  to  promote  Christian 
faith  and  morals.  So  stupendous  were 
his  activities  in  this  latter  capacity, 
so  powerful  was  he  in  word  and  deed, 
that  as  missionary  he  not  only  towers 
far  above  all  his  contemporaries, 
but  has  had  few  equals  in  any  age. 
His  apostolic  labors  carried  him  to 



almost  all  the  countries  and  pro- 
vinces from  Ireland  to  the  Holy 
Land,  from  Prussia  to  Sicily.  "He 
was  received  everywhere  not  as  a 
mortal  man  but  as  an  angel  from 
heaven.  The  clergy  and  people 
of  entire  provinces  came  forth  to 
meet  him  with  crosses,  banners, 
and  burning  tapers,  singing  hymns 
and  canticles."  So  great  was  the 
concourse  of  people  that  came  to 
hear  the  man  of  God  that  no  public 
place  was  found  large  enough  to 
contain  the  multitude,  his  hearers 
often  numbering  from  sixty  to  one 
hundred  thousand  persons. 

It  was  the  indefatigable  activity 
and  fiery  eloquence  of  this  holy  man 
that  was  to  avert  one  of  the  great- 
est dangers  that  had  threatened 
civilized  Europe  since  the  migration 
of  nations.  St.  John  Capistran  was 
seventy  years  of  age  when  he  re- 
ceived the  Pope's  command  to 
preach  the  crusade  in  Germany  and 
Hungary.  "Though  he  was  ad- 
vanced in  years,"  says  Aeneas  Sil- 
vius,  afterwards  Pope  Pius  II, 
"withered,  emaciated,  worn  out, 
being  nothing  but  skin  and  bones, 
yet  he  was  always  cheerful  and  un- 
wearied in  his  labors."  He  according- 
ly set  out  on  this  his  last  mission 
with  wonted  ardor  and  enthusiasm, 
resolved  to  avert  the  perils  that 
threatened  Christendom  even  at 
the  cost  of  his  life.  "Although  I 
am  broken  down  with  age,"  he 
wrote  to  the  Pope,  "I  am  resolved 
to  expose  my  life  and  to  give  my 
blood  for  the  honor  of  the  Name  of 
Christ  and  the  preservation  of  the 
Faith."  In  another  letter  he  says: 
"I,  mean  worm  of  the  earth,  pros- 
trate myself  at  the  feet  of  your 
Holiness  that  you  may  dispose  at 
will  of  the  poor  breath  of  life  that 
still  remains  in  me." 

4.  Capistran  in  Hungary. 

While  engaged  in  preaching  the 
crusade  in  Germany,  he  received 
a    letter    from    the    papal    delegate, 

urgently  requesting  his  presence 
in  Hungary  as  this  country  was  in 
imminent  danger  of  being  invaded 
by  the  Turks.  The  letter  read  in 
part:  "Our  princes  are  wavering, 
the  king  is  slumbering,  the  people 
are  inert,  the  bark  of  St.  Peter  tossed 
by  the  storm,  is  on  the  point  of 
sinking.  We  are  all  on  the  brink  of 
yielding  to  the  storm.  We  need  to 
be  roused,  urged,  enkindled  with  the 
sacred  fire  of  your  words."  The 
saint  was  not  slow  to  comply  with 
the  pressing  solicitations  of  the 
legate,  and  with  three  of  his  brethren 
sailed  down  the  Danube.  On  en- 
tering Hungary,  he  was  as  usual 
everywhere  received  in  triumph. 
His  appearance  awakened  an  indes- 
cribable enthusiasm.  "Cardinals, 
bishops,  abbots,  prelates  of  churches, 
and  all  the  clergy,  came  forth  to 
meet  him,  their  sacred  hymns  mingl- 
ing with  the  joyous  acclamations  of 
the  people  who  came  in  crowds, 
bearing  palms  and  lighted  tapers  to 
receive  him  with  the  utmost  honors." 
A  diet  was  convoked  at  Buda  to 
deliberate  on  the  defence  of  the  coun- 
try. Capistran  was  present  at  the 
assembly  which  consisted  of  the 
bishops  and  the  nobles  of  the  king- 
dom, and  his  fiery  eloquence  over- 
came all  obstacles,  dissipated  all 
doubts,  and  rekindled  in  their  hearts 
the  dying  embers  of  enthusiasm. 
Then  he  set  out  to  preach  the  holy 
war  throughout  Hungary.  His 
eloquent  words  aroused  the  courage 
and  enthusiasm  of  the  good  Hun- 
garians to  such  a  pitch  that  fathers 
forsook  their  families,  students  their 
books,  religious  their  cloisters,  arti- 
sans their  workshops,  and  husband- 
men their  plowshares,  ready  to 
follow  the  saint  even  into  prison  and 
death.  He  warned  them  to  be  pre- 
pared to  take  up  arms  at  the  first 
summons.  This  was  not  longin  com- 
ing, for  the  Turks  were  already  ad- 
vancing with  a  formidable  army  and  a 
numerous  fleet  to  besiege  Belgrade. 
(To  be  continued.) 

Franciscan  News, 

Rome.  (Correspondence). — Febru- 
ary 6,  the  students  of  St.  Antony's 
International  Franciscan  College 
were  received  in  audience  by  His 
Holiness  Pope  Pius  X.  About  75 
students,  two-thirds  of  whom  are 
following  a  three  years'  course  of 
postgraduate  studies  in  preparation 
for  the  lectorate,  and  the  rest  being 
candidates  for  the  foreign  missions, 
betook  themselves  to  the  Vatican 
at  eleven  o'clock  accompanied  by 
their  fifteen  Lectors,  the  President 
of  the  College,  Very  Rev.  Fr. 
Bernardine  Klumper,  the  Procura- 
tor of  the  Order,  Very  Rev.  Fr. 
Placidus  Lemos,  and  the  Most 
Rev.  Fr.  General  Pacificus  Monza. 
About  half-past  eleven  o'clock  they 
were  ushered  into  one  of  the  spaci- 
ous reception-halls,  where  a  pre- 
cious throne,  bearing  the  signifi- 
cant words :  Where  Peter  is,  there  is 
the  Church,  is  erected.  Soon  the 
Holy  Father  appeared  attended  by 
His  Maestro  di  Camera,  Msgr. 
Ranuzzi  de  Bianchi,  Titular  Arch- 
bishop of  Tyre,  and  some  other 
members  of  the  Papal  Court,  and 
he  passed  along  the  hall  presenting 
his  ring  to  be  kissed  by  everyone, 
and  talking  familiarly  to  students 
and  lectors  who  were  kneeling  in 
double  file  along  the  walls  of  the 
apartment.  Soon  His  Holiness  bade 
the  Friars  rise,  and  having  addressed 
a  few  familiar  remarks  to  the  Most 
Rev.  Fr.  General,  at  one  time  his 
confessor,  when  Cardinal  Sarto  was 
still  Patriarch  of  Venice,  he  took  his 
seat  on  the  throne  saying  jovially: 
"Now  I  must  hear  my  sermon." 
Fr.  General  immediately  approached 
the  throne  and  asked  the  Pontiff's 

blessing,  and  then  proceeded  to 
read  the  address  in  which  he  ex- 
pressed in  his  own  name  and  in  that 
of  the  lectors  and  students  their 
entire  submission  and  obedience  to 
the  Apostolic  See,  their  firm  adhes- 
ion not  only  to  the  wishes  and  com- 
mands but  also  to  the  desires,  and 
even  to  the  ideas  and  plans  of  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff,  their  hearty  love 
and  filial  affection  for  his  august 
Person,  and  implored  upon  himself, 
upon  all  present,  and  upon  the  whole 
Order  the  Apostolic  Benediction. 
His  Holiness,  having  bidden  Fr. 
General  to  be  seated  at  his  side,  said 
in  reply,  that  there  was  no  need  of 
Fr.  General's  emphasizing  the  entire 
obedience  and  unlimited  submission 
of  the  Friars  Minor  to  the  Apostolic 
See,  because  he  had. always  been  con- 
vinced of  the  filial  affection  and  su- 
preme loyalty  of  all  the  Friars  of 
the  different  Provinces  throughout 
the  world.  "The  Friars  Minor," 
said  the  Pope,  "have  been  and  are 
the  devoted  sons  of  the  Apostolic 
See,  the  most  valiant  defenders  of 
Holy  Mother  Church,  the  consola- 
tion of  Our  Pontificate."  He  then 
animated  the  students  to  the  dili- 
gent pursuit  of  the  higher  studies,  so 
necessary  in  our  times  for  every 
ecclesiastic,  especially  for  those  who 
are  called  to  train  the  aspirants  to  the 
Holy  Orders,  the  future  militia  of 
the  Church,  asked  their  prayers  in 
his  own  manifold  cares  and  trials 
and  imparted  to  all  present,  to  the 
Superiors  of  the  Order  and  to  all 
the  Provinces  represented  at  the 
College  the  Apostolic  Blessing. 
Whereupon  the  amiable  Pontiff  in- 
dulged for  a  few  minutes  in  familiar 



colloquy  with  the  young  Friars 
and  then  withdrew  to  his  own  apart- 
ments where  he  accorded  to  Most 
Rev.  Fr.  General  and  Fr.  Procura- 
tor a  private  audience,  whilst  the 
professors  and  students  left  the 
Vatican  filled  with  delight  at  the 
fatherly  condescension  of  His  Holi- 
ness and  animated  with  fresh  de- 
votion and  increased  love  for  Christ's 
Vicar  on  earth,  the  gloriously  reign- 
ing Pontiff  Pius  X. 

February  20,  there  took  place  in 
the  church  of  S.  Antonio,  Via  Mer- 
ulana,  the  consecration  of  the  Rt. 
Rev.  Joseph  Garic,  0.  F.  M., 
bishop  of  Banjaluca  in  Bosnia,  of 
which  diocese  he  had  been  for  six 
n  onths  Apostolic  Administrator  after 
the  death  of  Msgr.  Marianus  Mar- 
covic,  O.  F.  M.  Cardinal  Falconio 
acted  as  Consecrator,  assisted  by 
two  other  bishops  of  the  Order  of 
Friars  Minor,  Msgr.  Ghezzi  and 
Msgr.  Doebbing.  The  new  bishop, 
born  in  1870,  entered  the  Order  Au- 
gust 21,  1886.  Ever  since  his  or- 
dination to  the  priesthood  he  devoted 
all  his  time  and  energy  to  the  sacred 
ministry,  being  especially  active  in 
the  field  of  Christian  social  reform 
in  his  country. 

Italy. — At  the  convent  of  St. 
Maurice,  province  of  Genoa,  a  sol- 
dier has  passed  away,  disguised  under 
the  name  of  Brother  Urban,  Ca- 
puchin of  the  province  of  Corsica. 
Brother  Urban  had  served  as  ser- 
geant-major in  the  Franco-Prussian 
war  in  1870.  In  1876,  when  gar- 
risoned at  Lyon,  and  about  to  re- 
ceive an  officer's  epaulettes,  he 
joined  the  Capuchins  at  Lyon,  as 
a  lay  brother.  Until  1893  he  collec- 
ted alms  at  Lyon  for  the  poor.  Then 
he  was  sent  to  the  convent  of  Bas- 
tia,  Corsica,  as  porter  and  kitchener 
for  the  poor  of  the  village.  In  con- 
cert with  his  brother,  who  was  the 
curate  of  Aregno,  he  distributed  a 
wealthy  inheritance  to  the  poor. 
Then  came  the  Associations  Law, 
and  he  went  in  exile  to  Italy.     An 

educated  man,  yet  leading  by  choice 
a  lowly  life,  he  died  the  death  of  a 
saint.  Though  he  richly  deserved 
the  honor,  he  never  asked  the  gov- 
ernment that  exiled  him  for  the  hero's 
medal  of  1870. 

Chicago,  111.— St.  Peter's  Church. 
— At  the  meeting  on  the  third  Sun- 
day in  February,  36  novices  made 
their  profession.  Three  members  of 
this  branch  were  called  by  God  to 
their  eternal  reward;  their  names 
were  announced  by  the  Rev.  Fr. 
Director,  and  all  the  members  will 
say  a  rosary  of  five  decades  for  each 
deceased  member.  The  library  was 
well  patronized;  about  160  books 
were  taken  out  during  the  month. 

Tuesday,  April  15,  is  the  beginning 
of  the  great  novena  of  Tuesdays  in 
honor  of  St.  Antony,  preparatory  to 
the  celebration  of  the  feast  of  this 
popular  Saint.  Every  year  the  faith- 
ful come  in  great  numbers  to  St. 
Peter's  church,  to  make  this  novena 
and  to  obtain  through  the  powerful 
intercession  of  St.  Antony  favors 
from  Almighty  God.  Some  ask  St. 
Antony  to  obtain  for  them  temporal 
favors,  such  as,  success  in  business 
or  good  health;  many  others  ask 
for  spiritual  favors,  for  the  con- 
version of  a  sinner  who  is  dear  to 
them,  for  the  grace  to  know  their 
vocation,  for  success  in  overcoming 
a  temptation,  for  the  grace  of  per- 
severance, and  similar  favors.  Those 
who  receive  the  holy  Sacraments 
worthily  and  pray  for  some  time 
before  the  exposed  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment, may  gain  a  plenary  indulgence 
each  Tuesday  of  the  novena.  On 
the  nine  Tuesdays,  the  holy  Masses 
will  be  at  5,  6  and  7,  and  at  8:30 
there  will  be  a  High  Mass;  after 
this,  Benediction  with  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  is  given,  and  prayers  both 
in  English  and  in  German  are  said 
before  the  shrine  of  St.  Antony, 
whereupon  the  priest  blesses  the 
faithful  with  the  relic  of  the  Saint. 
Six  Fathers  hear  confessions  on 
Monday  afternoon  till  6:30;  in  the 



evening  from  7:30  on.  On  Tuesday 
confessions  will  be  heard  beginning 
at  5  o'clock. 

Joliet,  111. — It  is  with  special 
feelings  of  joy  and  gratitude  that 
the  Tertiaries  of  St.  John's  Church, 
Joliet,.  look  back  upon  the  past  year. 
For  besides  many  other  smaller 
gifts  and  deeds  of  charity,  they 
furnished  the  traveling  expenses  for 
a  Dominican  Sister  from  Portugal 
to  Ontario,  Oregon.  Realizing  the 
difficulties  and  needs  of  the  Indian 
missionaries  they  moreover  sent  to 
the  Rev.  Justin  Deutsch,  0.  F.  M., 
superior  of  the  Franciscan  Pima 
and  Papago  missions  in  Arizona, 
three  large  boxes  of  clothes  for  the 
Indian  children  of  St.  John's  Mission 
school.  The  freight  charges,  amount- 
ing to  no  less  than  $13.75,  were  paid 
by  the  kind  Sisters  of  St.  Joseph's 

Cleveland,^  Ohio.  —  The  Third 
Order  established  at  St.  Joseph's 
Church,  Cleveland,  Ohio,  is  making 
progress  both  in  the  number  of  its 
members  and  in  its  activity.  About 
2272  persons  have  been  received 
since  the  date  of  its  establishment 
to  January  1.  Some  528  have  passed 
to  their  reward,  leaving  about  1744 
Tertiaries  in  the  city  of  Cleveland. 
On  March  2,  the  English  branch  of 
the  Third  Order  had  its  solemn  in- 
vestment and  profession.  Twenty- 
six  new  members  were  received  and 
sixteen  made  their  profession.  Rev. 
Father  Casimir,  Gaurdian  of  the 
Franciscan  Monastery,  officiated, 
Rev.  John  Ilg  of  the  West  Park 
Franciscan  Monastery  preached  the 
sermon.  He  spoke  eloquently  on 
"The  mission  of  the  Third  Order 
at  the  present  day."  That  his  words 
took  effect  was  shown  by  the  number 
of  those  that  were  received  as  also 
by  the  number  of  those  that  ex- 
pressed their  willingness  to  join  at 
the  next  meeting. — It  is  true,  we 
are  just  a  little  back  of  Chicago  and 
St.  Louis,  but  our  future  looks  bright 
and    cheerful.      The    Rev,    directors 

are  organizing  their  members.  A 
number  of  promoters  are  at  work 
finding  the  lost  addresses  of  members 
and  are  by  the  way  putting  in  a 
good  word  for  the  Franciscan 
Herald.  The  meetings  are  better 
attended,  and,  in  general,  more 
interest  is  shown.  By  and  by  we 
hope  to  send  some  news  to  the  Fran- 
ciscan Herald  to  show  that  the 
Tertiaries  of  Cleveland  know  a  good 
thing  when  they  see  it,  and  also 
appreciate  it. 

Indianapolis,  Ind.,— On  March  2, 
3,  and  4,  the  Forty  Hours'  De- 
votion as  held  at  the  Sacred  Heart 
Church,  Indianapolis,  Ind.  The  De- 
votion began  with  a  solemn  Highmass 
at  6:45,  at  which  Father  Andrew, 
pastor  of  the  congregation,  in  a  few 
well  chosen  words  invited  all  to  pay 
their  tribute  of  love  and  gratitude 
to  their  Eucharistic  Lord  and  Savior. 
A  truly  edifying  spectacle  it  was 
when  about  1000  persons,  mostly 
men  and  young  men,  approached 
the  Divine  Banquet.  Monday  and 
Tuesday  were  set  aside  as  communion 
days  for  the  Ladies'  sodalities.  The 
sermons  were  preached  by  Father 
Honorius,  Guardian  of  the  Monas- 
tery. The  closing  ceremonies  of 
Tuesday  night  will  long  be  remem- 
bered. The  Rt.  Rev.  J.  Chartrand, 
bishop  of  Indianapolis,  graced  the 
occasion  with  his  presence,  and  car- 
ried the  Blessed  Sacrament  in  the 

Ashland,  Wis. — On  Wednesday, 
February  19,  at  9:30  o'clock  P.*M., 
Fr.  Desire  Petitnicolas,  for  years  a 
familiar  figure  in  the  Franciscan 
missions  of  Wisconsin,  had  a  slight 
paralytic  stroke.  Dr.  O'Brien  was 
immediately  summoned  and  pro- 
nounced the  Rev.  Patient  in  a  crit- 
ical condition.  While  still  in  the  full 
possession  of  his  faculties,  he  devoutly 
received  the  Last  Sacraments.  In 
order  to  afford  him  all  possible  care 
and  attention,  he  was  removed  to 
St.  Joseph's  Hospital;  his  condition, 
however,  became  gradually  worse  and 



after  a  protracted  agony,  borne 
with  true  Christian  patience,  he 
breathed  his  last  on  Wednesday, 
February  26,  at  9  o'clock  A.  M. 
On  Friday  28,  he  was  laid  to  rest  in 
St.  Agnes'  Cemetery  after  Solemn 
Pontifical  Requiem  celebrated  by 
the  Rt.  Rev.  A.  F.  Schinner,  D.  D., 
Administrator  of  the  diocese  of 
Superior.  The  obsequies  were  at- 
tended by  several  secular  priests 
and  a  large  concourse  of  people,  par- 
ticularly French,  to  whose  spiritual 
wants  the  deceased  Father  attended 
since  his  arrival  from  Canada  in 
1905. — May  his  soul  rest  in  peace! 

New  Munster,  Wis. — Fifteen  years 
had  passed  since  the  last  mission 
was  held  in  this  little  town.  On  last 
New  Year's  Day  the  Rev.  Pastor 
J.H.  Schiefen  announced  to  his  people 
that  they  should  prepare  for  a  holy 
mission,  and  should  consider  it  as 
a  special  New  Year's  gift  granted 
to  the  parish.  On  the  first  Sunday 
of  Lent  the  Mission  was  opened. 
The  Franciscan  Fathers  Francis 
Haase  and  Titus  Hugger  preached 
the  sermons.  The  fervor  of  the  people 
attending  the  services  was  very  re- 
markable; every  night  the  church 
was  crowded.  The  Mission  lasted 
till  February  16.  Six  persons  entered 
the  Third  Order,  and  a  convert  was 
received   into   the    Church. 

Chanhassen,  Minn. — A  long  felt 
desire  of  the  pastor  and  parishioners 
of  St.  Hubert's  Church  was  fulfilled 
when  the  Rev.  Fr.  Francis  Haase, 
0.  F.  M.,  conducted  a  Mission  here 
during  the  week  from  February  23 
to  March  2.  Although  the  weather 
was  very  cold,  it  must  be  said  to  the 
credit  of  our  good,  sturdy  farmers 
that  they  did  not  permit  the  zero 
weather  to  hinder  them  from  attend- 
ing the  various  services  in  great 
numbers.  It  was  especially  gratify- 
ing to  see  the  church  fairly  well 
filled  with  devout  Children  of  Mary 
Saturday  night  whilst  a  heavy  and 
blinding  snow  storm  swept  this  sec- 
tion of  the  State.     The  local  branch 

of  the  Third  Order  received  an  in- 
crease of  several  new  members  at 
the  close  of  the  Mission.  There  were 
about  275  Confessions  and  some  400 
Communions  during  this  week  of 
grace.  The  Rev.  Missionary  gave 
expression  to  his  entire  satisfaction 
with  the  Mission,  and  the  parish- 
ioners are  more  than  grateful  to 
him  for  his  efforts  in  their  behalf. 
May  his  words  of  warning  and  ex- 
hortation long  continue  to  exercise 
their  beneficent  results  in  our  alma 

Dubuque,  la. — March  2,  the  new 
residence  of  the  Franciscan  Fath- 
ers was  solemnly  blessed  by  the  Very 
Rev.  Fr.  Provincial  Benedict  Schmidt, 
O.  F.  M.,  assisted  by  Rev.  Weirich  of 
Holy  Ghost  church  and  Rev.  Hen- 
nesy  of  St.  Patrick's.  The  Most  Rev. 
Archbishop  James  John  Keane  of 
Dubuque  had  intended  to  perform 
the  ceremony,  but  to  his  regret  he 
was  not  able  to  do  so,  since  he  had 
already  accepted  an  invitation  for 
a  series  of  lectures  at  Baltimore. 
.The  clergy  of  the  city  participated  in 
great  numbers,  about  eighteen  being 
present,  amongst  them  the  Rt. 
Rev.  Msgr.  Heer  of  St.  Mary's 
church,  Dubuque,  who  delivered  a 
most  appropriate  sermon,  dwelling 
at  some  length  upon  the  general 
perfection  and  beauty  of  the  relig- 
ious life  and  upon  the  great  work 
which  the  Franciscan  Order  has 
done  especially  in  America;  he  con- 
cluded his  sermon  by  again  bidding 
a  most  hearty  welcome  to  the 
Fathers,  assuring  them  of  the  hearty 
good  will  of  the  clergy  and  the  peo- 
ple, and  wishing  them  even  greater 
success  for  the  future  than  they 
have  had  during  the  past  fifteen 
months. — May  God  bless  the  work 
of  the  Fathers  in  this  their  first  home 
in  the  great  archdiocese  of  Dubuque! 

It  is  just  a  few  weeks  since  Fr. 
Jasper,  O.  F.  M.,  established  a 
branch  of  the  Third  Order  in  the 
Home  for  the  Aged  at  Dubuque. 
The  institution  has  the  care  of  over 



one  hundred  old  people  of  which 
48  are  members  of  the  Third  Order. 
February  23,  five  members  made 
their  profession. 

Sioux  City,  la. — From  February 
9  to  11  the  Forty  Hours'  Devotion 
was  held  in  St.  Boniface  church. 
The  devotion  was  opened  with 
Solemn  High  Mass  at  8  o'clock 
Sunday  morning.  Fr.  Honoratus 
was  celebrant;  Frs.  Ives  and  Gratian 
assisted  as  deacon  and  sub-deacon. 
Fr.  Honoratus  preached  on  the 
fitness  and  usefulness  of  paying 
frequent  visits  to  the  Sacramental 
King  during  the  Forty  Hours'  Devo- 
tion. The  Holy  Name  Society  and 
St.  Boniface  Society,  over  one  hund- 
red boys  and  men,  marched  in  the 
procession  after  the  Solemn  Mass, 
wearing  their  badges  and  bearing 
lighted  candles  in  their  hands.  The 
solemn  closing  of  the  Forty  Hours' 
Devotion  took  place  at  7:30  o'clock 
Tuesday  evening.  The  Rt.  Rev. 
Bishop  Garrigan,  surrounded  by  a 
number  of  the  clergy  of  the  city  and 
preceded  by  the  Holy  Name  Society 
and  the  St.  Boniface  Society,  carried 
the  Blessed  Sacrament  in  triumphant 
procession  through  the  aisles  of  the 
gorgeously  illuminated  church.  About 
1200  Communions  were  distributed 
during  the  Forty  Hours'   Devotion. 

Fremont,  Neb.  —  St.  Patrick's 
Church. — A  happy  feature  of  the 
Mission  conducted  in  St.  Patrick's 
church  by  Rev.  Fr.  John  Joseph, 
O.  F.  M.,  from  February  9  to  16, 
was  the  establishment  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis.  It  took  place  on 
Sunday,  the  closing-day  of  the  Mis- 
sion. After  the  people  had  been  well 
instructed,  as  well  on  the  duties  of 
Tertiaries,  as  also  on  the  grandeur 
of  the  Third  Order,  the  exalted 
position  it  holds  in  the  Church  of 
God  as  a  distinctive  Order,  its  noble 
aim  and  inestimable  spiritaul  bene- 
fits, the  solemn  reception  of  mem- 
bers was  announced  for  Sunday  after- 
noon at  3  o'clock.  It  was  indeed 
an    agreeable    surprise    to    see    the 

church  of  St.  Patrick  thronged 
with  devout  Catholics,  who  had  come 
to  witness  the  reception  ceremonies. 
But  not  only  had  they  come  to  be 
silent  spectators  of  the  ceremonies, 
but  also  to  become  members  of  the 
Third  Order  themselves.  For,  be- 
sides the  kind  and  respected  pastor 
of  St.  Patrick's,  the  Rev.  John 
Joseph  O'Sullivan,  153  loyal  sons 
and  daughters  of  Erin  received  with 
eager  hearts  the  habit  of  the  Third 
Order,  and  were  numbered  amongst 
the  glorious  band  of  Tertiaries. 

Papago  Missions. — Work  is  fast 
progressing  on  the  new  residence 
at  St.  Xavier.  This  building  is  to  be 
the  headquarters  for  our  mission 
work  among  the  Papago  Indians. 
The  house  is  being  erected  under  the 
direction  of  His  Lordship,  the  Rt. 
Rev.  Henry  Granjon,  bishop  of 
Tucson.  The  expenses  are  borne  by 
the  bureau  of  Catholic  Indian  Missions. 
At  a  meeting  of  the  Presbyterian  min- 
isters from  the  State,  held  at  Tuc- 
son and  lasting  a  week,  two 
days  were  devoted  to  the  considera- 
tion of  the  Papago  and  Pima  Mis- 
sions.—The  W.  C.  T.  U.  of  Tucson 
have  sent  a  number  of  pamphlets  on 
temperance  to  Indian  Oasis,  to  be  dis- 
tributed among  the  Indians. — These 
facts  show  the  great  interest  others 
are  taking  in  our  Catholic  Papagos. 

Chief  Jose  Rios  of  San  Xavier 
and  Mr.  Hugh  Norris,  two  promin- 
ent Catholics,  accompanied  Super- 
intendent Henry  McQuigg  of  the 
Papago  Agency  to  Washington, 
D.  C.  The  three  have  been  sent  as 
a  delegation  by  the  tribe  to  obtain 
favorable  legislation  concerning  the 
Indian  lands  surrounding  the  Old 
Mission.  Chief  Jose  Rios  was  the 
first  Papago  who  voluntarily  sent 
his  children  to  a  Catholic  boarding 
school.  Mr.  Hugh  Norris,  although 
educated  by  the  Presbyterians,  is 
now  a  firm  Catholic,  and  a  great 
help  to  the  Catholic  Mission.  His 
ward,  too,  attends  the  Catholic 
school  at  St.   Michael's,  Arizona. 



Our  Colleges. 

St.  Joseph's  College. 

THE  students  passed  the  holy 
season  of  Lent  in  a  truly 
Catholic  spirit.  Many  boys 
were  seen  daily  going  the  Way  of  the 
Cross  during  their  free  hours.  Lenten 
devotions  were  held  every  Wednes- 
day and  Friday  evening.  The  Rev. 
Rector  delivered  a  sermon  on  the 
sacred  Passion  every  Sunday  after- 

Owing  to  the  sacredness  of  the 
season  there  was  no  dramatic  per- 
formance at  the  college  on  Washing- 
ton's Birthday,  as  was  customary  in 
former  years.  On  this  day,  however, 
the  boys  were  most  delightfully 
entertained  for  two  hours  by  Rev. 
Fr.  Agnellus  Bleser,  O.  F.  M.,  who 
had  just  returned  from  his  missiona- 
ary-field  in  China,  and  is  now  on  a 
lecture-tour  through  the  States. 

The  Rev.  Missionary  Apostolic 
gave  an  interesting  and  instructive 
lecture  on  the  social,  domestic,  and 
religious  life  in  China.  He  illustrated 
his  discourse  with  eighty  carefully 
selected  stereopticon  views,  present- 
ing China  both  pagan  and  Christian, 
ancient  and  modern.  During  the 
first  hour  the  Rev.  Lecturer  gave 
a  geographical  and  ethnological  de- 
scription of  "Chung-Kow"  or  "the 
Middle  Kingdom"  with  its  500 
million  inhabitants.  Picturing  the 
life  and  customs  of  the  Chinese  he 
touched  on  such  topics  as  the  wear- 
ing of  the  queue  (which  of  late  has 
been  abandoned),  the  compression  of 
the  feet  of  women,  the  abandonment 
of  female  infants,  the  Chinese  lan- 
guage, the  policy  of  the  present 
government,  the  acknowledged  reli- 
gions of  the  State,  Confucianism  and 
the  worship  of  ancestors.  In  the 
second  part  of  his  lecture,  which  also 
lasted  a  full  hour,  Rev.  Agnellus  en- 
thusiastically reviewed  the  attempts 
to  christianize  the  vast  kingdom  of 

China,  in  which  attempts  the  sons 
and  daughters  of  St.  Francis  had 
always  been  in  the  forefront.  At 
present,  he  says,  there  are  about  a 
million  Catholics  in  China  in  about 
38  Vicariates  and  4  Prefectures 
Apostolic.  The  Franciscans  have 
charge  of  no  less  than  9  Vicariates. 
The  "little  missionary"  spoke  with 
great  emotion  when  he  finally  told 
of  his  own  field  of  labor,  the  Vicariate 
of  Nothern  Shensi,  whither  he  had 
been  invited  five  years  ago  by  the 
late,  lamented  Rt.  Rev.  Athanasius 
Goette,  0.  F.  M.,  who  was  also  a 
member  of  our  Province.  The 
Vicariate  of  Northern  Shensi,  the 
speaker  said,  has  about  25,000  Cath- 
olics and  5,000  catechumens  with 
about  200  churches,  chapels,  and 
places  of  worship. 

The  hearty  and  prolonged  ap- 
plause that  followed  the  lecturer 
showed  how  highly  the  students 
appreciated  the  words  of  Fr.  Agnel- 
lus. May  they  not  fail  to  arouse 
in  our  aspirants  to  the  Order  that 
true  missionary  spirit  which  has 
ever  filled  the  faithful  followers 
of  St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 
Fr.    Roger    Middendorf,    O.    F.    M. 

St.  Antony's  College. 

In  the  Lenten  season  college  life 
naturally  presents  a  more  quiet 
and  peaceful,  though  not  less  active, 
aspect  than  at  other  times  of  the 
scholastic  year. 

February,  whilst  not  marked  by 
any  striking  events,  proved  a  month 
of  interesting  activity. 

On  Sunday,  February  2,  the  St. 
Antony's  Literary  Circle  held  its 
first  regular  meeting.  The  literary 
program  consisted  of  three  excellent 
numbers:  a  Paper  by  John  Clark, 
a  Discourse  by  Rudolph  Eiche,  and 
a  Recitation  by  Francis  Le  Sage. 
Though  but  recently  organized,  the 



society  has  already  given  some  proof 
of  its  beneficial  influence.  The 
members  are  becoming  more  alert 
to  things  literary  and  scientific, 
and  growing  more  eager  to  make 
progress  in  the  art  of  public  speak- 
ing. In  the  afternoon  the  students, 
as  members  of  the  People's  Eucharis- 
tic  League,  assembled  in  the  college 
chapel  to  make  their  monthly  hour 
of  adoration. 

Sunday,  February  23,  marked  a 
memorable  day  for  St.  Antony's 
Literary  Cicle.  After  an  address  by 
the  President  on  the  .  advantages 
accruing  to  members  of  the  Circle, 
a  very  instructive  paper  on  the  his- 
tory of  music  was  read  by  Roger 
Baudier.  Thereupon  the  assembly 
proceeded  to  install  an  exquisite 
portrait  of  Cardinal  Newman,  which 
had  been  previously  secured  and 
framed.  The  name  and  memory  of 
this  great  man  is  warmly  cherished 
in  St.  Antony's  College,  and  his 
books  have  especially  of  late  years 
been  extensively  read  by  the  stu- 
dents of  the  higher  classes.  And  this 
is  why  it  was  unanimously  resolved 
upon,  as  a  token  of  appreciation  and 

love,  to  honor  the  saintly  sage  by 
having  his  grand  and  noble  face 
ever  in  the  view  of  his  admirers 
as  a  source  of  inspiration  and  edifi- 
cation. The  ceremony  was  enhanced 
by  the  recitation  of  the  Cardinal's 
famous  "Lead  Kindly  Light,"  and 
of  a  beautiful  sonnet  composed  for 
the  occasion  by  the  Vice  President 
of  the  Society.  The  Rev.  Moderator, 
besides  commenting  freely  on  the 
speech  delivered,  and  the  paper 
read,  addressed  the  members  on  the 
appropriateness  of  the  day's  cere- 
mony, referring  in  praticular  to  John 
Henry  Newman's  manysidedness, 
and  the  singular  combination  in  him 
of  extraordinary  genius  and  sanctity 
of  life,  things  which  must  compel 
every  Catholic  student's  admiration 
and  love,  and,  as  far  as  may  be, 
emulation  and  imitation. 

In  the  afternoon  the  members  of 
the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis  held 
their  regular  monthly  meeting.  After 
recital  of  the  usual  prayers,  the  Rev. 
Director,  Fr.  Francis,  delivered  an 
address  and  received  seven  novices 
to    holy    profession. 

Walter  Wollenschlager. 

Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church: 
Mary    Clerkin,    Sister    Elizabeth; 

Sedina,  Sister  Mary;  Hannah  Forbes, 

Sister  Mary. 

St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St.  Antony's  Church: 
Mary     McDonnel,     Sister     Alex- 

andra; Pauline  Guckel,  Sister  Agne 
Sophie  Marcks,  Sister  Catherine. 
Cleveland,  Ohio: 

Adeline      Lindesmith;      Elizabeth 

R.  I.  P. 



Franciscan  Calendar. 

APRIL,  1913. 

Dedicated  to  the 
Passion  of  Our  Lord 







St.  Martina,  V.  M.— St.  Hugh,  Bp. 

St.  Francis  of  Paula,  C,  Founder  of  Missions. 

St.  Benedict  the  Moor,  0.  F.  M.,  C.  (P.  I.) 

St.  Isidore,  Bp.  D. 

St.  Vincent  Ferrer,  C. — St.  Ethelburga,  Queen. 



2d  Sunday  after  Easter. — Feast  of  the  Holy  Sepulchre  of  Our  Lord. 
— Bl.  Thomas,  0.  F.  M.,  M—  Bl.  Bentivolius,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 
—St.  Celestine,  P.  C. 
Gospel:     The  Good  Shepherd.     John- x,  11-16. 










Bl.  Crescentia  Hoess,  3d  Order,  V.— Bl.  Antonia,  2d  Order,  W. 

Bl.  Julian,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Walter,  Abbot. 

Bl.  Archangelus,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Mary  Cleophas. 

Bl.  Charles  of  Sezze,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Macarius,  Bp. 

St.  Leo  I,  P.  D.— St.  Isaac,  C. 

Bl.  Angelus,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Julius,  P. 



3d  Sunday  after  Easter. — Solemnity  of  St.  Joseph,  C,  Patron  of  the 
Universal  Church. 
Gospel:     Joy  after  Sorrow.     John  xvi,  16-22. 








St.  Justin,  M.— St.  Tiburtius,  M. 

St.  Cyril  of  Alexandria,  Bp.  D. — SS.  Basilissa  and  Anastasia,  MM. 
Nine  Tuesdays  in  honor  of  St.  Antony  begin. 

St.  Raphael,  Archangel,  (P.  I.) 

Anniversary   of   St.    Francis'    holy   profession.     Renewal   of   pro- 
fession of  the  three  Orders  of  St.  Francis. 

St.  Cyril  of  Jerusalem,  Bp.  D.— St.  Robert,  Abbot. 

Bl.  Andrew,  0.  F.  M.,  C. — St.  Appolonius,  M. 

Bl.  Conrad,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 



4th  Sunday  after  Easter.— Bl.  Leopold,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 

Gospel:     Christ  promises  the  Comforter.     John  xvi,  5-14. 







St.  Anselm,  Bp.  D. 

SS.  Soter  and  Cajus,  MM. — St.  Leonides,  M. 

Bl.  Giles,  0.  F.  M.,  C— St.  George,  M..  Patron  of  England. 

St.  Fidelis,  0.  M.  Cap.,  First  Martyr  of  the  Propaganda.  (P.  I.) 

Rogation  Day. — St.  Mark,  Evangelist. 

Procession  and  Litany  of  all  Saints. 
Our  Lady  of  Good  Counsel. 



5th  Sunday  after  Easter.— Dedication  -of  the   Basilica  of  Assisi. — St. 
Zita,  V.— Bl.  James,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 
Gospel:     Ask  in  the  Name  of  Jesus.     John  xvi,  23-30. 





Rogation   Day. — Bl.   Luchesius,   3d   Order,   C,   First   Tertiarv  of    St. 

Francis,  (P.  I.) 

Procession  of  Litany  and  All  Saints  during  Rogation  Days. 
Rogation  Day. — St.  Peter,  M. 
Rogation  Day.— St.  Catherine  of  Siena,  0.  S.  D.,  V. 

Abbreviations. — St. — Saint;  Bl. — Blessed;  Ap.— Apostle;  M. — Martyr;  C. — Con- 
fessor; P. — Pope;  Bp. — Bishop;  D. — Doctor;  V. — Virgin;  O.  F.  M. — Order  of  Friars 
Minor;  O.  M.  Cap. — Order  of  Minors  Capuchin;  P.  I. — Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession, 
communion  and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of  St. 
Francis;  2d,  once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of 
monthly  meeting  for  those  who  attend,  usual  conditions. 



Blessed  John   Forest,   Martyr,  of  the 

First  Order. 

May  22nd. 

WHEN  King  Henry  VIII  of 
England,  carried  away  by 
passion,  sought  to  divorce 
his  lawful  wife,  Catharine  of  Ara- 
gon,  in  order  to  marry  Anne  Bol- 

than  the  Franciscans  of  the  Regular 
Observance,  as  they  were  then  called. 
These  zealous  sons  of  St.  Francis 
fearlessly  declared  the  conduct  of 
the  King  to  be  unlawful  and  impious, 

eyn,  and  was  thinking  of  mak- 
ing himself  "Head  of  the  Church 
in  England,"  because  the  Pope 
justly  refused  to  grant  the  di- 
vorce,   he    found    no    more    deter- 

and  exhorted  the  people  to  remain 
firm  in  their  allegiance  to  the  Pope. 
For  this  reason,  they  became  the 
objects  of  the  special  hatred  of  the 
King.     Fearing,     however,     to     use 

mined    and    courageous    opponents     violence  against  men  whom  he  had 



a  few  years  before  praised  most 
highly  for  their  exemplary  lives, 
Henry  commanded  his  commis- 
sioners to  use  every  other  means  to 
induce  the  friars  to  acknowledge  his 
marriage  with  Anne  Boleyn  and  his 
spiritual  supremacy  in  the  Church  of 
England.  But  all  promises,  threats, 
and  wiles  of  the  commissioners  failed. 
The  friars  refused  to  be  forced  or 
coaxed  into  submitting  to  the  King's 
demands,  declaring  that  "they  had 
professed  St.  Francis'  religion  (rule)," 
which  obliged  them  to  obedience  and 
reverence  to  the  Pope,  "and  in  the 
observance  thereof  they  would  live 
and  die."  Thereupon  the  King  in  his 
anger  commanded  the  friars — about 
two  hundred  in  number — to  be  ar- 
rested and  cast  into  prison.  Fifty 
are  said  to  have  succumbed  to  the 
hardships  and  privations  of  their  con- 

The  most  conspicuous  of  the 
friars  that  fell  victims  to  the  anger 
of  the  King,  was  Fr.  John  Forest, 
who,  on  account  of  his  learning  and 
virtue,  had  been  for  a  time  guardian 
of  the  convent  at  Greenwich  and, 
as  seems  probable,  provincial  of  the 
six  convents  of  the  Observants,  and 
also  confessor  to  Queen  Catharine. 
From  the  beginning,  he  had  taken  a 
determined  stand  in  the  question  of 
the  King's  divorce  and  of  the  supreme 
spiritual  authority  in  the  Church. 
Though  the  King  was  highly  incensed 
at  the  fearless  denunciation  of  Fr. 
Forest,  he  at  first  did  not  molest 
him.  But  when  he  was  informed  that 
the  saintly  friar  encouraged  his 
penitents  not  to  acknowledge  the 
King's  pretended  authority  in  spirit- 
ual matters,  and  to  remain  firm  in 
their  allegiance  to  the  Pope,  he 
gave  orders  to  arrest  him  and  confine 
him  in  prison.  Contrary  to  expec- 
tations, Fr.  Forest  was  not  tried  and 
condemned  to  death  at  once;  he 
had  to  bear  the  hardships  of  prison 
for  about  four  years. 

During  these  years  of  suffering, 
he  found  time  to  write  a  book  "On 

the  Authority  of  the  Church  and  of 
the  Sovereign  Pontiff,"  in  which  he 
defined  and  defended  the  universal 
spiritual  authority  of  the  Pope 
against  the  pretensions  of  Henry. 
When  this  was  reported  to  him, 
Henry  commanded  that  the  holy 
man  be  treated  with  the  utmost 
severity.  Fr.  Forest  was  therefore 
brought  before  the  Privy  Council 
and  asked,  whether  he  would  ac- 
knowledge the  King  as  the  supreme 
head  of  the  Church  in  England.  He 
answered  courageously:  "I  hope  that 
God  will  never  allow  me  to  go  so 
far  astray;  and  I  will  rather  die  than 
renounce  the  doctrine  of  the  Catholic 
Church."  This  answer  sealed  his 
fate,  and  sentence  of  death  was 
passed  upon  him.  He  was  then  led 
back  to  prison,  and  on  the  -way 
thither  he  prayed:  "I  thank  thee,  O 
my  God,  for  calling  me  to  be  a 
martyr,  and  for  having  granted  me 
the  grace  to  confess  the  doctrine  of 
the  Church,  and  to  brave  the  King's 
anger  in  the  sight  of  death." 

The  execution  of  the  cruel  sen- 
tence was  deferred,  and  the  confessor 
of  the  faith  had  to  languish  in  prison 
for  two  more  long  years.  During 
this  time  no  means  were  left  untried 
to  shake  his  constancy,  but  in  vain. 
Fr.  Forest  invariably  answered  that 
he  would  rather  die  than  offend 
God  in  this  matter.  He  also  confessed 
that  he  had  always  admonished  his 
penitents  to  remain  firm  in  the 
Catholic  religion,  as  it  had  been 
held  in  the  kingdom  from  times 
immemorial.  The  constancy  of  the 
holy  friar  and  his  fearless  answers 
angered  Henry  to  such  an  extent, 
that  he  determined  to  make  his 
death  a  most  painful  one.  Thinking 
the  punishment  for  treason — hanging, 
drawing,  and  quartering — too  light, 
he  commanded  the  commissioners 
to  find  the  courageous  religious  guilty 
of  heresy.  This  was  no  difficult  task 
for  them.  They  declared  that  Fr. 
Forest,  by  refusing  to  obey  the 
King,  acted  contrary  to  Holy  Scrip- 



ture,  which  commanded  obedience  to 
kings,  and  that  he  was  therefore  a 
heretic.  They  then  sentenced  him 
to  suffer  death  by  fire. 

The  sentence  was  carried  out  on 
May  22,  1538.  Fr.  Forest  was  drawn 
on  a  hurdle  from  his  prison  to 
Smithfield,  in  London.  Here  pre- 
parations had  been  made  as  for  an 
enjoyable  spectacle.  A  large  stand 
had  been  erected  for  the  members  of 
the  Council,  for  the  aldermen,  and 
other  spectators.  Fr.  Forest  was 
placed  on  a  raised  platform,  while 
Latimer,  an  apostate  bishop,  took 
his  position  in  a  pulpit  on  a  plat- 
form just  opposite.  Close  by  was 
a  gibbet  from  which  hung  iron  chains 
that  were  to  hold  the  victim  over 
the  fire.  Latimer  began  to  preach 
against  the  supremacy  of  the  Pope, 
and  to  upbraid  Fr.  Forest  for  refusing 
to  acknowledge  the  King  as  the 
Head  of  the  Church  in  England,  and 
finally  told  him  the  King  would 
give  him  "a  good  living,"  if  he 
would  submit.  But  the  confessor 
of  the  faith  answered  with  a  loud 
voice:  "If  an  angel  should  come  down 
from  heaven  to  teach  me  any  other 
doctrine  than  what  I  have  received 
from  my  youth,  I  would  not  now 
believe  him.  And  if  my  body  should 
be  cut  joint  after  joint,  or  member 
after  member,  hanged,  burned,  or 
what  pain  soever  might  be  inflicted 
upon  me,  I  should  never  turn  from 
my  old  profession."  Thereupon  he 
was  led  from  the  platform  to  the 
gibbet,  praying  the  while:  "0  Lord 
God,  neither  fire,  nor  gallows,  nor 
any  torments  whatever,  shall  sep- 
arate me  from  Thee!"  He  was  then 
girded  about  the  waist  and  under  the 
armpits  with  the  iron  chains  and 
hung  over  the  fire,  which  was  lighted 
at  his  feet.  To  mock  him  and  to 
torment  his  soul  while  the  slow  fire 
was  consuming  his  body,  the  execu- 
tioners cast  into  the  fire  the  image  of 
a  saint,  which  was  held  in  great 
veneration  in  Wales.  Fr.  Forest,  in 
his  unspeakable  torments,  frequently 

repeated  the  words  of  the  Psalmist: 
"In  the  shadow  of  the  wings  will  I 
hope,  until  iniquity  pass  away." 
When  he  felt  his  end  approaching,  he 
prayed:  "In  thee,  0  Lord,  have  I 
hoped;  let  me  never  be  confounded; 
deliver  me  in  thy  justice."  And  pro- 
nouncing the  words:  "Into  thy 
hands  I  commend  my  spirit,"  he 
gave  up  his  soul  to  God. 

The  veneration  shown  him  and 
fifty-four  other  martyrs  who  died 
during  the  reigh  of  Henry  VIII  and 
of  Queen  Elizabeth,  was  approved 
by  Pope  Leo  XIII  on  December  9, 


We  may  not  be  called  ■  upon  to 
lay  down  our  lives  in  defense  of  the 
rights  of  the  Pope,  but  we  can  give 
at  least  some  proof  of  our  rever- 
ence, love,  and  submission.  We  can 
and  ought  daily  to  pray  God  to 
guide  and  protect  the  Holy  Father, 
to  assist  him  in  his  many  and  arduous 
duties,  and  to  frustrate  the  hostile 
designs  of  his  enemies.  Above  all, 
we  should  iu  the  spirit  of  faith  and 
humility  listen  to  the  teachings  and 
counsels  of  this  our  spiritual  father, 
and  willingly  carry  out  his  wishes 
and  commands.  This  should  in 
particular  be  the  endeavor  of  the 
Tertiaries.  For  St.  Francis,  who  is 
justly  called  "a  man  Catholic  and 
wholly  apostolic,"  walked  in  the 
purity  of  the  faith  and  in  dutiful 
submission  to  the  Pope,  the  bishops, 
and  priests  of  the  Church.  And  in 
the  first  chapter  of  the  rules  of  his 
three  orders,  he  demands  this  obedi- 
ence and  submission  of  all  his 

Fr.  Silas  Barth,  O.  F.  M. 

Leaves  of  Laurel 


Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  O.  M.  Cap.) 

4.     Final  Success. 

"I  became  all  things  to  all  men,  so  that 
I  might  save  all"  I  Cor.  IX,  22. 

THERE  is  something  singu- 
lar about  a  saintly  preacher 
and  missionary.  Happy  the 
land  that  gave  him  birth.  Happy 
the  people  amongst  whom  his  lot 
has  been  cast.  Not  till  the  day 
of  judgment  shall  we  clearly  and 
fully  understand  the  significance  of 
his  activity.  The  work  of  such  a 
man,  sent  by  God  and  blessed  by 
Him,  is  twofold  in  its  scope,  to  win 
all  men  for  Christ,  and  at  the  same 
time  to  become  himself  like  unto 

"I  became  all  things  to  all  men, 
that  I  might  save  all,"  exclaims  the 
Apostle  of  the  Gentiles.  Here  we 
find  no  distinction  of  sex,  of  age,  or 
of  condition.  All  things  to  all,  the 
saintly  missionary  seeks  to  be,  that 
he  may  win  them  all  for  Christ. 

This  object  Francis  realized  in 
fullest  measure.  On  this  point  let 
us  hear  Pope  Leo  XIII:  "More  than 
any  other  land,  Italy  is  under  ob- 
ligations to  St.  Francis;  as  it  formed 
the  chief  arena  for  his  activity,  so* 
likewise  it  received  in  eminent 
degree  the  benefit  of  his  noble  deeds. 

And  in  very  truth,  at  a  time  when 
so  many  groaned  beneath  oppres- 
sion, he  extended  a  consoling,  helping 
hand  to  those  who  sorrowed  and 
were  down-trodden;  in  his  deepest 
poverty,  he  was  ever  rich  enough  to 
alleviate  the  wants  of  others,  whilst 
he  forgot  his  own."  (Auspicate) 
Whether  Francis  stands  before 
Pope  or  Emperor,  whether  he  moves 
in  the  circle  of  the  rich  and  distin- 
guished or  in  the  midst  of  his  breth- 
ren, whether  begging  alms  or  dis- 
pensing them,  whether  preaching  or 
praying  and  scourging  himself, — 
everywhere  he  remains  true  to  his 
mission — all  to  all  that  all  be  won 
for  Christ. 

He  himself,  of  course,  could  not 
go  everywhere.  Hence  he  sends  his 
disciples  far  and  wide  into  the  world. 
Wherever  they  should  come,  they 
were  to  preach  the  doctrine  of  Jesus 
and  to  practise  penance  with  the 
blessing  of  God.  Apparently  they 
were  persons  most  unsuited  for  the 
task,  yet  the  result  was  truly  won- 
derful. "In  crowds  the  people 
flocked  around,  eager  to  hear.  With 
bitter  sorrow  transgressions  were 
bewailed,  injuries  received  were  for- 



gotten,  enemies  were  reconciled,  and 
peace  was  concluded.  Incredible  it 
is  how  powerfully  and  irresistibly 
St.  Francis  captivated  the  people. 
Wherever  he  went,  they  gathered  in 
multitudes  about  him."   (Auspicato.) 

He  exercised  a  singular  power  of 
attraction.  The  cause  of  this  must 
be  ascribed,  not  in  the  last  instance, 
to  the  fact  that  he  was  ever  solicit- 
ous to  become  like  unto  Christ.  This 
is  the  second  role  on  the  program  of 
a  saintly  missionary. 

How  did  our  Saint  succeed  there- 
in? Let  Leo  XIII  answer  this 
question.  In  the  letter  so  often 
cited,  we  read:  "The  workings  of 
Divine  Providence  were  clearly  mani- 
fest, even  in  his  outer  life,  which 
assumed  a  decided  resemblance  to 
that  of  his  Divine  Model. 

"Thus,  like  Jesus,  he  was  born 
within  a  lowly  stable;  as  infant,  for 
his  place  of  rest  he  had  a  crib  like 
that  which  Christ  once  had.  Choirs 
of  Angels  hovering  in  the  air,  as 
legends  tell,  sang  charming  carols 
to  make  resemblance  still  more 
perfect.  Likewise,  as  Christ  had 
done,  he  chose  disciples  and  admitted 
them  to  fellowship;  they,  too,  should 
wander  through  the  world  as  mes- 
sengers of  peace  and  of  eternal 
salvation.  Deprived  of  all  things 
earthly,  derided  and  despised,  re- 
jected even  by  his  own,  he  thus 
attained  but  more  and  more  a  sim- 
ilarity to  Christ,  since  he  desired  not 
even  to  possess  so  much  as  whereon 
to  lay  his  head.  The  final  token  of 
resemblance  he  received  when  on 
Alvernia's  summit,  a  place  'which 
in  a  certain  sense  became  for  him  a 
Calvary,  the  Stigmata  were  stamped 
upon  his  body,  and,  as  it  were,  he 
too  was  crucified,  a  grace  and  favor 
until  then  unknown  in  history. 

"Such  remarkable  occurences,  of 
which  Angels,  and  not  men,  should 
celebrate  the  praise,  abundantly 
prove  the  greatness  of  the  Saint  and 
how  worthy  he  was  that  God  should 

select  him  for  the  moral  renovation 
of  his  age."    (Auspicato.) 

Great  progress  had  been  made  by 
Francis  in  the  school  of  Jesus  Cru- 
cified, and  he  had  acquired  a  strong- 
resemblance  to  his  Divine  Teacher. 
The  grace  of  God  was  the  source  of 
this  success,  so  that  he  could  make 
his  own  the  words  of  the  Apostle  of 
the  Gentiles,  "I  can  do  all  things  in 
Him  who  strengtheneth  me."  (Phil, 
iv,  3.)  Having  attained  this  happy 
state,  he  could  exclain  with  Paul, 
"I  beseech  you,  be  followers  of  me, 
as  I  also  am  of  Christ."  (I  Cor. 
iv,  16.)  The  words  and  more  by 
far  the  deeds  of  Francis  encouraged 
many  to  follow  in  his  footsteps. 

Who  can  count  the  number  of 
those  noble-hearted  youth  who  chose 
the  path  marked  out  by  Francis? 
The  world  stood  ready  to  receive 
them.  They  despised  it,  and  elected 
rather  to  become  the  least  within 
the  household  of  the  Seraphic  Poor 
Man  of  Assisi,  than  to  be  the  most 
distinguished  in  their  former  circle. 
(Cfr.  Ps.  Lxxxiii,ll.)  Who  can  re- 
count the  names  of  all  those  noble 
men  who  abandoned  wealth  and  post 
of  honored  rank  to  learn  contempt 
of  worldly  things  in  Francis'  school? 

Who  can  count  the  host  of  maidens 
and  of  saintly  women  who  bade  the 
world  farewell  with  its  enticing  plea- 
sures, to  become  true  brides  of  Christ 
according  to  the  teaching  of  our 
Seraphic  Saint? 

Many,  however,  there  were  who 
could  not  thus  abandon  all  to  follow 
Francis.  In  the  world  their  circum- 
stances forced  them  to  remain, 
They  too,  were  taught  to  live  ac- 
cording to  the  spirit  of  the  Seraphic 
Saint,  and,  in  consequence,  they 
also  soared  aloft  to  heights  of 
sanctity  and  great  perfection. 

In  very  truth,  St.  Francis  became 
all  things  to  all  mankind  to  win  all 
men  for  Christ. 

How  does  our  life  harmonize  with 
the  principle  of  our  Seraphic  Father? 



Little  Catechism  of  the  Third  Order.* 


11.  How  many  branches  of  this 
Order  are  there? 

There  are  three :  The  Franciscans, 
the  Capuchins,  and  the  Conventuals, 
Though  having  their  several  consti- 
tutions, all  three  branches  pursue  the 
same  aim  and  ideal  set  forth  by  St. 
Francis;  each  has  been  blessed  by 
God  and  approved  by  the  Church. 
At  present  they  number  about  thirty 
thousand  members. 

12.  Do  these  branches  form  three 
distinct  Orders? 

No;  though  distinct  from  and 
independent  of  each  other,  the 
branches  have  sprung  from  the  same 
stem,  and  form  only  one  Order — that 
of  St.  Francis.  All  three  are,  there- 
fore, entitled  to  equal  love  and  re- 
spect on  the  part  of  Tertiaries. 

13.  Which  is  the  second  Order  of 
St.  Francis? 

The  second  Order  is  that  of  the 
Poor  Clares,  whose  aim  it  is  to  work 
for  the  salvation  of  souls  by  prayer 
and  penance.  It  is  divided  into  divers 
observances,  the  members  of  which 
number  over  fifteen  thousand. 

14.  Which  is  the  third  Order 
founded  by  St.  Francis? 

It  is  the  Order  of  Penance,  also 
called  the  Third  Order,  the  nature  of 
which  will  be  explained  more  at 
length  in  the  following  chapters. 

15.  How  is  the  Third  Order  di- 

It  is  divided  into  the  Third  Order 
secular  and  the  Third  Order  regular. 
The  latter  is  subdivided  into  Regular 
Tertiaries  with  solemn  vows  and 
Franciscan  Tertiaries  with  simple 

16.  Have  these  three  Franciscan 
Orders  brought  forth  fruits  of  sanctity? 

Yes;  from  this  great  Franciscan 
family  have  sprung  very  many  sons 
and    daughters    who    were    disting- 

*Adapted  from  "Petit  Manuel  du  Tieres-Ordre,  a 
Librairie  Saint 

uished  for  their  holy  lives,  and  are 
now  honored  by  the  Church  as 
Saints  or  Blessed  or  Venerable  Ser- 
vants of  God. 

Chapter  II. 

The  Third  Order  of 
St.  Francis. 

17.  How  many  Third  Orders  are 

There  are  eight  Third  Orders, 
which  differ  from  each  other  in 
name  and  form,  according  to  their 
respective  affiliation  with  one  or  the 
other  of  the  religious  Orders  of 
Franciscans,  Dominicans,  Servites, 
Augustinians,  Premonstratensians, 
Minims,  Carmelites,  and  Benedic- 

18.  May  a  person  belong  to  several 
Third  Orders? 

No;  persons  belonging  to  one 
Third  Order,  are  not  permitted  to 
join  another;  they,  are,  however, 
free  to  affiliate  with  sodalities,  or 
other  pious  associations  not  recog- 
nized by  the  Church  as  Orders. 

19.  What  is  the  Third  Order  of 
St.  Francis? 

It  is  neither  a  mere  pious  society 
nor  a  religious  Order,  properly  so- 
called,  but  a  secular  Order,  which, 
though  not  binding  its  members  by 
vows,  requires  them  to  wear  a  habit, 
to  make  a  novitiate  and  a  profession, 
and  to  live  according  to  a  Rule 
approved  by  the  Church. 

20.  Is  the  Third  Order  a  true 

Yes;  it  is  a  true  Order,  because  it 
has  been  declared  such  by  the  Sover- 
eign Pontiffs,  and  because  the  mem- 
bers thereof,  living  according  to  an 
approved  Rule  and  under  the  author- 
ity of  ecclesiastical   superiors,   lead 

Iusage  des  Novices  Tertiaires  de  Saint  Francois,'! 
Francois,  Paris. 



a  life  not  unlike  that  of  the  members 
of  religious  Orders. 

21.  What  is  the  purpose  of  the 
Third  Order? 

Its  purpose  was  aptly  defined  by 
St.  Francis  when  he  said  to  Blessed 
Lucius,  "I  have  been  thinking  for 
some  time  to  establish  a  Third  Order 
in  which  persons  living  in  the  world 
may  serve  God  in  a  perfect  manner." 

22.  How  was  the  Third  Order 

It  was  founded  by  St.  Francis 
when,  in  the  year  1221,  he  received 
as  the  first  Tertiaries  the  Blessed 
Lucius  and  his  wife  Bonadonna. 
The  Order  was  soon  after  approved 
by  the  Church,  which  has  not  ceased 
to    recommend    it    to    the    faithful. 

23.  Did  the  Third  Order  grow  and 

Yes;  from  its  very  beginning  the 
Third  Order  enjoyed  a  rapid  and 
marvelous  growth;  today  it  has  a 
membership  of  more  than  three 

24.  Does  the  Third  Order  number 
among  its  members  also  illustrious 

Yes:  Popes,  bishops,  priests,  em- 
perors, kings,  princes,  men  of  great 
renown  in  the  world  of  art  and 
science  and  literature,  in  fine,  illus- 
trious Christians  from  all  walks  of 
life,  have  deemed  it  an  honor  and  a 
privilege  to  belong  to  this  Order. 

25.  What  influence  did  the  Third 
Order  exert  on  society? 

The  good  influence  it  exerted  on 
society  is  inestimable.  Through  the 
Third  Order  great  numbers  of  Christ- 
ians were  gained  over  to  the  faithful 
observance  of  the  divine  command- 
ments, and  society  at  large  profited 
greatly  by  the  principles  of  concord, 
charity,  poverty,  and  humility, which 
the  Order  tends  to  promote  in  its 

26.  Why  does  the  Third  Order 
in  some  places  exert  little  or  no 

The  reasons  are  chiefly  these: 
first,  because  little  care  is  taken  to 

re-enforce  and  govern  the  Third 
Order  so  as  to  insure  a  healthy 
growth  and  a  beneficial  influence; 
second,  because  the  members  do 
not  live  up  to  their  vocation  and  to 
the  requirements  of  the  Rule;  third, 
because  the  Order  often  meets  with 
opposition  from  persons  unable  to 
understand  its  true  aim  and  spirit. 

27.  Does  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis  enjoy  any  spiritual  privileges? 

Yes;  the  Church  has  been  pleased 
to  favor  the  Third  Order  with  many 
and  great  spiritual  privileges. 

28.  Is  the  Third  Order  suited  to 
all  states  and  conditions  of  life? 

Yes;  the  Third  Order  is  suited  to 
all  Christians,  to  the  most  lowly  as 
well  as  to  the  most  exalted.  The 
great  number  of  sainted  men  and 
women  from  every  walk  of  life  whom 
this  Order  has  produced,  shows  that 
it  offers  powerful  means  of  sanctity 
to  all  Christians,  regardless  of  their 
rank  or  station  or  occupation. 

29.  Who  are  the  patrons  of  the 
Third  Order? 

The  Church  has  named  St.  Louis, 
King  of  France,  patron  of  the 
Brethren,  and  of  the  Sisters,  the 
amiable  St.  Elizabeth  of  Thuringia. 

30.  Is  it  opportune  at  the  present 
day  to  join  the  Third  Order? 

Yes;  it  is  more  opportune  now  than 
ever  to  enter  the  Third  Order,  in 
order  to  revive  in  one's  self  and 
others  the  Christian  spirit,  which  is 
rapidly  dying  out  in  many  places. 
This  is  also  the  Church's  sentiment, 
repeatedly  expressed  in  these  latter 
days  by  Popes  Leo  XIII  and  Pius  X. 

31.  What  prevents  many  from 

With  most  people  it  is  either  in- 
difference or  prejudice  or  weakness 
of  the  will.  Such  people  would  do 
well  to  remove  the  obstacles,  barring 
them  from  this  institution  which  is 
so  powerful  a  means  of  salvation 
and  sanctity,  and  to  enter  reso- 
lutely on  the  way  traced  out  for 
them  by  that  perfect  follower  of  our 
Savior,  St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among 

the  Indians  of  the  Early  Days. 



By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  0.  F.  M. 

The  history  of  the  Seraphic  Family 
on  the  mainland  of  the  United  States, 
like  that  of  Christianity,  begins  with 
Florida.  We  make  the  distinction  as 
to  the  mainland,  because  Puerto 
Rico,  now  a  part  of  our  dominion, 
saw  the  standard  of  Salvation  raised 
in  1501,  when  twenty-three  Fran- 
ciscans arrived  on  the  island  to 
preach  Christ  Crucified.  This  was 
twelve  years  before  Ponce  de  Leon 
sighted  the  peninsula  on  our  eastern 

The  failures  of  Ponce  de  Leon  and 
of  Ayllon,  described  in  the  preceding 
chapter,  had  not  dampened  the  ardor 
of  those  hungry  for  gold,  fame,  and 
power.  Panfilo  de  Narvaez,  the  un- 
successful rival  of  Hernando  Cortes 
in  Mexico,  by  royal  permit  in  1526 
fitted  out  an  expedition  on  a  much 
larger  scale  in  order  to  conquer 
Florida.  Unaware  that  the  naked 
and  roving  savages  were  not  at 
all  like  the  half-civilized  and  seden- 
tary Aztecs  and  Tlascalans,  he 
dreamed  of  making  himself  master 
of  an  empire  which  should  surpass 
the  one  his  enemy  had  subjugated. 

Narvaez  was  determined  that  the 
enterprise  should  proceed  in  an  or- 
derly way  and  be  a  success  from 
the  beginning.  So  sure  was  he  of 
accomplishing    his    object,  that    he 

I  brought  along  a  magistrate  and  a 
fjtown  council  for  the  new  colony. 
Even  a  bishop  had  been  appointed 
by  his  majesty  and  directed  to  ac- 
company the  expedition,  so  there 
might  be  nothing  amiss  in  either 
spiritual  or  secular  matters.  It  is 
true,  the  person  named  for  the  ex- 
alted office  had  not  as  yet  received 
episcopal  consecration,  nor  had  the 
Pope  had  time  to  approve  the 
nominee.  But  that  made  no  differ- 
ence with  the  king,  who  by  reason 
of  the  anomalous  position  of  the 
Church  under  Spanish  rule,  was 
actually  vicar-general  to  the  Holy 
Father  in  his  dominion,  with  author- 
ity to  nominate  for  any  ecclesiastical 
dignity  whomsoever  he  pleased.  Such 
a  nominee  might  be  sent  to  the 
diocese  designated  to  exercise  eccle- 
siastical jurisdiction  forthwith,  re- 
turning perhaps  only  after  years  to 
be  consecrated.  Such  was  the  case 
with  the  first  bishop  of  the  City  of 
Mexico,  Fr.  Juan  de  Zumarraga, 
O.  F.  M.  He  was  named  by  Emperor 
Charles  V,  sent  to  his  destination, 
exercised  jurisdiction  as  bishop- 
elect  under  royal  orders,  and  after 
six  years  returned  to  Spain  to  be 
consecrated.  Happily  those  customs, 
which  led  to  much  abuse  and  world- 
liness,   have   ceased   even   in   Spain. 



The  ecclesiastic,  who  as  bishop- 
elect  accompanied  Narvaez,  was  the 
Franciscan  Fr.  Juan  Suarez,  or 
Xuarez.  His  title  was  Bishop  of 
Florida  and  Rio  de  las  Palmas 
(Panuco).  He  was  appointed  by  the 
emperor  in  1527,  at  the  same  time 
with  Bishop  Zumarraga  of  Mexico 
and  Bishop  Martin  de  Bejar  of 
Darien.  This  we  learn  from  the 
famous  Irish  Franciscan  historian, 
Fr.  Luke  Wadding.  He  writes: 
"Carolus  Imperator  .  .  .  nominavit 
pro  episcopatu  erigendo  in  urbe 
Mexicana  Fr.  Joannem  de  Zumar- 
raga; pro  episcopatu  Sanctae  Mariae 
Dariensis,  Fr.  Martinum  de  Bejar; 
pro  episcopatu  vastissimae  Pro- 
vinciae  Floridae,  Fr.  Joannem  Su- 
arez."1 Fr.  Harold,  O.  F.  M.,  of 
Limerick,  in  his  Epitome  Annalium 
Ordinis  Minorum,  published  at  Rome 
in  1662,  when  he  was  professor  at  the 
Irish  Franciscan  College  of  St. 
Isidore,  says:  "Other  Franciscans 
were  also  sent  to  the  peninsula  of 
Yucatan.  .  .  .  These  religious  were 
earnestly  charged  by  the  emperor  to 
see  that  the  laws  of  God  and  of  the 
state  were  observed  by  the  governors 
of  the  provinces,  and  they  should  not 
permit  that  the  Indians  be  tyranni- 
cally treated,  but  that  they  should 
be  brought  to  the  worship  of  the 
true  God  and  to  submission  to  the 
emperor  in  a  humane  and  con- 
siderate manner.  The  same  com- 
mission was  given  the  Franciscan 
bishop-elect  and  the  four  friars  who 
sailed  with  Panfilo  de  Narvaez, 
governor  of  the  Province  of  Florida 
and  the  Rio  de  las  Palmas."2  Again 
he  says:  "Since  the  ministers  of  the 
Gospel  gathered  so  very  many  sheep 
into  the  fold  of  Christ,  lest  these  be 
destitute  of  shepherds,  several  friars 
were  selected  from  the  same  family 
of  Observants  (Franciscans) :  for  the 
bishopric  to  be  established  in  the 
City  of  Mexico,  Fr.  Juan  de  Zum- 
maraga;  for  the  diocese  of  Darien, 
Fr.  Martin  de  Bejar  was  destined; 
for  the  see  of  the  province  of  Florida; 

Fr.  Juan  Suarez  was  designated. 
These  were  likewise  strictly  charged 
to  make  peace  among  the  quarreling 
governors,  and  to  remedy  the  worst 
grievances  of  the   Indians."3 

The  bishops  mentioned  here  were 
not  the  first  appointed  to  dioceses  in 
the  New  World.  Fr.  Garcia  de  Pa- 
dilla,  0.  F.  M.,  was  the  first  bishop 
named  for  the  first  see  established 
at  Santo  Domingo.  He  was  selected 
October  14,  1504,  only  twelve  years 
after  the  discovery  of  America.  The 
bull  appointing  Fr.  Garcia  de  Pa- 
dilla  was  issued  by  Pope  Julius  II, 
November  15,  of  that  year.4  On 
the  same  date  the  Pope  appointed 
Pedro  Suarez  de  Deza,  bishop  of  the 
Isle  of  San  Juan  (Puerto  Rico), 
albeit  the  island  had  not  yet  been 
Christianized.5  On  the  Feast  of  the 
Ascension,  May  20,  1512,  or  perhaps 
on  the  Sunday  previous,  Fr.  Garcia 
de  Padilla  was  consecrated.6  He 
had  thus  had  to  wait  nearly  seven 
years  for  his  consecration.  Nor  did 
he  ever  reach  his  diocese,  for  he 
died  in  Spain  a  year  or  two  later. 
The  three  dioceses  named  were  re- 
garded as  suffragans  to  the  arch- 
bishop of  Sevilla.7 

Fr.  Juan  Suarez,  the  bishop- 
elect  of  Florida,  and  Brother  Juan 
de  Palos,  who  accompanied  him, 
were  not  strangers  in  America.  They 
were  members  of  the  famous  mis- 
sionary band  of  twelve  Franciscans, 
who  under  Fr.  Martin  of  Valencia 
came  to  Mexico  in  1524,  and  in  the 
history  of  that  country  are  known  as 
the  Twelve  Apostles  of  Mexico. 
The  year  of  their  arrival  was  gener- 
ally spoken  of  as  the  "year  when  the 
Faith  came."  In  Mexico,  Fr.  Suarez 
had  been  appointed  guardian  of  the 
newly-established  convent  of  Huex- 
ocingo  at  the  foot  of  Popocatapetl, 
not  far  from  Puebla.  After  two 
years  of  hard  labor  but  brilliant 
success  among  the  natives,  he  re- 
turned to  Spain  to  enlist  more 
missionaries,  and  to  plead  the  cause 
of    the     oppressed     Indians     before 

1  Annales,  torn.  XVI,  p. 247.      -'Ad  an.  1527,  no.  1527,  no.  5.    Other  ancient  authorities  are:  Barcia,  Ensayo  Crono- 
logico,  Dec.  1,  anno  1527;  1600:Herra,  torn.  II,  Dec.  IV,  lib.  II,  cap.  IV.  p.  26.  ^Boletin  de  la  Real  Academia 

de  la  Hiatoria,  tomo  XX,  cuaderno  VI,  Junio  2892,  pp.  587-588.       ^Boletin,  ibid.  p.  593.      «Boletin„  ibid,  p.  600. 
•  Boletin.  tomo  XX.  cuad.  III.  d.  286. 



the  court  of  Charles  V.  While  thus 
occupied  in  the  mother  country, 
he  was  chosen  to  head  the  little 
company  of  friars  and  secular  priests 
who  were  to  join  Panfilo  de  Narvaez. 
His  title  as  leader  of  the  Franciscans 
was  the  usual  one  of  commissary. 
Under  this  title  Cabeza  de  Vaca, 
the  historian  of  the  expedition,  al- 
ways mentions  Fr.  Suarez.  The 
names  of  the  other  three  friars  and 
of  the  secular  priests  who  accom- 
panied Narvaez,  have  not  been 

With  about  five  hundred  men  in 
four  vessels,  Narvaez  landed  on  the 
western  coast  of  Florida,  near  Tampa 
Bay,  or  perhaps  Appalachee  Bay. 
This  was  on  Holy  Thursday,  April 
14,  1528.  Two  days  later  he  took 
formal  possession  of  the  territory 
for  the  king  of  Spain.  But  Narvaez, 
his  troops  and  colonists  were  soon 
disillusioned  and  sadly  disappointed. 
Instead  of  great  cities,  which  they 
had  expected  to  subdue  in  emulation 
of  Cortes,  the}^  encountered  only 
small  villages  or  hamlets  composed 
of  wretched  hovels.  Hoping  to  meet 
with  better  prospects  away  from 
the  sunny  coast,  Narvaez  led  a  body 
of  his  men  on  an  expedition  into 
the  interior.  Previously  he  had 
ordered  three  ships  to  search  for 
Panuco.  Now,  after  cruising  the 
coast  and  failing  to  discover  the 
harbor,  these  vessels  returned,  only 
to  find  that  their  commander  had 
journeyed  inland.  Search  was  made 
for  him  and  his  people  for  a  whole 
year,  and  at  last,  despairing  of 
success,  the  fleet  sailed  for  New 

With  three  hundred  men,  including 
Fr.  Suarez,  Brother  Palos,  three 
other  friars,  the  officers,  and  forty 
mounted  men,  Narvaez  had  set  out, 
Sunday,  May  1,  1528.  Disaster  fol- 
lowed on  the  heels  of  the  expedition 
from  the  outset.  Disease,  starvation, 
and  constant  engagements  with 
fierce  Indians,  soon  reduced  the 
force.    To  the  bright  visions  of  con- 

quest and  treasure  for  the  soldiers, 
and  of  abundant  converts  for  the 
missionaries,  succeeded  the  one  de- 
sire of  escaping  from  the  inhospi- 
table shores.  Narvaez  and  many  of 
his  men  fell  sick.  In  this  plight  the 
unfortunate  adventurers  at  last 
reached  one  of  the  little  harbors  in 
Appalachee  Bay,  where  it  was  de- 
termined to  build  boats  in  which  to 
make  their  escape.  There  was  but 
one  carpenter  in  the  whole  company, 
and  there  were  "neither  tools,  nor 
iron,  nor  forge,  nor  tow,  nor  resin, 
nor  rigging,  nor  any  man  who  had 
a  knowledge  of  their  manufacture; 
and  above  all,  there  was  nothing  to 
eat  while  building,"  as  Cabeza  de 
Vaca  relates.  But  despair  lent 
energy.  A  forge  sprang  up,  the  bel- 
lows being  constructed  of  wooden 
pipes  and  deerskin.  Everything  that 
could  furnish  metal  was  utilized. 
It  was  no  longer  gold,  but  iron  that 
was  sought.  Stirrups,  spurs,  cross- 
bows, etc.,  were  wrought  into  nails, 
saws,  axes,  and  other  necessary  tools. 
The  fan-palm  was  used  for  covering, 
and  its  fibre  served  to  calk  the  boats; 
from  its  husk  and  from  the  tails 
and  manes  of  the  horses,  ropes  and 
rigging  were  made.  Out  of  shirts, 
sails  were  formed.  The  remaining 
horses  were  flayed,  the  skins  re- 
moved from  their  legs  entire,  tanned, 
and  converted  into  bottles  to  carry 
water.  The  carcasses  served  for 
food  during  the  building  of  the 
boats.  By  the  time  five  boats  were 
completed,  only  one  horse  remained. 
More  than  forty  men  had  died  of 
disease  and  hunger,  and  the  Indians 
had  killed  many  others. 

At  last,  September  22,  1528,  the 
two  hundred  and  forty-two  survivors 
embarked,  having  provisioned  their 
boats  with  maize  obtained  from  the 
Indians  in  a  series  of  raids.  In  the 
first  boat  went  Narvaez  with  forty- 
nine  men;  in  the  second,  an  officer, 
Fr.  Suarez,  and  forty-nine  men, 
including  the  four  Franciscans;  in 
the   third,   two   officers   with   forty- 



eight  men;  in  the  fourth,  two  officers 
with  forty-seven  men;  in  the  fifth, 
two  officers,  including  Cabeza  de 
Vaca,  and  forty-nine  men.  After 
the  provisions  and  clothes  had  been 
taken  in,  the  boats  were  so  overloaded 
that  the  gunwales  were  not  more  than 
a  span  above  the  water,  and  the 
inmates  were  unable  to  move.  Not 
a  man  of  the  entire  company  had 
any  knowledge  of  navigation.  Pro- 
ceeding in  sight  of  the  shore,  hunger 
and  thirst  forced  them  to  land, 
supposedly  at  Pensacola  Bay. 
Here,  at  an  Indian  village,  they 
found  fresh  water  and  cooked  fish 
in  abundance.  Hostile  Indians, 
however,  caused  Narvaez  and  his 
fellow  sufferers  to  take  to  the  sea 
again.  They  reached  a  great  river, 
probably  the  Mississippi,  the  current 
of  which  separated  the  boats.  To 
cut  a  long  story  short,  all  the  in- 
mates  of   the   boats   perished,   save 

Cabeza  de  Vaca,  Andres  Dorantes, 
Alonso  de  Castillo,  and  an  Arabian 
negro  named  Estevanico,  the  latter 
of  whom  played  an  important  part 
in  the  discovery  of  New  Mexico,  ten 
or  eleven  years  later.  The  four  men 
were  captured  by  the  Indians,  made 
to  serve  as  slaves,  escaped,  and  after 
dreadful  sufferings  endured  in  nine 
years  of  wandering  through  arid 
wastes  of  western  Texas  and  Chi- 
huahua, then  through  Sonora  into 
Sinaloa,  to  their  inexpressible  joy  they 
reached  the  post  of  Culiacan,  May 
1,  1536.  Finally,  Sunday,  July 
24,  1536,  the  four  survivors  of  the 
ill-fated  expedition  arrived  at  the 
City  of  Mexico,  where  they  were 
kindly  treated  by  Viceroy  Antonio 
de  Mendoza.  "For  this  we  gave 
thanks  to  God,  our  Lord,"  Cabeza 
writes,  as  well  he  might,  "inasmuch 
as  we  had  before  despaired  of  ever 
hearing  more  of  Christians." 

(To  be  Continued.) 

Franciscan  Martyr  in  the  Balkans. 

By  Fr.  Silas  Barth,  0.  F.  M. 

For  some  time  the  press  has  been 
bringing  reports  of  enforced  con- 
versions of  Catholics  and  Moham- 
medans to  the  Greek  Orthodox 
church  at  the  hands  of  irregular 
bands  of  Servian  and  Montenegrin 
troops.  We  present  to  our  readers 
an  account  of  one  such  occurrence, 
as  officially  reported  to  the  Austrian 
government,  hoping  that  it  will 
prove  of  interest,  as  it  describes  the 
glorious  profession  of  faith  and  death 
of  a  heroic  son  of  St.  Francis  in 

It  brings  us  back  to  the  troublous 
days  of  early  Christianity,  when  we 
read  in  the  report  mentioned  that 
fanatic  Orthodox  popes  or  priests 
placed  themselves  at  the  head  of 
Servian  and  Montenegrin  soldiers, 
to  force  the  Catholics  of  Djakova 
and    the    neighboring    villages    to 

join  the  Greek  church.  They 
passed  through  the  district  in  bands, 
hunting  up  the  Catholics.  When  they 
had  captured  three  hundred  men, 
women,  and  children,  they  bound 
them  with  cords  and  drove  them 
like  cattle  to  Djakova.  Among  the 
prisoners  was  Fr.  Angelus  Palic,  O. 
F.  M.  Born  on  January  12,  1870, 
he  joined  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor 
in  1886,  and  was  ordained  priest  on 
July  22,  1893.  After  some  years  he 
was  appointed  pastor  of  the  parish 
at  Ipek,  and  later  on  he  was  sent  to 
minister  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the 
people  in  the  vicinity  of  Djakova. 
When  the  prisoners  had  arrived 
at  their  destination,  the  Orthodox 
priest  called  upon  them  to  sign  a 
document  showing  that  they  re- 
nounced the  Catholic  faith  and  joined 
the  Greek  church.     Pointing  to  the 



soldiers  who  stood  there  brandishing 
their  knives  and  rifles,  he  declared: 
"If  you  do  not  sign,  these  champions 
of  God  will  send  your  souls  to  hell." 
The  fear  of  death,  the  confusion 
and  excitement  caused  by  the  scenes 
of  violence,  and  human  weakness, 
that  overtakes  us  in  the  face  of 
threatening  danger,  shook  the  con- 
stancy of  the  trembling  people,  and 
at  the  point  of  the  bayonet  and  the 
knife,  they  declared  their  willing- 
ness to  sign  the  document.  It  is 
not  for  us  to  judge  them;  God 
knows  how  many  Christians  would 
have  acted  as  they  did,  in  similar 
circumstances.  "He  that  thinketh 
himself  to  stand,  let  him  take  heed 
lest  he  fall."  The  poor,  frightened 
people  submitted,  and  were  led 
"weeping  and  wailing"  to  the  Ortho- 
dox church,  as  the  official  Austrian 
report  says. 

One  victim  remained:  the  Fran- 
ciscan, Fr.  Palic.  He  stood  aside, 
sadly  observing  his  people  and  pray- 
ing God  to  grant  them  light  and 
strength.  At  length  the  Orthodox 
priest,  who  already  exulted  in  the 
hope  that  he  would  be  able  to  shake 
his  constancy  as  he  had  shaken  that 
of   his   people,    turned   to   him   and 

demanded:  "Will  you  sign  the  docu- 
ment?" With  quiet  dignity,  Fr. 
Palic  answered  the  repeated  demand 
with  a  decided,  "No."  After  he  had 
refused  the  demand  for  the  third 
time,  the  horrible  scene,  which 
might  have  been  considered  im- 
possible in  the  twentieth  century  in 
Europe,  occurred. 

At  a  sign  from  the  Orthodox 
priest,  the  soldiers  fell  upon  the 
Franciscan,  tore  off  his  habit,  and 
began  to  beat  him  with  their  rifles. 
Fr.  Angelus  lay  on  the  ground, 
his  limbs  and  ribs  broken.  The  Or- 
thodox priest,  ordering  the  soldiers 
to  desist,  again  asked  him,  whether 
he  would  renounce  his  faith  and  sign 
the  document.  The  grievously 
wounded  Father  shook  his  head  and 
said  quietly:  "No,  I  will  not  forsake 
my  religion."  The  soldiers  then  fell 
upon  him  with  redoubled  fury,  beat- 
ing him  with  the  butts  of  their  rifles 
and  piercing  him  with  their  bayonets, 
until  he  breathed  forth  his  soul. 

Thus  has  another  son  of  St.  Fran- 
cis given  an  example  of  fortitude 
and  confessed  the  Lord  before  the 
world,  and  without  doubt  received 
the  crown  of  glory. 

It  is  a  genuine  pleasure  for  us  to 
reproduce  elsewhere  in  this  issue  two 
letters  we  have  lately  received,  the 
one  from  His  Eminence,  Diomede 
Cardinal  Falconio,  the  other  from 
our  Right  Reverend  and  beloved 
Bishop  James  Ryan.  WTe  take  this 
opportunity  to  give  public  expression 
to  our  sentiments  of  heartfelt  grati- 
tude for  the  kindly  interest  His 
Eminence  and  His  Lordship  have 
been  pleased  to  manifest  in  our 
work,  as  well  as  for  their  words  of 
benison  and  approval. 

"The  more  learned  one  is,  the 
better  he  practises  what  he  knows; 
for  it  is  by  the  fruit  that  the  tree 
is  known." — St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

The  third  volume  of  Missions  and 
Missionaries  of  California  by  Fr. 
Zephyrin  Engelhardt  0.  F.  M., 
whose  name  appears  in  the  Francis- 
can Herald  as  a  regular  contributor, 
has  lately  come  to  us.  It  promises 
to  be  very  interesting  reading.  We 
regret  very  much  that,  being  pressed 
for  time,  we  are  unable  to  bring  a 
review  of  this  excellent  work  in  the 
present  issue  of  the  Herald. 

"Mortification  is  the  path  leading 
to  humility.  Let  Christians  never 
blush  in  undergoing  humiliations, 
nor  decline  humble  offices  too  readily, 
and  let  them  never  extol  any  work 
in  which  they  are  engaged. "—St. 



Current  Comment. 

The  Third  Order  and 
Social  Action. 

THERE  was  occasion,  some  time 
ago,  to  comment,  in  these 
columns,  on  the  Holy  Father's 
recent  letter  Tertium  Franciscalium 
Ordinem,  addressed  to  the  Ministers 
General  of  the  three  families  of  the 
Order  of  Friars  Minor.  Since  the 
publication  of  the  pontifical  letter, 
we  have  noticed  that  in  some 
quarters  the  opinion  seems  to  pre- 
vail that  the  Third  Order  is  no  longer 
permitted  to  engage  in  any  kind  of 
social  action,  and  that,  having  out- 
lived its  usefulness,  it  might  as  well 
step  aside  and  make  way  for  bene- 
volent and  other  associations  of 
later  growth. 

A  mere  glance  at  the  papal  docu- 
ment, however,  ought  to  be  sufficient 
to  convince  the  most  volatile  reader 
that  nothing  could  have  been  farther 
from  the  mind  of  the  Sovereign 
Pontiff  than  such  an  assumption. 
The  reason  for  the  misinterpretation 
seems  to  be  that  in  this  country 
we  are  apt  to  use  the  term  "social 
action"  in  a  very  wide  sense,  and  to 
include  in  it  the  works  of  mercy, 
such  as  visiting  the  sick,  providing 
for  the  poor,  catechizing  young  and 
ignorant  Catholics,  etc.  It  will  be 
seen,  however,  that  the  Holy  Father 
draws  a  very  clear  distinction  be- 
tween works  of  mercy  and  social 
works,  strictly  so-called.  By  social 
works,  His  Holiness  means  such 
social  action  as  has  for  its  object  the 
improvement  of  the  economic  con- 
dition of  the  people.  This  kind  of 
social  action,  therefore,  and  this 
kind  only,  the  Third  Order  must 
eschew;  for,  says  the  Holy  Father, 
"Sodalities  of  Tertiaries  as  such 
must  altogether  abstain  from  mixing 

up  with  mere  civil  and  economic 
questions."  It  is  to  be  noted, 
however,  that  whilst  the  Third  Order 
as  such  may  not  intervene  in  these 
questions,  individual  Tertiaries  are 
not  only  permitted,  but  even  en- 
couraged by  the  Pope,  to  co-operate 
"  in  social  action  as  approved  by  the 
Holy  See."  Yes,  they  may  even 
band  together  under  the  sanction 
of  the  Bishop  to  form  new  asso- 
ciations for  this  kind  of  social  work 
wherever  there  is  need  of  it. 

As  for  works  of  mercy,  these  lie 
entirely  within  the  scope  of  the 
Order.  Hence,  the  Holy  Father 
says,  "It  is  a  law  for  them  to  show 
all  kindness  to  members  and  out- 
siders, to  endeavor  sedulously  to 
heal  discords,  to  visit  the  sick,  to 
raise  funds  for  the  relief  of  those 
in  distress— in  fine  to  strive  to  per- 
form all  the  works  of  mercy." 

Could  the  Holy  Father  have  been 
more  explicit?  Indeed,  it  is  a  mys- 
tery to  us  how  anybody  could  have 
construed  his  words  to  mean  that 
the  Tertiaries  must  confine  them- 
selves to  the  recitations  of  their 
Pater  Nosters  and  abstain  from  every 
kind  of  social  work.  There  is  ample 
room  in  the  Church  for  all  societies 
that  have  for  their  aim  the  spread 
of  God's  kingdom  and  the  better- 
ment of  social  conditions,  and  we 
have  good  reason  to  believe  that  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis  is  as 
much  needed  to  accomplish  this  end 
as  auy  other  society  of  more  recent 
origin.  "For,"  to  quote  the  words 
of  Pope  Leo  XIII,  "inasmuch  as  St. 
Francis'  spirit,  so  preeminently 
Christian  is  wondrously  suited  to 
all  times  and  to  all  places,  no  one 
can  doubt  that  the  Franciscan  In- 
stitution will  be  of  the  greatest 
benefit  to  our  age.  The  Third  Order 
is  as  much  needed  to-day  as  in  the 
13th  century." 



The  Latest  Movement  for 
Church  Unity. 

We  are  in  receipt  of  a  circular 
letter  issued  by  the  "Joint  Com- 
mission of  the  Protestant  Episcopal 
Church,  appointed  to  arrange  for 
a  world  conference  on  faith  and 
order."  The  pamphlet  is  a  pathetic 
appeal  "to  all  Christian  Communions 
'which  confess  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ 
as  God  and  Savior,'  whether  they 
are  called  Catholic  or  Protestant, 
or  given  some  other  name, "  to  assist 
them  in  their  efforts  at  the  restora- 
tion of  the  unity  of  the  Church,  and 
"to  unite  with  them  in  arranging  for 
and  conducting  such  a  conference." 

Reunion  of  the  various  Christian 
denominations  with  the  Catholic 
Church  "is  a  consummation  devout- 
ly to  be  wished,"  and  the  efforts  of 
our  separated  brethren  to  bring 
about  such  a  reunion  are  very  com- 
mendable. Yet  we  are  loathe  to 
say  that  their  prospects  are  anything 
but  bright  and  encouraging.  We 
say  this,  not  because  we  doubt  the 
purity  of  their  motives,  or  because 
we  wish  their  plans  to  miscarry;  for 
no  one  reading  the  circular  can  fail 
to  be  impressed  by,  and  even  edified 
at,  the  disinterested  sincerity  with 
which  they  lay  bare  their  hearts  to 
their  Christian  brethren,  and  to  be 
filled  with  sympathy  for  these  good  men. 
Indeed,  the  letter  impresses  one  as  the 
"De  Profundis"  of  Protestants.  It 
is  a  cry  out  of  the  depths  of  spiritual 
misery  into  which  their  long  separa- 
tion from  the  Father's  house  has 
plunged  them. 

If,  nevertheless,  we  say  that  the 
present  movement  for  reunion  on  the 
part  of  our  Episcopal  brethren  is 
doomed  to  failure,  it  is  simply  be- 
cause we  find  them  on  the  wrong 
track  in  their  quest  for  Church 
unity.  There  is  only  one  way  leading 
to  unity  in  matters  of  "faith  and 
order,"  and  that  is  submission  to  the 
teaching  authority  of  the  Catholic 

Church.  The  Church  desires  nothing 
so  much  as  to  see  all  peoples  of  the 
earth  gathered  into  one  fold  and  uni- 
ted under  one  shepherd.  Hence  she 
prays  incessantly  to  the  Spirit  of 
Truth  to  enlighten  those  that  are 
in  spiritual  darkness.  She  is  ever 
ready  to  point  out  by  kindly  guidance 
and  instruction  the  way  that  leads 
into  her  pale.  Further  she  can  not 
go  without  disowning  her  very  right 
to  exist.  It  is  safe  to  say,  therefore, 
that  the  Catholic  Church  will  not 
be  officially  represented  in  the  coming 
"World  Conference."  For  this 
aloofness  she  will,  of  course,  be 
charged,  if  not  with  bigotry,  yet  with 
unreasonable  arrogance.  But  this 
is  an  old  and  threadbare  charge. 

Secularization   in   Italy. 

There  is  a  rumor  afloat  that  the 
Italian  government  is  contemplating 
another  secularization  of  convents 
and  other  religious  institutions.  This 
is  an  old  scheme  of  the  robber- 
government  "to  get  rich  quick." 
Yet,  in  spite  of  its  numerous  spolia- 
tions of  Church  property,  it  has  had 
all  along  to  eke  out  a  miserable  ex- 
istence, for  everybody  knows  that 
even  after  half  a  century  of  "unifi- 
cation," Italy  has  never  really  been 
out  of  the  throes  of  bankruptcy. 

The  latest  depredation  perpe- 
trated by  the  Italians,  the  annexa- 
tion of  Tripoli,  proved  as  costly  as 
it  was  iniquitous.  The  war,  indeed, 
added  a  few  more  leagues  of  barren 
territory  to  Italy's  unprotected  sea- 
coast,  but  it  likewise  depleted  the 
national  treasury.  Are  Italian 
statesmen  and  financiers  worrying 
on  that  account?  Not  at  all;  for 
they  have  a  law,  and  according  to 
this  law  all  the  Orders  and  Congre- 
gations of  men  and  women  bound 
by  religious  vows,  are  suppressed 
as  "juridical  entities."  That  is  to 
say,  the  law  graciously  permits  re- 
ligious communities  of  men  and  wo- 
men to  build  and  furnish  houses  for 



themselves  and  for  others,  namely, 
the  poor,  the  sick,  and  the  homeless; 
yet  it  forbids  them  to  have  a  legal 
title  to  these  places.  For  in  Italy 
religious  Orders  have  no  corporate 

All  that  the  government  has  to  do, 
therefore,  to  extricate  itself  from  its 
present  straits,  is  to  apply  the 
notorious  Padlock-Law,  that  is,  to 
march  its  brave  soldiers  to  the  num- 
erous convents,  drive  out  the  de- 
fenceless inmates  at  the  point  of  the 
bayonet,  declare  their  property,  real 
and  personal,  confiscated,  sell  it 
under  the  hammer,  perhaps,  to  the 
lowest  bidder — and  once  more  United 
Italy  can  breathe  freely;  for,  once 
again,  the  ship  of  state  has  happily 
weathered  the  storms  of  bankruptcy. 
And  who  knows,  after  all  the  war 
obligations  have  been  met,  there 
may  be  money  enough  left  to  com- 
plete that  grand  monument  lately 
erected  to  Victor  Emmanuel,  for 
which  to  find  a  suitable  site,  the 
government  found  it  necessary  to 
condemn  and  demolish  the  historic 
Franciscan  monastery  of  Ara  Coeli. 

But  we  shall  see.  A  French  pro- 
verb has  it,  "Who  eats  of  the  Pope, 
dies  thereof."  Perhaps  Italy  is 
only  hastening  her  own  demise. 

The  Film  Show. 

There  is  no  doubt  that  the  cine- 
matograph, that  marvel  of  technical 
skill,  when  conducted  in  accordance 
with  the  principles  of  sound  morality, 
of  true  art,  and  of  proper  enter- 
tainment, is  a  powerful  factor  in 
the  moral  and  mental  education  of 
youth.  As  at  present  conducted, 
however,  it  is  doing  incalculable 
harm  to  thousands  of  untutored 
hearts  and  minds  the  world  over. 
Indeed,  it  may  be  said  that  most 
moving-picture  shows  are  positively 
destructive,  not  only  of  morality 
but  of  good  health. 

The   foul   air   of  the   stuffy   halls 

breeds  diseases  of  the  lungs.  The 
unsteady  flicker  of  the  films  is  in- 
jurious to  the  eyes.  The  rapid  shift- 
ing of  exciting  scenes  brings  on  an 
overwrought  nervous  hunger  after 
sensation,  which  frequently  ends  in 
grave  disorder  of  the  nervous  system. 
Then,  too,  the  "photo  dramas"  are, 
in  most  cases,  anything  but  elevating. 
The  subjects  presented  are  very 
often  devoid  of  all  reality,  hence  of 
little  or  no  educational  value.  The 
injudicious,  not  to  say  altogether 
wanton,  mixture  of  the  sublime  and 
the  ludicrous,  of  tearful  tragedy 
and  light  comedy,  of  charming  scenes 
of  nature  and  of  scandalous  scenes 
of  life,  can  not  fail  to  vitiate  the 
taste  and  dull  the  moral  sense  of 

The  chief  grievance  against  the 
film  show,  of  course,  is  that  it 
incites  to  immorality.  "Of  250 
plays  presented,"  says  an  author 
who  speaks  from  actual  observation, 
"92  were  murders,  51  adulteries, 
10  seductions,  22  elopements,  and 
45  suicides."  What  good  can  come 
to  the  receptive  mind  and  heart  of 
the  child  from  the  presentation  of 
such  scenes?  What  child  witnessing 
such  exhibitions,  can  remain  inno- 
cent? Small  wonder  that  juvenile 
delinquency  is  assuming  enormous 
proportions  all  over  the  country. 

Now,  what  can  be  done  to  coun- 
teract the  evils  of  the  cinemato- 
graph? Shall  we  do  away  with  it 
altogether?  That  is  hardly  feasible, 
for,  to  all  appearances,  it  has  come 
to  stay.  The  only  thing  that  can 
be  done  is  to  exercise  a  strict  cen- 
sorship over  the  films.  Wherever  the 
law  is  deficient  or  the  civil  authority 
remiss  in  this  matter,  Tertiaries 
would  merit  well  of  the  community, 
if  they  would  appoint  a  committee 
to  keep  close  watch  on  every  pro- 
gram presented  within  the  limits  of 
their  parishes,  and  if  the  films  are 
found  in  any  way  offensive,  to  inform 
the  Pastors  or  warn  the  parents  of 
existing  dangers  and  abuses. 



The  Public  Dance  Hall. 

Clifford  G.  Roe,  general  council 
of  the  American  Vice  Association, 
recently  addressing  the  Central  Y. 
M.  C.  A.,  Chicago,  sounded  a  note  of 
warning  against  the  public  dance 
hall,  when  he  said,  "Dance  halls  are 
among  the  greatest  evils  that  we 
have  to  combat.  It  is  my  opinion 
that  more  girls  are  sent  to  their  ruin 
from  the  smooth,  glossy  floors  of  the 
dance  halls  than  from  any  other 
source."  These  words  from  a  man 
of  such  wide  experience  as  Mr.  Roe 
who  for  years  has  made  a  study  of 
the  great  social  evil,  are  deserving 
of  more  than  a  passing  notice.  We 
would  suggest  that  they  be  emblazon- 
ed on  the  portals  of  every  public 
dance  hall  and  be  dinned  into  the 
ears  of  those  Catholic  parents  who, 
in  spite  of  admonitions  from  the 
pulpit,  allow  their  daughters  to 
frequent  such  places  of  amusement. 
But  we  fear  that  even  this  expedient 
will  not  have  the  desired  effect  as 
long  as  there  are  Catholic  parents 
who,  like  the  idols  of  the  gentiles, 
have  eyes  and  see  not;  and  ears  and 
hear  not. 

The  Third  Order  in 

The  Tertiaries  of  Hungary  are 
well  organized.  Besides  having  their 
local  directors,  they  have  also  a 
general  director  in  the  person  of  Fr. 
Leonard  Trefan,  0.  F.  M.,  who  is 
assisted  by  two  other  Franciscan 
Fathers  in  the  management  of  the 
Third  Order.  Of  late,  many  of  the 
nobility  have  joined  the  ranks  of 
the  Tertiaries,  and  on  certain  festive 
occasions,  such  as  processions,  pro- 
fession of  the  Brethren,  adoration  of 
the  forty  hours,  they  are  not  ashamed 
to  appear  in  public,  clothed  in  the 
habit  of  the  Third  Order.  A  model 
confraternity   is   that   of   Budapest, 

which  is  under  the  direction  of  Fr. 
Capistran  Havas,  O.  F.  M.  This  is 
made  up  of  47  men  and  143  women. 
For  purposes  of  social  action  the 
confraternity  is  divided  into  two 
groups,  the  first  of  which  is  active 
in  visiting  the  sick,  providing  for 
the  poor,  safeguarding  the  inno- 
cence of  young  women,  and,  in 
general,  exercising  the  corporal  and 
spiritual  works  of  mercy,  while  the 
second  group,  that  of  the  more  edu- 
cated, presents  dramas,  gives  con- 
certs, holds  lectures  on  scientific 
subjects,  and  gives  cinematograph 
exhibitions  and  other  entertain- 
ments for  the  general  public.  The 
proceeds  help  swell  the  relief  fund 
for  the  poor.  In  this  manner,  the 
confraternity  was  able  in  the  past 
year  to  disburse  3,490  crowns.  The 
confraternity  has  a  home  of  its 
own,  valued  at  7,000  crowns,  and 
a  library  of  840  books.  Besides  this, 
it  is  contemplating  the  erection  of 
a  large  and  spacious  apartment 
house,  which  will  be  let  to  poor  ten- 
ants at  a  moderate  price. 

Thus  do  the  good  Tertiaries  of 
Budapest  give  the  lie  to  those  who 
claim  that  the  Third  Order  is  not 
suited  to  our  times,  and  it  is  not 
surprising  that  the  elite  of  society 
should  glory  in  the  name  of  Fran- 
ciscan Tertiaries. 

In  this  connection  we  wish  to 
express  our  thanks  also  to  all  those 
who  at  any  time  during  the  past 
four  months  have  sent  us  messages 
of  good  cheer  and  encouragement; 
likewise,  to  the  various  editors  who 
have  had  the  kindness  to  accept  our 
humble  magazine  in  exchange  for 
their  own  esteemed  publications. 

We  ask  our  readers,  especially 
such  of  them  as  are  Tertiaries,  kindly 
to  ponder  the  words  of  His  Eminence 
Cardinal  Falconio  and  to  pray  for 
the  spread  of  the  Third  Order  and 
for  the  success  of  our  missions. 



Life  in  Death. 

By   Fr.  Celestine  V.  Strub,  O.  F.  M. 

Four  weeks  had  elapsed  since  the 
day  of  the  accident;  but,  somehow, 
the  progress  of  Louis'  recovery  failed 
to  realize  its  first  promise;  and 
seeing  him  grow  weaker  day  by  day, 
Father  Bright,  his  pastor,  deter- 
mined to  prepare  him  for  his  first 
Holy  Communion.  By  a  strange 
coincidence,  the  day  chosen  for  that 
happy  event  proved  to  be  the  very 
day  fixed  on  by  Pierre  for  touching 
off  his  infernal  machine.  Father 
Bright  came  on  the  preceding  after- 
noon to  give  Louis  the  last  instruc- 
tions for  the  morrow.  He  brought 
with  him  a  golden  pyx,  which  he 
had  received  on  the  occasion  of  his 
silver  jubilee  as  priest, — an  exquisite 
piece  of  art  both  in  design  and  work- 
manship— and  Louis'  eyes  sparkled 
with  delight  as  he  beheld  the  elegant 
receptacle  for  the  body  of  his  Lord. 

"Father,"  he  exclaimed,  "I  wish 
I  had  a  heart  as  beautiful  as  that  to 
receive  Jesus." 

"Your  heart  is  far  more  beautiful 
than  this,  Louis,"  the  priest  replied; 
"and  Jesus  will  be  far  more  pleased 
to  dwell  in  your  heart  than  in  any 
vessel  of  silver  or  gold.  Sanctifying 
grace,  that  precious  robe,  which  you 
received  in  Baptism,  and  which 
every  good  act  beautifies  still  more 
by  increasing  its  splendor  or  by 
adorning  it  with  other  sparkling- 
gems,  makes  the  heart,  even  of  the 
poorest  Indian,  more  pleasing  to 
Jesus  than  all  the  jeweled  vessels, 
golden  tabernacles  and  magnificent 
churches  in  the  world.  And  no  one 
can  lose  this  shining  garment,  unless 
he    does    something    very    wicked." 

Louis,  who  had  followed  the 
priest's  words  with  evident  delight, 
now  remained  thoughtful  for  a 
moment;  then  a  troubled  look  cloud- 
ed    his    innocent     countenance,     a 

big  tear  rolled  down  his  cheek,  and 
he  said: 

"But, — Father, — I  —  did  — some- 
thing— wicked.  A  few  days  before 
I  was  hurt,  I  killed  a  little  wren  with 
an  arrow.  I  did'nt  want  to  kill 
it,  though.  I  was  trying  a  bow  and 
arrow  that  papa  gave  me  for  my 
eighth  birthday;  and  I  didn't  think 
I  should  hit  it." 

The  good  priest  assured  him  kindly 
that  that  was  nothing  wicked,  and 
that  he  had  not  thereby  lost  the 
white  robe  of  innocence.  And  when 
he  heard  his  confession  a  little  later, 
he  found  that  that  incident  was  the 
only  thing  he  remembered  ever 
having  done  that  had  any  semblance 
of  sin. 

The  next  morning  dawned  warm 
and  fair;  the  birds  filled  the  air 
with  joyous  song,  and  the  genial 
influence  of  spring  lay  like  a  spell 
over  entire  nature.  If  there  was 
care  in  the  world  that  morning, 
nature  felt  it  not.  Neither  did  Louis. 
He  was  lying  in  his  little  bed:  his 
clasped  hands,  which  held  a  pair  of 
beads,  rested  on  the  spotless  coverlet ; 
and  a  look  of  radiant  hope  gleamed 
in  his  soft  brown  eyes.  The  first 
great  day  in  his  young  life  had  come. 

"You  are  happy  now,  Louis,  are 
you  not?"  asked  Fr.  Bright,  when 
the  sacred  moment  had  come  and 
gone,  and  Louis  had  enjoyed  half 
an  hour  of  blissful  communion  with 
his  God. 

"O,  so  happy,  Father.  I  hardly 
notice  any  longer  that  I  am  sick." 

"But  you  are  still  very  sick, 
Louis.  Now  that  Jesus  has  been  so 
kind  as  to  pay  you  a  visit,  perhaps 
he  wishes  you  to  pay  Him  one  in 
return.  That  would  be  a  great 
happiness,   would  it  not,   Louis?" 

"Yes,  Father.     I  shouldn't  mind 



if  I  had  to  die  now."  Then  after  a 
moment  he  asked :  "But  what  would 
I  have  to  do,  Father,  if  I  came  to 

"Simply  say,  'Praised  be  Jesus 
Christ';  and  then  your  Guardian 
Angel  will  tell  you  what  to  do. 
Only  do  not  forget  to  give  my  love 
to  Jesus." 

"I  won't,  Father;  and  I  will  pray 
for  you  and  for  papa  and  aunt 

"Thank  you,  Louis,  many  thanks! 
Good-bye,  then,  till  to-morrow;  and 
may  God  bless  you!" 

It  was  past  his  usual  hour  for 
supper,  when  Pierre  returned  from 
work  that  evening.  He  had  secured 
employment  for  a  fortnight  in  a 
farm  implement  factory,  where  he 
was  relieving  a  workman  who  was 
taking  a  vacation.  His  delay  on 
this  evening,  however,  was  not  due 
to  prolonged  working  hours,  but  to 
his  determination  to  evade  a  con- 
versation with  Louis,  whom  he 
was  loath  to  meet  again  before  his 
crime  was  accomplished.  He  had 
been  accustomed  to  spend  the  time 
before  and  after  supper  by  Louis' 
bedside;  but  of  late,  especially  since 
Louis  began  to  prepare  for  his  first 
Holy  Communion,  the  boy's  inno- 
cent prattle  had  pricked  his  con- 
science so  unmercifully  that  he 
began  to  shorten  his  visits. 

Louis  had  become  much  worse 
during  the  day,  but  was  now  slum- 
bering peacefully.  Though  the  news 
of  this  unfavorable  change  exceeding- 
ly grieved  and  alarmed  Pierre,  the 
circumstance  that  he  was  asleep, 
admirably  favored  his  plan;  and  he 
determined  to  make  the  best  of  it. 
Hastily  swallowing  his  supper,  he 
exchanged  his  shoes  for  the  pair 
equipped  with  the  switching  device, 
and  already  had  his  hand  on  the 
door-knob,  when  his  sister  appeared 
at  the  head  of  the  stairs,  and  an- 
nounced that  Louis  had  awakened 
and  wished  to  see  him. 

"Tell    him,    I'll    be    back   soon," 

said  Pierre,  putting  on  his  fedora  and 
swinging  open  the  door. 

"But  he  may  be  asleep  again  then, 
Pierre,"  Louise  rejoined,  as  she  de- 
scended the  stairs. 

"Well,  I  can  see  him  to-morrow, 
can't  I?"  he  pouted,  angry  that  this 
delay  should  turn  up  at  the  last 

"To-morrow?  And  what  if  he 
should  die  to-night?" 

"Do  you  think  there  is  danger  of 
that?  I  have  an  engagement  this 
evening,  which  I  cannot  postpone." 

"There  is  great  danger  of  his  dying 
to-night,  Pierre.  And  will  you  dis- 
regard what  may  be  his  dying 

Pierre  looked  at  his  watch.  He 
really  had  an  engagement  that 
evening  with  a  representative  of  the 
Pullman  car  company,  who  had 
offered  him  a  very  attractive  posi- 
tion. The  gentleman  was  lodging 
at  a  hotel  situated  in  the  same 
block  with  the  La  Salle  building;  and 
Pierre  could  thus  hide  his  other 
design  under  cover  of  this  engage- 
ment. It  was  his  purpose  to  set 
the  clock-works  in  motion  at  about 
a  quarter  past  eight  o'clock,  so  that 
the  explosion  should  occur  shortly 
after  seven  on  the  following  morning. 
Owing  to  the  half-holiday,  the  fore- 
man had  to  be  at  the  shops  at  seven 
o'clock  on  Saturday  mornings;  and 
as  the  president  was  also  at  his 
desk  at  that  hour,  Belmont  hoped  in 
this  manner  to  satisfy  his  desire  for 
revenge,  without  needless  sacrificing 
of  human  lives;  though  it  did  not 
very  much  concern  him  how  many 
should  meet  their  death.  It  was 
now  five  minutes  past  seven.  He 
could  reach  the  La  Salle  in  forty 
minutes,  and  might  therefore  easily 
spare  a  quarter  of  an  hour.  Reluct- 
antly, he  closed  the  door.  Then,  with- 
out another  word,  he  slowly  ascended 
the  stairs  and  went  in  alone  to  his 
son's  room. 

"Good  evening,  papa!"  cried  Louis, 
as  his  father  entered.    "I'm  so  glad 



you've  come;  I  have  such  good  news 
to  tell  you." 

For  a  moment  Pierre  stood  silent 
in  awe  and  amazement.  A  great 
change  had  come  over  the  boy;  his 
voice  had  lost  its  former  ring  and 
his  head  turned  languidly  on  his 
pillow;  but  his  countenance,  suffused 
with  the  soft  light  of  the  setting  sun, 
wore  so  wonderful  an  expression 
of  joy  and  of  aloofness  from  the 
world,  that  Pierre  felt  as  if  in  the 
presence  of  some  superior  being. 
But  it  was  only  for  a  moment. 
Determined  not  to  be  swayed  from 
his  purpose  by  sentiment,  he  shook 
off  the  strange  fascination;  and 
though  he  smiled  when  he  advanced 
and  responded  to  Louis'  greeting, 
he  remained  standing  by  his  bed- 
side, hat  in  hand.  This  did  not 
satisfy  Louis. 

"Come  nearer,  papa,"  he  urged, 
"and  sit  down  on  this  chair." 

Pierre  complied,  and  then  Louis 
continued : 

"You  haven't  forgotten,  papa,  that 
this  is  the  day  of  my  first  Holy 
Communion?  It  was  all  so  beauti- 
ful, and  it  made  me  so  happy.  See 
the  nice  flowers  and  candles?  And 
Father  had  such  a  beautiful  case — 
all  covered  with  diamonds — that 
he  brought  the  Blessed  Sacrament 
in.  And  he  said  such  nice  prayers 
with  me,  and  spoke  about  Heaven. 
Then  he  told  me  also — and  that's 
the  good  news  I  have — that  I  shall 
probably  go  to  Heaven  soon  to  pay 
Jesus  a  visit  in  return." 

"And  you  call  that  good  news, 

"Why,  won't  that  be  nice  to  be 
with  Jesus?" 

"And  leave  me  all  alone?" 

"I  didn't  think  of  that,  papa, 
honor  bright!"  Then,  after  reflecting 
a  few  seconds,  he  said: 

"I  know  what  I  will  do,  papa; 
I  will  ask  Jesus  to  let  you  come  soon, 
too.  Father  said  that  Jesus  would 
not  refuse  anything  I  asked  for 
to-day.  It  will  be  ever  so  much  better 

to  be  together  in  Heaven  than  here. 
Don't  you  think  so?" 

"I  suppose,"  said  Pierre  listlessly. 
The  conversation  was  growing  more 
and  more  irksome.  Pierre  had  con- 
tributed to  the  purchase  of  the 
pyx  of  which  Louis  spoke;  and  he 
remembered  well  Father  Bright's 
words:  "God  grant  that  the  hearts' 
of  the  donators  may  never  be  less 
worthy  than  this  pyx  to  receive  the 
body  of  their  Lord!"  How  was  his 
heart  at  that  moment?  The  thought 
was  unbearable;  he  thrust  it  from 
his  mind;  but  straightway  Louis 
asked  him: 

"You  will  also  want  to  send  your 
love  to  Jesus,  won't  you,  papa? 
Father  Bright  bade  me  give  his  love 
to  Jesus." 

This  was  too  much  for  Pierre. 
Looking  at  his  watch,  he  sprang  up 
suddenly  and  said: 

"I  almost  forgot,  Louis,  that  I 
have  some  business  to  attend  to. 
Good-bye!  I  will  return  as  soon  as 
I  can." 

"Good-bye,  papa!  Shall  I  give 
your  love  to  Jesus,  then?" 

Pierre  turned  and  left  the  room 
without  an  answer. 

Just  as  he  was  boarding  the  street- 
car a  few  minutes  later,  a  superb 
automobile  swung  round  the  corner 
and  glided  up  the  street  towards 
his  home.  He  scarcely  had  time,  as 
it  passed,  to  catch  a  glimpse  of  its 
occupant,— an  elderly  lady  with  a 
huge  cluster  of  lilies  in  her  lap. 
Was  not  that  the  woman  who  offered 
him  the  use  of  her  automobile  on 
the  day  that  Louis  was  injured? 
He  followed  the  vehicle  with  his 
eyes.  Yes,  it  was  slowing  up  before 
his  house.  His  curiosity  being  now 
fully  aroused,  he  was  watching 
it  intently,  when,  the  street-car 
having  started,  an  intervening  build- 
ing screened  it  from  his  sight. 
Pierre  flung  himself  back  in  his  seat 
and  endeavored  to  recall  where  he 
had    seen    that    face    before.       The 



woman's  features  seemed  un-com- 
monly  familiar;  yet,  of  all  the  women 
of  his  acquaintance,  he  could  re- 
collect none  that  resembled  her. 

There  was  ample  time,  as  the  car 
sped  along,  for  Pierre  to  reconsider 
the  crime  that  he  was  about  to  con- 
summate; but  all  had  been  planned 
too  deliberately  for  a  sudden  re- 
versal of  decision  to  come  now. 
There  was  nothing  repulsive  in  the 
immediate  means  to  be  employed 
that  would  have  made  him  shrink 
from  the  deed:  he  had  merely  to 
place  his  foot  on  the  two  pins,  and 
the  mechanism  itself  would  complete 
the  work  while  he  was  several  miles 
away.  Neither  could  the  fear  of 
detection  divert  him.  The  fact  that 
the  strikers  had  only  a  few  days 
previously  been  compelled  to  resume 
work  without  securing  the  demanded 
increase  of  wages,  would  naturally 
fasten  suspicion  on  them;  though, 
of  course,  evidence  would  be  lacking 
to  convict  them.  Yet,  though  none 
of  these  considerations  could  in- 
fluence him,  one  thing  there  was  that 
was  destined  to  shake  his  resolu- 
tion, and  that  was  the  thought  of 
Louis.  The  latter's  parting  words 
kept  ringing  in  Pierre's  ears,  and  it 
pained  him  to  think  how  heartless 
he  had  been  in  leaving  him  so 
abruptly.  Would  he  really  die? 
And  was  he  to  lose  him — forever? 
Certainly  he  could  not  expect  God 
to  spare  him  for  his  sake.  And  if 
he  did  not  spare  him,  should  he 
ever  see  him  in  the  next  world? 
He  scarcely  durst  hope  that,  either. 
Might  he,  perhaps,  appease  God  by 
foregoing  his  revenge?  Here  was 
food  for  thought;  and  Pierre  began 
to  reflect  seriously.  It  was  a  hard 
struggle  and  long;  yet,  finally,  he 
reached  a  conclusion.  For  the  sake 
of  Louis,  he  would  abandon  his  pro- 
ject and  forgive  his  enemies. 

The  car  was  now  within  a  block  of 
the  La  Salle  building,  when  it  stopp- 
ed, and  in  stepped — Harry  Ledding. 
A  disdainful  smile  of  triumph  curled 

his  lip  as  he  passed  Belmont  on  his 
way  to  his  seat, — and  that  smile 
sealed  his  fate.  Burning  with  rage 
Pierre  all  but  sprang  from  his  seat 
to  wreak  immediate  vengeance  upon 
his  foe;  yet,  he  so  far  mastered  him- 
self as  to  resist  that  impulse,  but 
muttered  under  his  breath,  "Who 
laughs  last,  laughs  best."  And  other 
thoughts  being  now  swept  away  by 
his  newly  inflamed  passion,  when 
Pierre  alighted  from  the  car  a 
moment  later  and  gained  the  corner 
of  the  La  Salle,  it  was  with  a  feeling 
of  fierce  satisfaction  that  he  set  his 
foot  firmly  on  the  two  pins  in  the 
lid  of  the  man-hole,  confident  that 
this  time,  at  least,  his  revenge  would 
be  complete  and  its  fruits  would  not 
again  be  visited  upon  his  own  head. 

"Thank  God!  You  have  come  at 
last.  Louis  has  grown  very  restless, 
and  has  been  asking  for  you  con- 

"Do  you  think  he  will  live?" 

"No;  perhaps  not  even  till  dawn. 
But  come,  let  us  go  to  his  room." 

"Never  mind.  I  will  go  alone; 
you  had  better  rest  a  little;  I'll 
call  you  if  he  grows  worse." 

Louise  turned  to  go;  then,  pausing, 
she  added: 

"I  almost  forgot,  Pierre,  that  the 
lady  who  has  been  sending  Louis 
fruits  and  flowers,  called  to  see  him 
just  after  you  left.  Her  name  is 

"Thomson!"  exclaimed  Pierre, 
shrinking  with  consternation.  "But 
there  are  many  Thomsons.  What  is 
her  first  name?" 

"She  didn't  give  that;  but  the 
initials,  you  know,  were  C.  T." 

Pierre  shuddered,  and  then  as- 
cended the  stairs  in  silence. 

Wearied  after  the  restless  hours 
he  had  passed  since  his  father's 
departure,  Louis  had  finally  fallen 
asleep.  Finding  him  thus,  Pierre 
went  with  noiseless  step  to  his  own 
room  and  removed  the  device  from 
his  shoe;  then  he  carried  both  shoes 
to  the  basement,  threw  them  into 



the  furnace,  and  returning  sat  down 
near  his  son's  bed.  It  was  ten 
o'clock.  Save  Louis'  irregular 
breathing  and  the  occasional  rum- 
bling of  a  street-car  two  blocks  away, 
no  sound  disturbed  the  silence  of 
the  night.  Sitting  there  in  the  dimly 
lighted  room,  his  elbows  resting  on 
his  knees  and  his  head  between  his 
hands,  Pierre  felt  extremely  miser- 
able— not  only  mentally  and  mor- 
ally, but  also  bodily.  The  moment 
he  had  lifted  his  foot  from  the  fatal 
pins,  a  most  violent  heart  pain  had 
so  staggered  him  that  he  feared  he 
must  die  on  the  spot.  His  guilty 
conscience  ied  him  to  regard  this  as 
an  immediate  punishment  of  his 
crime;  but  the  pain  having  left  as 
quickly  as  it  came,  he  had  regained 
his  composure  before  he  reached 
home,  though  he  still  felt  a  strange 
weakness.  He  had  not  sat  long  beside 
Louis,  when  the  pain  seized  him  again. 
He  started  to  rise,  intending  to 
summon  Louise,  when  of  a  sudden 
Louis  began  to  speak.  His  mind 
was  wandering,  and  he  spoke  of  his 
benefactress  as  his  mother. 

"See  what  beautiful  lilies  mamma 
brought  me?" 

Pierre  had  noticed  the  bouquet 
before;  but,  turning  up  the  gaslight 
he  now  espied,  half-hidden  among  the 
lilies,  a  card  with  the  words:  "Com- 
pliments of  Mrs.  Claude  Thomson." 
Pierre's  worst  fears  were  confirmed. 
Louis'  benefactress  was  the  wife  of 
Claude  Thomson,  president  of  the 
La  Salle  street-car  company,  who  in 
all  probability  would  be  a  victim 
of  the  explosion  on  the  morrow. 
"Strange,"  mused  Pierre,  "that  I 
did  not  discover  this  sooner."  He 
knew  that  Thomson's  wife  was  a 
Catholic  and  of.  a  very  beneficent 
disposition;  and  though  he  had 
never  seen  her  before  the  day  of  the 
accident,  he  had  often  seen  her 
son,  and  he  understood  now  why  her 
face  had  seemed  so  familiar  to  him. 
And  should  he  now  permit  this  mis- 
fortune   to    befall    her? — Pierre    be- 

thought himself  for  several  minutes. 
He  could  no  longer  prevent  the 
explosion  without  betraying  him- 
self and  sparing  Ledding  besides. 
No;  that  he  could  and  would  not 
do;  Thomson  must  meet  his  fatej 

"Mamma,"  Louis  began  again, 
still  delirious,  "hasn't  papa  come 
yet?  He  didn't  give  his  love  to 

"Here  is  papa,  Louis,"  Pierre  res- 
ponded.    "Don't  you  know  me?" 

Louis  stared  at  him  with  a  puzzled 
look.    Then  he  said: 

"There  comes  a  car  now. — It  is 
going  to  stop. — Papa  will  come 
soon. — Look!  The  motorman  can't 
stop  it.  Help!  Help! — Some  one 
take  the  flowers. — Papa  and  all  the 
people  will  be  killed. — Oh,  it  is  too 
late,"  too  late!  The  lilies  are  all 
spoiled.  Papa  is  killed,  and  he 
didn't  give  his  love  to  Jesus." 

Beads  of  perspiration  stood  on 
Pierre's  brow  as  Louis  concluded. 
Grace  had  conquered  at  last.  He 
fell  on  his  knees  beside  the  bed, 
and  burying  his  face  in  the  coverlet, 
shed  bitter  tears  of  repentance. 
Rising  then,  he  drew  an  envelope 
from  his  pocket,  hastily  sketched 
something  thereon  with  a  pencil, 
and  calling  Louise,  said  in  an 
agitated,  yet  decided  tone: 

"Louise,  take  this  and  give  it  to 
the  janitor  of  the  La  Salle,  and  tell 
him  to  cut  these  wires.  Here's  the 
key  to  the  box.  Make  haste,  though, 
for  lives  hang  in  the  scale.  I  will 
explain  later.  I  feel  too  weak  to  go 

For  a  moment  Louise  was  dum- 
founded;  but  seeing  the  sketch  of 
the  exploding  mechanism  and  re- 
membering Pierre's  late  strange  be- 
haviour, she  soon  grasped  the  situa- 
tion and  assured  him  that  she  would 
without  fail  perform  his  behest. 
She  had  hardly  gone  when  Louis 
awoke,   perfectly   conscious. 

"O  papa,  I  am  so  glad  you  are 
here.  I  dreamt  that  I  spoke  to  you 
and    you    went    away    without    an- 



swering.      Isn't   aunt  Louise  here?" 

"She  just  left,  Louis;  but  she  will 
be  back  again." 

Then  casting  himself  on  his  knees 
and  taking  Louis's  right  hand  in 
both  his,  Pierre  sobbed: 

"0  Louis!  won't  you  pray  for  your 
poor,  sinful  father?" 

"Most  certainly,  papa.  But  you 
must  not  weep  for  me;  we  shall 
soon  meet  again,  though  I  must 
leave  you  now  for  a  while.  Give  my 
love  to  aunt  Louise,  papa;  and  tell 
her  good-bye  for  me." 

"Yes,  yes,  Louis." 

"Then  good-bye  to  you,  my  dear 

"Good-bye,  Louis,  good-bye!  Do 
not  forget  to  pray  for  me,  and  -  to  - 
give  -  my  -  love  -  to  -  Jesus." 

Louis'  eyes  flashed  brilliantly  for 
a  few  moments  as  he  gazed  steadily 
upward.  Then,  turning  his  head 
slightly,  his  eyes  rested  lovingly  on 
Pierre,  and  a  heavenly  smile  played 
round  his  lips.  That  smile  was  .his 

When  Louise  returned,  her  task 
accomplished,  it  was  already  past 
midnight.  Pierre  was  still  kneeling 
in  the  selfsame  posture;  his  head 
resting  on  Louis'  hand.  Approach- 
ing, she  laid  her  hand  on  his  shoul- 
der; but  he  moved  not.  She  called 
him  by  name:  he  did  not  answer. 
His  loving  greeting  had  been  re- 
ceived, and  Jesus  had  sent  his  love 
in  return.  The  messenger  that 
brought  it  was  the  Angel  of  Death. 
The  End. 

The  Hero  of  Belgrade. 


By  Fr.  Ferdinand,  0.  F.  M. 

5.     Belgrade. 

This  was  a  strongly  fortified  city, 
situated  on  a  sort  of  promontory  at 
the  confluence  of  the  Danube  and 
Save.  On  an  eminence  within  the 
city  stood  the  citadel,  the  mainstay 
of  the  defence.  The  city  itself, 
which  lay  in  the  declivity  along  the 
banks  of  the  rivers,  was  surrounded 
on  the  landward  side  by  a  huge 
wall,  surmounted  by  a  parapet,  and 
flanked  with  numerous  towers.  This 
wall  was  again  encompassed  by  two 
strong  ramparts,  separated  from  each 
other  and  from  the  main  wall  by 
deep,  broad  moats,  filled  with  water. 
The  moats  could  be  crossed  only  by 
means  of  draw-bridges,  each  of  which 
was  protected  by  a  tower.  These 
walls  with  their  intervening  trenches 
formed  the  outer  defence  of  the  city. 
Owing  to  its  well-fortified  and  strate- 
gic position,  this  fortress  was  con- 
sidered the  key  of  Hungary  and  the 
bulwark    of    northern    Europe,    and 

before  the  invention  of  cannon  was 
deemed  impregnable.  For  these 
reasons,  it  had  long  been  an  object 
of  particular  envy  for  the  Ottomans. 

6.  Turks  Prepare  for  Siege. 
Mohammed  II,  being  aware  that 
his  designs  upon  Hungary  could  not 
be  carried  out,  unless  he  obtained 
possession  of  Belgrade,  determined 
to  carry  the  place  by  assault.  In 
four  days  he  had  gathered  his  im- 
mense army  of  160,000  men,  and 
stationed  them  along  the  whole 
length  of  the  outer  wall,  thus  cutting 
off  all  communication  by  land.  An 
interminable  train  of  camels  and 
other  beasts  of  burden  might  be 
seen,  laden  with  provisions,  ammuni- 
tion, and  instruments  of  war, '  and 
drawing  colossal  cannons  and  cata- 
pults. Of  the  latter,  some  were  about 
twenty-seven  feet  in  length  and 
"capable  of  destroying  and  reducing 
to  dust  not  only  fortresses  but  even 
mountains."       There   were,  besides, 



seven  other  huge  machines  which 
hurled  enormous  stones  to  the  dis- 
tance of  about  a  mile.  These  stones 
were  projected  with  such  violence 
that  they  fell  with  a  frightful  crash 
and  were  buried  in  the  earth.  Of 
the  smaller  pieces  of  ordnance  and 
machines,  destined  to  cast  darts, 
arrows,  and  other  projectiles,  there 
was  a  countless  number.  Although 
the  Turkish  army  was  plentifully 
supplied  with  all  kinds  of  provisions 
and  warlike  stores,  the  Sultan, 
nevertheless,  took  precaution  to 
erect  a  foundry  and  a  bakery  that 
during  the  siege  nothing  might  be 
wanting  to  his  men.  So  confident 
was  the  Turkish  commander  of  the 
successful  and  speedy  termination  of 
the  siege  that  he  had  vauntingty 
sworn  by  the  prophet  Mohammed 
and  the  salvation  of  his  soul  to  re- 
duce Belgrade  in  a  fortnight,  and 
after  two  months  to  dine  in  Buda. 
But  he  had  not  reckoned  with  the 
vigilance  and  prowess  of  one  John 

7.     Capistran  to  the  Rescue. 

No  sooner  had  the  holy  friar  re- 
ceived the  intelligence  that  the 
Turks  were  nearing  Belgrade,  when 
he  called  to  arms  all  the  crusaders 
whom  he  had  enlisted  for  the  holy 
war.  As  haste  was  imperative,  he 
could  not  wait  till  they  were  all 
assembled,  but  having  equipped 
five  vessels,  he  at  once  descended  the 
Danube,  while  a  small  number  of 
crusaders  followed  on  land.  His 
object  was  to  bring  instant  relief  to 
the  terror-stricken  citizens  of  Bel- 
grade and  to  revive  the  drooping 
spirits  of  the  little  garrison,  which 
consisted  of  a  mere  handful  of  men 
under  the  command  of  the  valiant 
Michael  Szilagy.  The  crusaders 
reached  the  city  oniy  just  in  time  to 
effect  an  entrance.  The  only  avenue 
of  approach  still  open  was  the  river, 
and  this,  too,  must  have  soon  been 
closed  to  them,  for  already  the  fore- 
most Turkish  galleys  could  be  seen 

down  the  river,  at  a  short  distance 
from  the  fortress.  But  Capistran 
was  successful  in  leading  into  the 
city  the  entire  expedition.  It  was 
on  July  2,  when  he  entered  amid 
the  joyous  acclamations  of  the  in- 
habitants. Now  that  they  had  the 
holy  man  in  their  midst,  they  no 
longer  feared  the  Turks.  The  saint, 
however,  having  taken  in  the  situa- 
tion at  a  glance,  saw  that  it  was  foil  y 
to  hope  to  sustain  the  siege  against 
so  numerous  an  army  and  so  for- 
midable an  array  of  cannons  and 
ballistae.  He,  therefore,  resolved 
to  leave  the  city,  in  order  to  gather 
more  troops.  Before  embarking,  he 
harangued  the  soldiers,  exhorting 
them  in  a  glowing  address  to  combat 
bravely  and  not  to  give  up  the 
defence,  and  promising  them  that 
in  a  short  time  he  would  return 
with  an  army  of  crusaders,  whose 
numbers  would  astonish  even  their 
enemies.  Then,  with  four  friars  and 
a  few  crusaders  he  left  the  city, 
and  made  his  way,  not  without  con- 
siderable danger,  up  the  Danube  to 
Peterwardein.  Urgent  messages  were 
sent  to  different  parts,  calling  on 
those  who  had  taken  the  cross,  to 
come  without  further  delay. 

8.     The  Christian  Army. 

The  crusaders  responded  gener- 
ously to  his  call.  In  a  few  days  an 
army  of  about  60,000  had  assembled 
— and  a  motley  army  it  was,  con- 
sisting mostly  of  students,  peasants, 
civilians,  and  monks,  some  armed 
with  pikes  and  maces,  others  with 
flails  and  pitchforks.  "They  had 
neither  horses  nor  lances  nor  cui- 
rases,"  says  an  eye-witness,  "but  like 
David  they  went  to  meet  Goliath 
with  slings  and  stones."  Gray- 
haired  sires  and  beardless  youths 
walked  side  by  side.  Over  their 
sturdy  hearts  they  wore  the  red 
cross — the  badge  of  the  crusaders, 
while  some  carried  banners  with 
painted  images  of  St.  Francis,  St. 
Antony,    St.    Louis,    and    St.    Ber- 



nardine,  to  show  that  they  had  been 
enlisted  by  the  sons  of  St.  Francis. 
Badly  armed  and  miserably  un- 
disciplined, they  were  wanting  in 
everything  but  in  courage,  trust  in 
God,  and  a  firm  determination  to 
spill  their  heart's  best  blood  in 
defence  of  their  holy  faith.  "They 
would  obey  none  but  the  blessed 
father  as  their  leader,  and  he  guided 
them  like  another  Moses  or  Josue." 
It  must  be  observed  that  among  this 
vast  number  of  crusaders  there  was 
not  a  single  prince  or  nobleman  or 
warrior  of  note,  that  might  have 
assumed  the  command.  The  friar 
commander,  however,  fully  realized 
the  necessity  of  a  leader,  well- versed 
in  the  science  of  war,  to  mold  this 
heterogeneous  mass  into  a  compact 
and  efficient  body.  But  where  could 
such  a  master-mind  be  found?  Who 
would  be  willing  to  hazard  his  life, 
his  fortunes,  and  his  reputation  by 
placing  himself  at  the  head  of  these 
raw  and  undisciplined  troops?  King 
Ladislaus,  on  the  advice  of  his 
counselors,  had  fled  to  Vienna  at 
the  first  news  of  the  approaching 
peril,  and  the  barons,  only  too  eager 
to  follow  the  ignoble  example  of 
their  liege,  had  likewise  sought 
security  and  comfort  in  the  interior 
of  the  country. 

9.    John  Hunyady. 

There  was  only  one  man  of  whom 
the  saint  knew  that  possessed  a 
heart  at  once  courageous  and  gener- 
ous enough  to  assume  the  command 
— John  Hunyady,  the  governor  of 
Hungary.  This  famous  warrior  was 
one  of  the  few  whom  Mohammed 
regarded  as  able  and  dangerous  ad- 
versaries. For  to  the  praise  of  con- 
'summate  wisdom  in  the  council  he 
added  that  of  unrivalled  courage 
in  the  field.  He  had  fought  many 
a  battle  against  the  Turks,  and  his 
sword  had  always  spread  havoc 
through  their  ranks,  so  much  so  that 
his  very  name  was  enough  to  strike 
terror    to    their    hearts.       He    was, 

therefore,  justly  regarded  by  all  as 
the  pride  of  Hungary  and  the  scourge 
of  the  Turks — "a  knight  without 
fear  and  without  reproach."  It 
was  to  this  able  and  enterprising 
general  that  the  holy  friar  resolved 
to  apply  for  assistance.  At  the  diet 
of  Buda,  Hunyady  had  been  unani- 
mously elected  commander-in-chief 
of  the  crusade,  and  had  given  the 
example  to  the  barons  of  the  kingdom 
by  equipping,  at  his  own  expense, 
7,000  soldiers  for  the  expedition. 
Though  he  had  always  shown  him- 
self to  be  an  intrepid  champion  of 
the  faith  and  a  ready  defender  of  his 
country,  yet,  on  this  occasion,  he 
resolved  to  keep  aloof,  either  be- 
cause a  misunderstanding  between 
him  and  the  king  had  arisen,  or 
because  he  considered  the  crusaders 
inadequate,  in  point  of  number  and 
discipline,  to  the  forces  of  the 
enemy.  To  move  him  from  his 
purpose,  Capistran  found  it  neces- 
sary to  call  into  play  all  the  powers 
of  his  eloquence.  He  appealed  in 
turn  to  Hunyady's  faith  and  honor 
and  patriotism.  At  length,  yielding 
to  the  earnest  and  eloquent  entreaties 
of  the  holy  friar,  for  whom  he  had 
always  entertained  a  high  regard 
and  tender  affection,  he  consented 
to  share  in  the  danger  and  glory  of 
the  enterprise,  and  to  take  in  hand 
the  defence  of  Belgrade. 

•  To  be  Continued. 

"There  are  many  who  if  they  com- 
mit sin  or  suffer  wrong  often  blame 
their  enemy  or  their  neighbor.  But 
this  is  not  right,  for  each  one  has 
his  enemy  in  his  power, — to-wit, 
the  body  by  which  he  sins.  Where- 
fore blessed  is  that  servant  who  al- 
ways holds  captive  the  enemy  thus 
given  into  his  power  and  wisely 
guards  himself  from  it,  for  so  long 
as  he  acts  thus  no  other  enemy  visible 
or  invisible  can  do  him  harm." — 
St'.  Francis  of  Assisi. 

Franciscan  News. 

Rome. — The  latest  report  on  the 
foreign  missions  in  charge  of  the 
Order  of  Friars  Minor  makes  inter- 
esting reading.  For  the  benefit  of 
our  readers  we  cull  the  following 

The  total  number  of  Franciscans 
in  the  missions  of  Asia,  Africa, 
Oceanica,  and  South  America  is 
1807.  Of  this  number  1,152  are 
priests,  64  are  clerics,  576  are  lay 
brothers,  and  5  are  novices.  The 
number  of  Franciscan  Sisters  in 
these  missions  is  589. 

In  Africa  the  sons  of  St.  Francis 
have  missions  in  Egypt,  Tripoli, 
Tunis,  Morocco,  and  Mozambique. 
In  all  these  countries,  137  Fathers 
attend  to  62  churches  and  chapels, 
and  have  charge  of  33  parishes,  with 
a  total  membership  of  127,470  souls. 
During  the  year  from  October  1911 
to  October  1912,  they  administered 
baptism  to  77  adults  and  2,473 
children.  In  the  54  schools  under 
the  direction  of  the  Fathers,  4,940 
children  receive  a  Christian  educa- 
tion. The  Fathers  are  assisted  in 
their  labors  by  250  Franciscan  Sis- 

In  Asia  Franciscan  missionaries 
are  found  in  the  Holy  Land  and  in 
China.  In  the  Custody  of  the  Holy 
Land  178  Fathers  have  charge  of 
the  holy  places  and  also  of  the  island 
of  Cyprus,  that  is,  of  132  churches 
and  chapels,  and  36  parishes.  One 
college,  with  an  attendance  of  240 
students,  and  52  schools,  with  4,110 
pupils  are  connected  with  these 
missions.  60  Franciscan  Sisters 
also  labor  here. 

In  China  227  Franciscans  are 
laboring    in    10    Vicariates    in    the 

northern  part  of  the  country.  They 
have  charge  of  1,710  churches  and 
chapels,  with  191,045  Christian  Chin- 
ese and  over  82,000  catechumens. 
Since  the  last  annual  report  10,260 
adults  and  23,577  children  were 
baptized.  There  are  14  seminaries 
and  37  colleges,  with  258  and  618 
students  respectively,  and  930  schools 
attended  by  16,177  children.  The 
report  makes  mention  of  the  chari- 
table institutions  erected  and  sup- 
ported principally  by  the  charity  of 
the  Catholics  of  Europe  and  America. 
Thus,  3,593  orphans,  and  65,456 
old  men  and  women,  cripples,  and 
poor  persons  were  sheltered  and 
cared  for,  and  3,515  sick  were  nursed 
in  the  hospitals.  These  works  of 
charity  are  made  possible  particu- 
larly by  the  untiring  labors  of  167 
Franciscan  Sisters. 

In  the  Philippines  81  Fathers  have 
charge  of  3  churches  and  chapels, 
and  of  42  parishes.  During  the  past 
year  they  baptized  4,200  children, 
preached  1,550  sermons,  and  heard 
286,700  confessions. 

In  South  America  the  total  num- 
ber of  priests  is  421.  They  have 
charge  of  271  churches  and  chapels 
46  parishes,  and  615  missions.  With 
these  parishes  and  missions  are  con- 
nected 3  seminaries,  7  colleges,  with 
6  and  1,110  students  respectively, and 
125  schools,  with  11,532  pupils. 
The  number  of  Franciscan  Sisters 
in  the  missions  is  83. 

It  will  no  doubt  interest  our  readers 
that  the  Fathers  labor  for  the  spread 
of  the  Third  Order  in  the  missions. 
Thus,  there  are  792  Tertiaries  in  the 
missions  of  Africa;  Asia  numbers 
7,081,   of   which   number   5,250   are 



found  in  China;  South  America 
has  16,784;  Australia,  1,491;  anv 
the  Philippines,  60,200  Tertiaries. 

According  to  the  latest  statis- 
tics the  Third  Order  has  2,419,543 
members.  In  charge  of  the  Fran- 
ciscans there  are  1,514,875,  of  the 
Capuchins  868,580,  of  the  Conven- 
tuals 36,088.  Italy  has  845,989 
Tertiaries,  the  rest  of  Europe  1,318,- 
778;  the  remaining  218,668  are  from 
the  world  at  large.  (Oriente  Serafico.) 

Germany. — As  an  instance  of  what 
Tertiaries  in  the  Fatherland  are  doing 
for  the  Franciscan  missions,  we 
quote  the  following  from  the  "St. 
Franziskus-Blatt" :  From  January 
12-15  there  was  held  at  Cleve  in 
Rhenish-Prussia  a  unique  exhibition 
of  mission  articles,  which  the  pious 
women-Tertiaries  of  that  place  had 
made  with  their  own  hands  for  the 
Capuchin  mission  in  the  South  Sea 
Islands.  It  was  a  revelation  for  all 
the  visitors  to  behold  what  loving 
hearts  and  busy  hands  had  accom- 
plished with  the  scanty  means  at 
their  disposal.  There  were  dis- 
played a  large  number  of  chasubles, 
albs,  surplices,  altar  and  communion 
cloths,  all  artistic  in  design  and 
workmanship,  besides  many  pieces 
of  clothing  and  other  articles  needed 
in  the  missions.  How  beautiful  and 
elevating  is  the  thought  that  the 
words  of  Christ,  "Teach  ye  all 
nations"  should  even  after  2,000 
years  find  an  echo  not  only  in  the 
zealous  hearts  of  missionaries  who 
sacrifice  the  comforts  of  home  to 
gain  souls  for  Christ,  but  also  in 
the  pious  hearts  who,  unable  to  follow 
the  missionary  to  distant  lands,  are 
yet  desirous  to  assist  him  in  the 
glorious  work  of  spreading  God's 
Kingdom  among  the  gentiles. 

Belgium. — The  Third  Order  has 
lately  found  a  distinguished  home 
within  the  walls  of  the  Louvain 
University.  Some  time  ago  a  con- 
fraternity for  students  only  was  es- 
tablished at  the  University,  and  al- 
ready it  has  attracted  the  attention 

and  admiration  of  a  wide  circle  of 
students.  Last  summer,  during  the 
so-called  "Social  Week,"  a  special 
meeting  was  called  for  the  purpose 
of  devising  means  to  interest  the 
student  world  in  the  Third  Order. 
The  first  speaker  was  the  Rev. 
Director  Fr.  Humilis.  He  spoke 
with  admirable  candor  on  the  prin- 
cipal reasons  for  the  prevailing 
apathy  against  the  Third  Order 
among  educated  young  men.  On 
the  part  of  the  students,  he  said,  it 
was  ignorance  and  indifference  that 
prevented  many  from  becoming 
members,  and  on  the  part  of  the 
order,  he  assigned  as  a  reason  the 
failure  to  provide  and  outline  a 
suitable  program  of  social  action 
that  would  appeal  to  the  idealism  of 
youth  and  prove  an  attraction  for 
such  as  wish  to  get  in  touch  with  the 
religious  and  social  movements  of 
the  day.  At  the  end  of  the  last 
semester  the  Students'  Confrater- 
nity numbered  200  members. 

France. — The  anticlerical  French 
government  has  seen  fit  to  honor  the 
Rev.  Amadee  Tissot,  O.  F.  M.,  with 
the  title  of  ' '  Officer  of  the  Academy." 
Fr.  Amadee  is  an  indefatigable  mis- 
sionary in  China,  where  he  has 
distinguished  himself  by  his  many 
and  valued  services  to  the  govern- 
ment. As  rector  of  the  College  of 
Han-Keon  he  had  under  his  direction 
several  sons  of   Chinese  mandarins. 

Italy. — In  connection  with  the 
Constantinian  celebration,  the  Ter- 
tiaries of  Italy  are  planning  a  pil- 
grimage to  Rome.  On  this  occasion 
a  conference  of  all  the  directors  of 
the  various  confraternities  of  the 
Third  Order  will  be  held.  The  sub- 
jects to  be  discussed  are:  federation 
of  all  the  Italian  confraternities  under 
the  head  of  a  supreme  council  of 
supervisors;  founding  of  a  publica- 
tion for  the  directors  and  Tertiary 
priests;  holding  of  Tertiary  con- 
gresses; official  Tertiary  hymn;  or- 
ganization of  clubs  to  make  pro- 
paganda for  the  Third  Order. 



Innsbruck,  Tyrol. — The  society 
founded  by  the  Tertiaries  and  the 
"Katholische  Frauen  Organization" 
for  the  protection  of  girls  and  young 
women  who  find  it  necessary  to 
travel  alone  or  who  leave  home  to 
find  employment  in  the  larger  cities, 
continues  to  grow  in  membership 
and  efficiency.  At  present  fifty- 
two  ladies  give  their  services  gratis 
to  this  noble  purpose.  The  second 
General  Congress  met  on  Novem- 
ber 24,  1912.  The  spiritual  director, 
Fr.  Ambrose  Thaler,  O.  F.  M., 
reviewed  the  labors  of  the  society 
during  the  past  year,  and  showed 
that  the  members  rendered  efficient 
service  in  1,500  cases,  in  which  they 
assisted  young  women  while  travel- 
ing, aided  them  in  finding  suitable 
employment  and  in  avoiding  the 
pitfalls  of  the  cities.  An  excellent 
record,  no  doubt.  May  God  bless 
the  society! 

On  October  29,  1912,  the  Society 
of  Natural  Sciences  and  of  Medicine 
held  a  session  at  the  University  in 
honor  of  Fr.  Vincent  Gredler,  O. 
F.  M.  Professor  Dr.  von  Dalla 
Tore  in  a  brilliant  address  described 
the  literary  labors  of  the  Father, 
whom  he  declared  to  be  an  authority 
in  the  study  of  mollusks  and  insects, 
and  emphasized  especially  the  or- 
iginality of  his  researches  and  studies. 
The  audience  listened  to  the  ad- 
dress with  rapt  attention  and  heartily 
applauded  the  remark  of  the  chair- 
man, that  the  Society  considered  it 
an  honor  to  number  the  learned 
Father  among  its  honorary  members. 

Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church. 
— The  meeting  of  the  English  branch 
of  the  Third  Order  on  the  third 
Sunday  in  March  was  well  attended. 
Besides  the  ordinary  prayers  and 
the  sermon,  prayers  were  said  in 
honor  of  the  bitter  Passion  of  our 
Lord.  It  was  announced  that  12 
Tertiaries  had  died  in  the  Lord,  ten 
of  these  being  professed  members, 
whilst  two  were  only  novices.  Their 
names  are  published  in  the  Herald. 

Immediately  after  the  meeting  in 
church,  a  special  meeting  of  promo- 
ters was  held  in  the  basement  hall. 
Forty-two  promoters  were  present. 
The  Rev.  Father  Director  encour- 
aged all  to  assist  in  spreading  the 
Franciscan  Herald.  He  mentioned 
that  over  500  had  already  subscribed 
for  it,  but  that  the  number  would 
easily  be  doubled  in  the  course  of 
the  year,  provided  they  all  would 
take  an  active  part  in  soliciting  for 
new  subscribers.  He  also  made 
known  his  intention  to  give  the 
Tertiaries  a  chance  to  make  a 
Retreat  some  time  in  October,  and 
to  have  a  special  celebration  for 
those  members,  who  belong  to  the 
Third  Order  for  twenty-five  years 
or  more. 

On  Holy  Thursday  the  English- 
speaking  Tertiaries  for  the  first 
time  held  an  hour  of  adoration. 
Although  the  time,f  rom  4  to  5  o'clock, 
was  not  the  most  convenient  for 
many,  a  great  number  of  Tertiaries 
attended.  The  Rev.  Father  Director 
was  present  and  recited  prayers  in 
honor  of  the  Blessed  Sacrament  and 
the  bitter  Passion  of  our  Lord,  whilst 
six  school  children  were  requested 
to  sing  appropriate  hymns  and  to 
recite  the  rosary.  Everyone  present 
seemed  to  be  well  pleased  with  the 

St.  Augustine's  Church. — The 
local  branch  of  the  Third  Order 
numbers  about  360  members  of 
whom  no  less  than  68  are  men. 
The  monthly  meetings,  which  are 
held  every  Third  Sunday  afternoon 
are  well  attended.  A  good  number 
of  our  Tertiaries  are  daily  com- 
municants. Much  has  of  late  been 
done  by  zealous  members  for  the 
spread  of  good  Catholic  literature, 
especially  to  families  who  are  unable 
to  obtain  suitable  reading  matter. 
Many  pieces  of  clothing,  also,  were 
distributed  to  the  poor. 

Oak  Forest,  111.— April  9,  the 
Very  Rev.  Provincial  Benedict 
Schmidt,    assisted    by    the    Fathers 



of  the  Franciscan  Communities  of 
Chicago  and  Joliet,  dedicated  the 
new  residence,  which  was  erected 
near  the  Cook  County  Infirmary, 
the  Catholic  inmates  of  which  were 
entrusted  to  the  care  of  our  Fathers 
by  the  Most  Rev.  Quigley,  of  Chicago. 
Cleveland,  Ohio. — At  the  last  re- 
gular meeting,  April  6,  29  new  mem- 
bers were  received  into  the  Third 
Order.  34  parishes  of  the  city  are  now 
represented  in  the  local  branch. 
During  the  recent  disastrous  flood 
which  swept  over  the  central  and 
southern  part  of  the  state,  the 
Tertiaries  joyfully  contributed  $75.00 
to  the  relief  fund,  besides  sending 
the  handsome  gift  of  $100.00  to 
the    Holy    Land. 

St.  Louis,  Mo. — On  April  2,  and 
3,  a  meeting  of  the  Very  Rev. 
Fathers  Provincial, Benedict  Schmidt, 
of  St.  Louis,  Eugene  Buttermann  of 
Cincinnati,  and  Anselm  Kennedy  of 
Paterson,  N.  J.,  was  held  to  consult 
about  the  affairs  of  the  Order  in 
the  United  States.  Very  Rev.  Hugo- 
line  Bifarini,  Provincial  of  the  Italian 
Fathers  in  the  State  of  New  York, 
was  unable  to  be  present  on  account 
of  serious  illness. 

Teutopolis,  111. — To  comply  with 
the  directions  of  the  Very  Rev.  Fr. 
Provincial  and  to  realize  the  ardent 
wishes  of  Popes  Leo  XIII  and  Pius 
X  to  make  the  devotions  of  the 
Order  as  practical  as  possible,  the 
following  arrangement  has  been 
made:  The  devotion  of  the  Third 
Order  is  held  in  the  afternoon  on  the 
Third  Sunday  of  every  month  after 
the  catechetical  instruction;  thus 
it  takes  the  place  of  the  usual  after- 
noon devotion.  On  Palm  Sunday, 
March  16,  the  beginning  was  made. 
First  a  hymn  was  sung  in  honor  of 
St.  Francis.  After  the  usual  intro- 
ductory prayer  a  short  sermon 
appropriate  for  the  occasion  was 
preached.  Thereupon,  the  Blessed 
Sacrament  was  exposed  and  the  Ter- 
tiary's  daily  prayer,  I  [twelve  ;Our 
Fathers,  etc.,   was  recited.     Benedic- 

tion with  the  Blessed  Sacrament 
ended  the  devotion.  To  acquaint  the 
faithful  with  the  many  graces  offered 
through  the  Third  Order,  the  days 
on  which  Indulgences  can  be  gained 
during  the  week  are  published  every 

The  Franciscan  Herald  received 
a  most  hearty  welcome  also  in 
Teutopolis.  Thus  far  75  parishioners 
have  subscribed  with  the  firm  con- 
viction that  they  were  doing  a  good 
work  in  supporting  the  Indian  mis- 

Edifying  and  encouraging  is  the 
steady  increase  of  daily  communi- 
cants within  the  last  half  year. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — At  the  meet- 
ing of  the  councillors,  the  Rev. 
Director  announced  that  more  names 
would  soon  be  added  to  the  list  of 
councillors,  owing  to  the  ever  in- 
creasing field  of  labor  for  the  Ter- 
tiaries of  this  city.  The  following 
report  was  read:  Fifty-three  visits 
were  made  to  the  sick;  70  pieces  of 
literature  were  distributed;  65  pieces 
of  clothing  given  to  the  poor.  Fif- 
teen new  members  were  received 
and  twenty  novices  professed.  Sev- 
eral articles  in  the  Franciscan  Her- 
ald treating  of  the  good  work  of 
the  Third  Order  in  foreign  countries 
were  read  and  discussed,  whereupon 
the  meeting  adjourned  after  the 
usual  prayers  and  the  blessing  of  the 
Rev.  Spiritual  Director. 

Owing  to  ill  health,  Fr.  Josaphat 
Kraus,  the  zealous  director  of  the 
Third  Order,  was  sent  to  Fruitvale. 
Father  Juniper  Doolin,  who  lately 
returned  from  the  missions  in  China, 
was  appointed  vicar  at  St.  Antony's. 

Two  almost  priceless  volumes  were 
brought  to  light  recently.  They 
were  presented  to  the  University 
of  California  as  a  gift  from  the  city 
of  Placerville.  The  two  volumes  are 
entitled  "Monasticon  Anglicanum," 
and  were  published  in  London  in  1665. 
They  were  written  by  Franciscan 
Fathers  and  recount  the  Franciscan 
expeditions  into  America. 



Our  Colleges. 

St.  Joseph's  Seraphic 

DURING    the  past    month    our 
students  had  many  opportuni- 
ties to  display  their  proficiency 
in  elocution. 

On  March  13,  the  saint's  day  of 
the  Rev.  Rector,  the  students  en- 
deavored to  show  their  esteem,  love 
and  gratitude  toward  their  Alma 
Mater  by  rendering  the  following 
program : 

Salutatory  by  A.  Sloch. 
Recitations    by    C.    Michels,    H. 
Wellner,    L.    Groeger,    A.    Pud- 
lowski  and  E.  Stein. 
Piano     selections     from    Mendel- 
sohn, Mozart,  Read  and    Behr 
were    rendered   respectively    by 
R.  Wilhelmi  and  J.  Hermes;  F. 
Kiefer  and  R.  Duling;  H.  Mar- 
tcie;   E.    Gissy  and  A.   Kriech. 
In  conclusion  a  farce  was  presented 
by   M.   Schneiders,   J.   Schmidt 
and  C.  Michels. 
During    the    Easter    holidays    the 
"Eudrontes     Club"     enhanced     the 
festive    joy    by    an    entertainment 
which  was  given  exclusively  for  the 
Rev.  professors  and  the  students  of 
the  college. 

St.  Joseph's  day,  occuring  during 
holy  week,  the  solemnities  of  the 
Patron  Saint  of  the  college  were 
transferred  to  April  2.  In  the  even- 
ing^ the  charming  drama,  "The 
Hidden  Gem"  by  Card.  Wiseman, 
was  presented  by  the  students  under 
the  masterly  direction  of  Rev.  Fr. 
Ferdinand.  The  brilliant  produc- 
tion of  this  classical  play  was  greatly 
enjoyed  by  all  present.  The  principal 
characters  were  impersonated  as 
follows : 

Euphemianus,  L.  Knese. 
Alexius,  C.  Wickes. 
Carinus,  A.  Kriech. 
Proculus,  A.  Kiemen. 

Eusebius,  W.  Wemhoff. 

Bibulus,  A.  Sloch. 

Gannio,  J.  Maloney. 

Slaves,  J.  Tylicki,  J.  Diederich  and 
E.  Stein. 

The  college  orchestra,  with  Rev. 
Fr.  Charles  as  director,  rendered  the 
musical  numbers  between  the  acts. 
The  music  was  of  a  superior  quality 
and  served  as  a  fit  setting  for  "The 
Hidden  Gem." 

On  April  4,  the  Very  Rev.  Fathers 
Provincial,  Eugene  Buttermann  of 
Cincinnati  and  Anselm  Kennedy  of 
New  York  in  the  company  of  our  own 
Father  Provincial, Benedict  Schmidt 
paid  the  institution  an  unexpected 
visit.  Though  short,  the  visit  was 
highly  appreciated  by  both  pro- 
fessors and  students. 

The  students'  Confraternity  of  the 
Third  Order  is  installing  a  new 
library  in  one  of  the  apartments  of 
the  college.  A  Tertiary  friend  has 
donated  the  book  cases.  Appropriate 
Franciscan  literature  is  now  being 
eagerly  collected  by  the  Rev.  Di- 
rector. On  March  23,  three  novices 
and  several  condidates  were  added 
to  the  role  of  Tertiaries. 

R.  M.,  O.  F.  M. 

St.  Antony's  College. 

The  month  of  March  brought  us 
not  only  the  gladsome  Spring  season 
with  its  rich  verdure  and  countless 
flowers  and  flavor  laden  air,  but  a 
number  of  other  attractions  which 
we  must  not  fail  to  communicate  to 
our  benevolent  brethren  and  friends. 

The  St.  Antony's  Literary  Circle 
held  its  regular  meeting  on  the 
sixteenth  of  the  month.  The  opening 
number  of  the  program  was  a  dis- 
course by  John  Friedrich  on  the 
nature  and  the  history  of  the  Essay. 
A  recitation  of  one  of  Robert  South- 
well's poetical  gems  was  then  given  by 
Joseph  Ehrefried.      Frank  Oblasser, 



the  "champion  mathematician,"  had 
a  rare  treat  to  offer  on  his  pet  branch. 
He  discussed  with  clearness,  and 
even  with  warmth,  the  fundamentals 
and  the  capabilities  of  mathematical 
science,  hoping,  no  doubt,  to  impart 
to  his  hearers  some  of  his  own  en- 
thusiasm for  the  underrated  and 
much  slandered  study. 

During  Holy  Week  the  students 
attended  Divine  Service  in  the  Old 
Mission  Church)  where  the  impres- 
sive rites  are  always  rendered  with 
full  solemnity  and  splendor  of  cere- 

On  Easter  Monday  there  was  a 
dress  rehearsal  of  the  drama  which 
the  boys  had  been  practising  in 
parts    for    several    weeks    previous. 

Tuesday  evening  the  students  pre- 
sented Shakespeare's  Henry  IV  be- 
fore the  Mission  Community  and  a 
number  of  friends  and  benefactors 
of  the  college.  The  king  was  imper- 
sonated by  Walter  Wollenschlager, 
Hal  by  Leslie  Tariel,  Hotspur  by 
George  Lombard  and  Falstaff  by 
John  McNamara.  Whilst  all  merited 
and  received  due  credit  for  the  per- 
formance of  their  parts,  it  is  to  old 
fat  Jack  that  the  largest  meed  of 
praise  was  deservedly  given.  Be- 
fore and  after  the  play  the  college 
orchestra  under  the  direction  of 
Rev.  Fr.  Andrew,  rendered  some 
classical  selections.  And  between 
the  acts  some  of  our  "virtuosos" 
favored  us  with  charming  duets  and 


Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church: 

Anna  Collins,  Sister  Mary;  Mary 
Parker,  Sister  Josepha;  Eliza  Dough- 
erty, Sister  Margaret;  Margaret 
Byrne,  Sister  Catherine;  Michael 
Milnamow,  Brother  Joseph;  Thomas 
Griffin,  Brother  Patrick;  Ellen  Walsh, 
Sister  Theresa;  Mary  Mallon,  Sister 
Magdalen;  Bridget  O'Connor,  Sister 
Bernard;  Catherine  Hinch,  Sister 
Cecilia;  James  McDonough,  a  novice; 
Mary  Kehoe,  a  novice. 

Cleveland,  O.,  St.  Joseph's  Church: 
Margaret    Lynch,    Helen    Kroft; 
Martin  Kehogh. 

Indianapolis,    Ind.,     Sacred     Heart 
Ellen  Bennett;  Clara  Habig. 

San  Francisco,  Cal.: 

Miss     Lena     Cole;     Mrs.     Helen 
Chabot;  Mrs.  Catherine  Heney. 

R.  I.  P. 



Franciscan  Calendar. 

MAY,  1913 

Dedicated  to  the 
Blessed    Virgin 








Ascension  Day.     (G.  A.,  P.  I.)  SS.  Philip  and  James,  Ap. 

Gospel:     The  Apparition  of  the    Lord    to    His    Disciples.     Mark 
xvi,  14-20. 
St.  Athanasius,  Patriarch  of  Alexandria. 
Finding  of  the  Holy  Cross. 



6th  Sunday  after  Easter.— St.  Monica,  W. 

Gospel:     The  testimony  of  the  Holy  Ghost.     John  xv,  26-27. 










St.  Pius,  V,  P.  C. 

St.  John  before  the  Latin  Gate. 

St.  Stanislaus,  Bp.  M. 

Apparition  of  St.  Michael  Archangel. 

St.  Gregory  Nazianzen,  Bp.  D. 

Vigil  of  Pentecost. — St.  Antonine,  Bp.  D. 



Pentecost  Sunday.— (G.  A.,  P.  I.)— Bl.  Benedict  of  Urbino,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 
Gospel:     Descent  of  the  Holy  Ghost.     John  xvi,  23-31. 






St.  Nereus  and  Comp.  MM. — St.  Pancras,  Boy  Martyr.      - 
St.  Peter  Regalatus,  O.  F.  M.,  C— (P.  I.) 
Ember  Day. — St.  Francis  Fabriano,  0.  F.  M.,  C. 
St.  John  Baptist  de  la  Salle,  C. 
Ember  Day. — St.  John  Nepomucene,  M. 

Ember  Day.— St.  Paschal,  0.  F.  M.,  C.    Patron   of   Eucharist    Works. 
-(P.  I.) 



Trinity  Sunday.— (G.  A.,  P.  I.)— St.  Felix,  0.  M.  Cap.,  C. 

Gospel:     Christ  commissions  Disciples  to  preach.     Matt,  xxviii, 







St.  Ives,  3rd  Order.,  C.  Patron  of  Lawyers.— (P.  I.) 
St.  Bernardin  of  Siena,  0.  F.  M.,   C— (P.  I.) 
St.  Venantius,  M. 

Corpus  Christi,  the  Solemn    Commemoration  of  the  Most  Holv  Body 
of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.— (G.  A.,  P.  I.)— Bl.  John  Forest,    0.  F. 
M.,  M. 
St.  Peter  Celestine,  P.— Bl.  Crispin,  0.  F.  M.,  C— (P.  I.) 
Our  Lady,  Help  of  Christians. 



2d  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — Translation    of    the    Bodv    of    our    holy 
Father  St.  Francis.— St.  Urban,  P.  M. 
Gospel:     The  Parable  of  the  Supper.     Luke  xiv,  16-24. 









St.  Philip  Neri,  C. — St.  Augustine,  Apostle  of  England. 

St.  Bede  the  Venerable,  C.  D  —  St.  John,  P.  M. 

St.  Gregory  VII,  P.  C— St.  Germanus,  Bp. 

Bl.  John  of  Prado,  0.  F.  M.,  M. 

Feast  of  the  Sacred  Heart,— (G.  A.,  P.  I.)— St.  Ferdinand,  C.  3d  Order. 

Bl.  Gerard,  C.  3d  Order.— Bl.  Felix,  0.  M.  Cap.— (P.  I.) 

Abbreviations. — St. — Saint;  Bl. — Blessed;  Ap. — Apostle;  M. — Martyr;  C. — Con- 
fessor; P. — Pope;  Bp.- -Bishop;  D. — Doctor;  V. — Virgin;  O.  F.  M. — Order  of  Friars 
Minor;  O.  M.  Cap. — Order  of  Minors  Capuchin;  P.  I. — Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession, 
communion  and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of  St. 
Francis;  2d,  once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of 
monthly  meeting  for  those  who  attend,  usual  conditions. 


I  jFranctgtan  j)eralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  Third  Order  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions 


Vol.  I.  JUNE,  1913.  No.  6. 

The   Feast   of   St.   Antony. 

EXTOL    with  joyful  melody 
The  mighty  patron  of  our  race, 
Who  to  the  realms  of  jubilee 
Ascends  on  high  to  God's  embrace. 

Among  the  Seraph's  chivalry 

He  bears,  with  heart  unknown  to  flight, 

The  badge  of  Lady  Poverty, 

Her  truest  love  and  valiant  knight. 

To  save  what  Jesus'  blood  redeemed, 
He  was  resolved  ,to  shed  his  own; 
For  this  how  light  each  labor  seemed, 
In  this  no  rest  to  him  was  known. 

He  raised  his  voice  amid  the  throng, 
And  led  to  peace  contending  parts; 
He  smote  with  fear  of  God  so  strong 
To  fruitful  penance  sinful  hearts. 

Blest  Antony,  now  reapest  thou 
Thy  labor's  harvest,  joy  and  rest: 
Defend  the  Church,  set  on  her  brow 
A  crown  of  saints,  her  children  blessed. 

V.  H.,  O.  F.  M. 


St.  Anthony  of    Padua,    Confessor, 
First  Order. 
June  13th. 

of  th< 

AMONG  the  many  great  saints  manner  that  caused  the  admiration 
who  adorned  the  Church  of  of  all  who  came  into  contact  with 
God  during  the  thirteenth  __  him  and  proved  that  he  was  a  favored 
century,  one  of  the  best-known  and  •  child  of  grace.  After  attending  the 
undoubtedly    the    most    popular    is      Cathedral  school,  Ferdinand,  at  the 

St.  Anthony  receiving  the  Divine  Infant  in  His  Arms. 

St.  Anthony  of  Padua.  He  was 
born  of  noble  parents  at  Lisbon, 
Portugal,  in  1195,  and  received  in 
baptism  the  name  of  Ferdinand. 
Already  as  a  child  he  gave  himself 
up    to    the    practice    of    piety    in    a 

age  of  fifteen,  joined  the  Canons 
Regular  of  St.  Augustine  in  his 
native  city.  Finding  the  frequent 
visits  of  his  relatives  and  friends 
detrimental  to  the  spirit  of  recollec- 
tion and  to  his  love  of  studies,  he 



asked  to  be  sent  to  another  monastery 
of  the  Order,  that  of  the  Holy  Cross, 
at  Coimbra  in  southern  Portugal. 
It  would  be  difficult  to  describe 
with  what  fervor  he  devoted  him- 
self as  a  young  religious  to  the  prac- 
tice of  the  monastic  virtues.  Suffice 
it  to  say,  that  he  was  considered 
by  all  a  man  of  eminent  holiness 
and  that  even  at  this  time,  God 
manifested  the  sanctity  of  his  ser- 
vant by  several  miracles.  During 
this  time,  too,  Ferdinand  applied 
himself  to  the  study  of  philosophy 
and  of  theology,  and  as  he  was 
gifted  with  a  quick  intelligence, 
a  vivid  imagination,  and  a  prodigious 
memory,  he  amassed  a  great  fund 
of  knowledge,  so  as  to  arouse  the 
admiration  of  all. 

After  his  ordination  to  the  priest- 
hood, about  the  year  1219,  an  event 
occurred  that  entirely  changed  the 
course  of  his  life.  In  the  year  1220, 
the  bodies  of  St.  Berard  and  his 
companions,  the  first  martyrs  of 
the  Order  of  the  Friars  Minor,  were 
brought  from  Morocco  to  Coimbra, 
where  they  were  solemnly  interred 
in  the  church  of  the  Canons  Regular. 
Ferdinand  was  so  filled  with  admira- 
tion of  their  zeal  and  with  the  long- 
ing to  share  the  martyr's  crown  with 
them,  that  he  determined  to  become 
a  son  of  St.  Francis  and  to  preach 
the  Gospel  among  the  infidels.  He 
was  gladly  received  by  the  friars  in 
the  convent  of  Olivares,  near  Coim- 
bra, taking  at  the  same  time  the 
new  name  of  Anthony. 

After  a  short  time,  Anthony  set 
sail  for  Morocco  to  preach  the  Gospel 
to  the  Mohammedans,  but  a  severe 
illness  forced  him  to  give  up  his 
plans  and  to  reembark  for  his  native 
country.  God,  however,  who  had 
destined  him  for  a  wider  field  of 
labor,  directed  that  his  servant 
should  never  again  see  the  land  of 
his  birth.  A  violent  storm  arose, 
and  the  ship  was  driven  to  the  coast 
of  Sicily.  Here  Anthony  was  kindly 
received  by  his  brethren  at  Messina. 

After  a  short  stay  he  journeyed  to 
Assisi,  where  a  general  chapter  of 
the  Friars  Minor  was  to  be  held  to- 
wards the  end  of  May,  1221.  Here 
no  one  seemed  to  notice  the  frail  and 
unknown  friar,  and  when  the  new 
appointments  were  made  and  the 
friars  were  assigned  to  the  various 
missions,  Anthony  was  overlooked. 
In  his  embarrassment,  he  begged 
Fr.  Gratian,  the  Provincial  of  Bol- 
ogna, to  take  him  with  him  and  to 
employ  him  as  he  thought  fit.  In 
his  desire  to  remain  unknown,  he 
said  not  a  word  of  his  past,  nothing 
of  his  theological  studies.  Fr. 
Gratian  took  pity  on  the  young 
friar  and  sent  him  to  the  hermitage 
of  Montepaolo,  near  Forli,  to  cele- 
brate Mass  for  the  lay-brothers. 
In  his  new  abode  Anthony  led 
a  hidden  life  of  prayer  and  of  the 
greatest  self-denial.  But  now  the 
time  was  come  when  God  wished 
to  exalt  him  and  to  make  him  a 
mighty  herald  of  truth  and  love. 
Several  Dominican  and  Franciscan 
friars  were  to  be  raised  to  the  priest- 
hood in  the  church  at  Forli,  and 
Anthony  was  among  those  who 
were  invited  to  be  present  at  the 
ceremony.  By  an  oversight  no  one 
had  been  appointed  to  preach  on 
the  occasion.  In  this  difficulty,  Fr. 
Gratian,  the  Provincial,  requested 
the  Dominicans  to  deliver  an  ap- 
propriate address,  but  they  excused 
themselves  saying  that  they  were 
not  prepared.  Finally,  Fr.  Gratian, 
moved  by  a  sudden  impulse,  turned 
to  Anthony,  whom  all  believed  to 
be  able  only  to  read  the  missal  and 
the  breviary,  and  asked  him  to  give 
a  simple  and  unstudied  exhortation. 
Anthony,  whose  humility  had  thus 
far  successfully  concealed  his  great 
learning,  begged  to  be  excused,  as 
he  was  entirely  unprepared;  but  his 
superior  persisted  in  his  demand, 
and  Anthony  obeyed.  His  address 
was  at  first  timid  and  hesitating; 
then  seized  with  a  holy  enthusiasm, 
he  spoke  with  such  eloquence,  learn- 



ing,  and  unction,  as  to  cause  the 
greatest  astonishment  and  emotion 
in  his  hearers.  Fr.  Gratian  rejoiced 
exceedingly  at  having  found  this 
hidden  gem  among  his  friars,  and 
commissioned  him  to  preach  the 
word  of  God.  This  Anthony  did 
with  great  success  from  1222  to 
1223.  In  this  latter  year  he  was 
appointed  by  St.  Francis  to  teach 
theology  at  Bologna.  He  taught 
there  for  some  time,  later  on  at 
Montpellier  and  at  Toulouse.  That 
Anthony  was  in  truth  a  master  in 
the  sacred  sciences,  may  be  seen 
from  the  fact  that  Pope  Gregory  IX, 
admiring  his  extraordinary  knowl- 
edge of  the  Scriptures,  bestowed  on 
him  the  appellation  of  "Ark  of  the 
Covenant,"  and  that  learned  con- 
temporaries called  him  "Father  of 

While  thus  engaged  in  teaching, 
Anthony  also  zealously  made  use 
of  every  opportunity  to  preach  to 
the  people,  and  at  length  asked  to 
be  relieved  of  his  office  of  teacher  to 
devote  himself  exclusively  to  the 
salvation  of  souls,  especially  the 
conversion  of  heretics  and  sinners. 
Possessing  all  the  qualities  of  a 
good  orator— a  melodious  voice, 
a  pleasing  appearance,  command  of 
language,  and  solid  learning, — and 
filled  in  an  eminent  degree  with  the 
love  of  God  and  of  men,  he  preached 
with  marvellous  success  against  the 
prevailing  vices  of  the  time:  luxury, 
avarice,  and  tyranny.  The  largest 
churches  did  not  suffice  to  hold  the 
crowds  that  longed  to  hear  him. 
Thousands  of  sinners  gave  up  their 
evil  habits;  thousands  of  heretics, 
conquered  by  his  learning  and  the 
holiness  of  his  life,  abjured  their 
false  beliefs  and  returned  to  the 
unity  of  the  Church.  These  successes 
among  the  heretics  of  southern 
France  obtained  for  Anthony  the 
title  of  "Hammer  of  the  heretics." 
What  contributed  to  the  fruit  of 
his  preaching — and  this  is  one  of 
the    most   wonderful    things   in    his 

life — were  the  numerous  miracles 
that  God  wrought  through  him, 
which  continuing  even  to  our  own 
days,  merited  for  him  the  name  of 
the   "Wonder-worker   of   Padua." 

After  laboring  in  this  manner  for 
the  salvation  of  souls  in  southern 
France,  Anthony,  in  1226,  returned 
to  Italy,  where  he  was  elected  Pro- 
vincial of  Emilia.  But  as  he  longed 
to  continue  his  apostolic  labors,  he 
resigned  his  office  in  1230  and  retired 
to  the  convent  at  Padua.  The  follow- 
ing year  he  preached  the  Lenten  ser- 
mons to  audiences  that  numbered 
thirty  thousand  and  more  persons, 
and  the  fruits  of  his  burning  words, 
accompanied  by  numerous  miracles, 
were  such  that  the  priests  of  Padua 
were  not  sufficient  for  the  number  of 
penitents  that  presented  themselves. 

The  labors  of  the  Saint  were  now 
at  an  end.  He  fell  ill  at  Composan- 
piero  and  was  brought  to  Arcella, 
where  he  died  on  June  13,  1231,  at 
the  age  of  only  thirty-six  years. 
His  death  was  announced  to  the 
people  of  Padua  by  the  cries  of  the 
children:  "The  Saint  is  dead!  St. 
Anthony  is  dead!"  Pope  Gregory 
IX  canonized  him  on  May  30,  1232, 
not  quite  one  year  after  his  death. 
The  Saint's  body  is  interred  in  the 
magnificent  church  in  Padua  which 
the  people  erected  in  his  honor. 

Who  can  read  of  the  extraor- 
dinary graces  and  gifts  bestowed 
upon  St.  Anthony,  without  feelings 
of  joy  and  of  gratitude  towards 
God,  especially  when  we  know  that 
these  favors  were  given  to  him  for 
our  benefit  also?  His  power  with 
Almighty  God  is  as  great  today  as 
ever.  The  experience  of  his  countless 
clients  attests  the  truth  of  this  asser- 
tion. Let  this  encourage  us  to  invoke 
his  intercession  in  all  our  needs  of 
body  and  soul,  and  we  shall  have 
occasion  to  thank  and  glorify  God, 
who  has  given  such  power  to  his 
great  servant,  St.  Anthony  of  Padua. 

Fr.  Silas  Barth,  O.  F.  M. 

Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  O.  M.  Cap.) 

5.     The  Champion. 

"In  this  sign,  thou  shalt  conquer." 

FRANCIS  was  called  to  a  sublime 
and  all-embracing  mission.  He 
was  first  to  conquer  himself 
and  then  lead  many  to  a  similar 
victory.  He,  the  Man  of  Assisi, 
was  to  conjure  up  a  clash  of  minds 
such  as  had  not  been  witnessed  per- 
haps since  the  days  of  the  Apostles. 
But  let  us  follow  the  genesis  of  this 
peculiar  struggle. 

Through  the  streets  of  Assisi 
there  passes  a  band  of  buoyant 
youth.  For  them  there  is  but  one 
slogan,  "Let  us  enjoy  the  golden 
care-free  time  of  youth,  for  it  comes 
but  once."  Amongst  their  number 
there  is  one  who  plays  the  role  of 
leader,  and  he  is  one  who  merits 
our  particular  attention.  In  his 
veins  courses  the  hot  Italian  blood 
so  conducive  to  enthusiasm,  and 
to  this  he  adds  the  elegance  and  the 
vivacity  indicative  of  the  French 
element  in  his  ancestry.  To  crown  it 
all,  this  young  man  exerts  control 
over  large  financial  means,  and, 
remarkable  in  such  an  avaricious 
age,  he  finds  a  great  delight  in  giving, 
in  consequence  of  which  his  means 
are  oft  exhausted.  This  young  man 
is  Francis,  son  of  Bernardone.  "A 
lively,  cheerful  character  is  he;  easily 
roused  to  enthusiasm,  tuneful  and 
imaginative,  never  at  a  loss  for  a 
happy  turn  of  thought  or  a  merry 
joke;    harmony  and  melody  pervade 

his  every  faculty."  (Kunz-Federer.) 
All  things  base  to  him  are  foreign. 
His  aspirations  seek  the  high  and 

In  the  year  1201,  a  war  blazed 
forth  between  Assisi  and  Perugia. 
Our  lad  becomes  entangled  in  it 
and,  with  several  others,  lands  in 
captivity.  With  Francis  a  sense  of 
humor  soon  obtains  the  upper  hand; 
with  jest  and  repartee  he  seeks  to 
cheer  the  partners  of  his  fate.  The 
latter  show  but  scant  appreciation 
of  his  efforts,  and  little  cause  for 
wonder,  since  the  privations  and 
the  disgrace  of  captivity  were  in- 
indeed  oppressive.  Finally,  his  fellow 
captives  cast  reproaches  on  him  for 
his  conduct.  Then  Francis  answers, 
"For  me  'tis  matter  of  indifference 
what  you  think  of  me.  The  whole 
world  will  one  day  honor  me." 

That  was  indeed  a  remarkable 
utterance.  It  was  the  most  signi- 
ficant since  it  was  spoken  in  cap- 
tivity. It  will  be  fulfilled,  but  in  a 
manner  different  by  far  from  that 
originally  expected.  How  often  do 
we  not  make  some  casual  declara- 
tion, which  later  on  is  verified  though 
quite  contrary  to  expectation.  Man 
proposes,  God  disposes. 

In  the  year  1202,  Francis  returned 
to  Assisi.  He  now  sought  pleasure 
in  the  fellowship  of  noble  men  with 
whom   he    had    become   familiar   in 



the  days  of  his  captivity.  His 
tendency  to  high  ideals  along  with 
this  association,  awakened  the  de- 
sire to  attain  the  rank  of  knighthood. 
But  here  a  serious  difficulty  arose. 
Admittance  to  that  circle  required 
that  he  be  dubbed  a  knight,  and 
this  distinction  nothing  but  some 
deed  of  heroism  could  obtain;  for 
valor  on  the  field  of  battle  it  was  the 
usual  meed.  To  attain  this  object, 
therefore,  our  hero  was  determined 
to  utilize  the  very  first  occasion, 
whilst  conditions  of  the  age  were 
favorable  to  his  project.  This  sudden 
resolution  well  typifies  the  Umbrian 
doggedness  which  no  obstacle  can 
terrify  but  only  nerve  to  bold  re- 

A  wealthy,  valiant  knight  was  on 
the  point  of  setting  out  for  Apulia 
to  stand  in  battle  at  the  side  of  Walter 
III.  Francis  joins  this  kinghtly 
warrior.  The  night  before  departure, 
our  hero  had  the  following  dream. 
He  saw  a  room  replete  with  armor, 
all  of  which  was  stamped  with  the 
sign  of  the  Cross.  The  walls  were 
hung  with  implements  of  war.  In 
this  apartment  a  noble,  gracious  lady 
was  in  charge.  To  his  question  con- 
cerning the  ownership  of  all  these 
arms  and  other  precious  things,  he 
received  the  answer,  "For  you  and 
for  your  warriors  this  armor  is  in- 
tended."    (St.  Bonaventure.) 

At  daybreak  Francis  bade  farewell 
to  relative  and  friends.  When  they 
wished  him  a  happy  journey,  he 
replied  with  a  play  upon  his  dream, 
"I  know  I  shall  become  a  mighty 
prince."     (The  Three  Companions.) 

In  this  dream,  for  the  first  time 
in  the  life  of  our  Saint,  the  Cross 
appears  in  prominent  manner.  The 
battle  was  now  to  rage.  On  one  side 
stands  the  youth  described  above, 
on  the  other  is  the  Cross  of  Christ. 
Where  will  victory  rest? 

Some  seven  hundred  years  before 
the  time  of  Francis,  a  general  was 
on  the  march  to  Rome,  to  effect  its 
capture.      It   was    Constantine   the 

Great.  His  army  was  in  numbers 
wofully  inferior  to  the  enemy.  Should 
further  reenforcement  not  be  forth- 
coming, Constantine  could  not  ex- 
pect to  overcome  his  foe.  From 
a  quarter  altogether  unexpected, 
help  invincible  was  destined  to  be 
granted  him.  Upon  the  heavens 
there  appeared  a  lustrous  Cross  and 
over  it  the  words,  "In  this  sign  thou 
shalt  conquer."  This  sign,  at  Con- 
stantine's  command,  was  emblazoned 
on  his  standard,  and  he  then  ob- 
tained a  brilliant  victory.  Mindful 
of  the  help  thus  granted  from  above, 
he  caused  a  picture  to  be  painted 
of  himself  holding  in  his  right  hand 
the  Cross,  and  beneath  were  placed 
the  words:  "By  virtue  of  this  salu- 
tary sign,  the  symbol  of  true  strength, 
I  have  freed  your  city  from  the  tyrant 
and  have  restored  their  ancient  glory 
to  the  Roman  people." 

In  the  case  of  Constantine,  the 
all-conquering  power  of  the  Cross 
was  manifest.  In  the  case  of  Francis 
likewise  it  will  be  realized. 

Go  forth  then,  0  Francis!  Fight 
for  earthly  fame.  This  contest  will 
come  to  a  sudden  culmination.  For 
you  also  the  words  hold  good, 
"There  are  many  thoughts  in  the 
heart  of  a  man:  but  the  will  of  the 
Lord  shall  stand  firm."  (Prov.  xix, 
21).  Many  indeed  and  noble  are 
the  thoughts  you  carry  in  your  heart. 
A  great  prince  you  wish  to  be. 
That  you  shall  be,  for  God  has 
called  you  to  a  high  estate.  You 
wish  to  be  admired  by  the  world. 
So  shall  it  be,  but  in  a  manner  alto- 
gether different  from  that  which  you 
expect.  Not  with  sword  in  hand, 
but  with  the  Cross  of  Christ  within 
your  heart  and  on  your  body,  you 
shall  fight.  Not  for  success  in  pur- 
suing worldly  honors,  but  for  your 
humble  following  of  the  Crucified, 
shall  the  world  make  you  the  object 
of  its  admiration.  For  you  in  all 
things,  the  principle  obtains,  "In 
this  sign,  in  the  sign  of  the  Cross 
thou  shalt  conquer." 



Little  Catechism  of  the  Third  Order. 

Chapter  III. 
Requirements   for 


32.  What  is  required  of  those  who 
wish  to  join  the  Third  Order? 

They  must  be  fourteen  years  of 
age,  of  good  morals,  of  peaceable 
disposition,  exact  in  the  practice  of 
the  Catholic  faith,  of  tried  obedience 
to  the  Church.  For  married  women 
the  consent  of  their  husbands  is 
likewise  required. 

33.  What  is  the  first  requirement 
tor  admission? 

The  first  requirement  is  thus 
stated  in  the  Rule:  "It  is  forbidden 
to  take  anyone  as  member  unless  he 
be  more  than  fourteen  years  of  age." 
In  fixing  this  age,  the  Church  shows 
how  much  she  desires  that  even 
children  be  interested  in  an  institu- 
tion whose  purpose  it  is  to  teach  the 
first  steps  in  religious  life. 

34.  Which  qualities  should  young 
postulants  possess? 

The  qualities  desired  in  young 
persons  are:  sincerity,  piety,  a  right 
judgment,  and  an  earnest  desire  for 
perfection.  Young  people  so  dis- 
posed, may  and  should  be  admitted 
into  the  Order  if  it  is  their  desire, 
and  should  not  be  debarred  on  the 
score  of  youthful  inconstancy. 

35.  What  is  the  second  require- 

The  Rule  says  they  must  be  "of 
good  morals."  There  is  no  question 
here  of  tried  virtue  or  consummate 
perfection,  but  only  of  good  Christian 
morals,  such  as  are  the  mark  of  every 
practical  Catholic. 

36.  May  converts  also  be  admitted? 
Yes;    provided    a    sufficient    time 

has   elapsed   since   their    conversion 
to  insure  a  thorough  knowledge  and 

a  faithful  practice  of  the  Catholic 

37.  What  is  to  be  said  regarding 
the  admission  of  persons  who  are  in 

Persons  who  are  unable  to  pay 
their  debts,  should  not  as  a  rule  be 
admitted,  because  the  welfare  of 
the  Order  so  demands  it.  Such  as 
are  unwilling  to  pay  their  debts, 
should  on  no  account  be  admitted, 
because  they  lack  the  second  re- 

38.  What  is  to  be  said  regarding 
the  admission  of  poor  people? 

Poverty,  far  from  being  an  ob- 
stacle, is  rather  a  claim  to  admission 
into  this  institution  of  poverty. 
Hence,  nobody  need  fear  that  he  will 
be  debarred  solely  on  account  of  his 

39.  What  is  the  third  requirement? 
The  Rule  demands  that  aspirants 

be  "of  peaceable  disposition,"  be- 
cause without  union  of  hearts  and 
minds  no  confraternity  can  prosper 
or  achieve  any  good. 

40.  What  means  are  to  be  employed 
to  insure  concord  among  the  members? 

Self-renouncement  and  mutual  for- 
bearance will  ordinarily  suffice  to 
insure  peace  and  harmony.  In  ex- 
treme cases,  however,  it  may  be  nec- 
essary to  eliminate  the  elements  of 
discord  by  dismissing  such  as  ob- 
stinately persist  in  causing  dissen- 
sions among  the  members. 

41.  What  is  the  fourth  require- 

The  postulant  must  be  "exact  in 
the  practice  of  his  Catholic  faith," 
that  is  to  say,  the  practice  of  his 
faith  must  be  in  accord  with  the 
doctrine  and  tradition  of  the  Catho- 
lic Church,  and  must,  in  consequence, 
be  based  on  a  sufficient  knowledge  of 
his  religion. 



42.  What  are  the  effects  of  the 
virtue  of  faith? 

Faith  inclines  the  will  of  the  Christ- 
ian to  accept  the  supernatural 
truths  and  to  direct  his  actions 
according  to  them;  hence,  it  pre- 
serves him  from  error  and  vain  su- 

43.  Is  it  necessary  always  pub- 
licly to  profess  one's  faith? 

No;  although  one  is  forbidden 
under  any  circumstances  to  do  or 
say  anything  contrary  to  one's 
faith;  instances  in  which  a  public 
declaration  of  one's  religious  con- 
victions is  demanded,  are  extremely 

44.  Does  the  Rule  still  require 
postulants  to  be  examined  concerning 
their  faith? 

No;  the  Rule  no  longer  prescribes 
that  postulants  be  subjected  to  an 
examination  of  their  faith;  yet, 
"an  exact  practice  of  the  Catholic 
faith,"  as  explained,  remains  an 
indispensable  condition  for  admis- 

45.  What  is  the  fifth  requirement? 
The  postulants  must  be  "of  tried 

obedience   to    the    Roman    Catholic 
and  Apostolic  See." 

46.  How  must  this  obedience  mani- 
fest itself? 

It  must  manifest  itself  in  a  per- 
fect submission  to  all  dogmatic, 
moral,  and  disciplinary  decisions 
of  the  Church  and  in  a  profound 
respect  for  the  Pope,  the  bishops, 
the  priests,  especially,  the  parish 

47.  What  does  the  Rule  say  re- 
garding the  admission  of  married 

The  Rule  says,  "Married  women 
are  not  to  be  admitted  without 
the  knowledge  and  consent  of  their 
husbands;  if  it  is  thought  that  this 
knowledge  and  consent  should  in 
any  case  be  dispensed  with,  it  should 
be  done  only  on  the  motion  of  the 
priest  who  is  the  judge  of  the  con- 
science of  the  woman." 

48.  What  is  to  be  said  of  this  in- 

It  is  admirably  designed  to  pre- 
serve the  peace  of  families  without, 
however,  imposing  on  women  any 
restraint  prejudicial  to  their  own 
spiritual  welfare;  for  the  Rule  ex- 
pressly states  that  this  condition 
may  be  dispensed  with  whenever 
the  confessor  of  the  woman  deems 
it   advisable. 

Salutation  of   Our  Lady. 

Hail!,  holy  Lady,  most  holy  Queen? 
Mary,  Mother  of  God,  who  art  virgin 
for  ever,  chosen  by  the  most  holy 
Father  from  heaven.  Thee  did  He 
consecrate  with  His  most  holy 
beloved  Son  and  the  Spirit  the  Para- 
clete. In  thee  was  and  is  all  fulness 
of  grace  and  every  good.  Hail! 
thou  His  palace.  Hail!  thou  His 
tabernacle.  Hail!  thou  His  house. 
Hail!  thou  his  garment!  Hail!  thou 
His  handmaid!  Hail!  thou  His 
mother;  and  all  ye  holy  Virtues, 
which  by  the  grace  and  illumination 
of  the  Holy  Spirit,  are  poured  into 
the  hearts  of  the  faithful,  to  the 
end  that,  from  being  unfaithful,  ye 
may  make  them  faithful  to  God. 
— St.  Francis. 

Of    True    Brotherly. Love. 

Blessed  is  the  servant  who  loves 
his  brother  when  his  brother  is 
sick  and  cannot  give  him  satisfac- 
tion as  much  as  when  he  is  well  and 
can  give  him  satisfaction.  And 
blessed  is  he  who  loves  and  fears  his 
brother  when  his  brother  is  absent 
from  him  as  much  as  when  he  is 
with  him,  and  would  not  say  any- 
thing behind  his  back  that  he  could 
not  with  charity  say  to  his  face. 
St.  Francis. 

Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among 
the  Indians  of  the  Early  Days. 


By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  0.  F.  M. 

INSATIABLE  ambition  and  thirst 
for  gold  impelled  another  Spanish 
hidalgo  to  attempt  the  conquest 
of  Florida.  With  the  royal  permit, 
Hernando  De  Soto  set  sail  April  6, 
1536,  from  San  Lucar,  Andalucia, 
Spain,  with  a  fleet  of  seven  large  and 
three  small  ships  equipped  at  his 
own  expense.  Besides  six  hundred 
soldiers,  eight  secular  and  four  reg- 
ular priests  accompanied  the  leader. 
De  Soto  had  also  been  appointed 
governor  of  Cuba,  wherefore  he 
stopped  at  the  harbor  of  Santiago, 
took  in  more  supplies  and  recruits, 
and  then  moved  out,  Sunday,  May 
18,  1539.  The  expedition  sighted 
the  western  coast  of  the  Florida 
peninsula  on  the  feast  of  Pentecost, 
May  25,  and  landed  at  a  bay  which, 
for  the  feast  of  the  day  on  which  it 
was  first  discovered,  De  Soto  named 
Bahia  del  Espiritu  Santo.  This  bay 
very  likely  was  Tampa  Bay.  On 
June  3,  the  commander  took  formal 
possession  according  to  the  pre- 
scribed form,  which  is  too  long  to  be 
reproduced  here. 

All  along  the  coast  the  Indians 
fled  at  the  approach  of  the  ships. 
De  Soto,  therefore,  encountered 
nothing  but  deserted  villages.  Two 
reconnoitering  parties,  after  severe 
marches  through  bogs  and  swamps, 

returned  in  less  than  two  weeks,  re- 
porting that  they  had  found  in  the 
Indian  an  enemy  so  quick  that 
neither  arquebusier  nor  crossbow- 
man  could  follow  him  with  his  aim; 
so  expert  with  his  bow  that  while  the 
Spaniard  delivered  a  single  shot  he 
could  discharge  his  stone-tipped 
arrows  two  or  three  times  with  an 
exactness  that  rarely  failed.  The 
arrows  would  split  the  joints  of 
the  Spanish  armour,  and  pentrate 
as  deeply  as  a  cross  bow  shot. 

One  of  the  parties  brought  back 
Juan  Ortiz,  a  Spaniard  who  had  been 
captured  during  the  Narvaez  expedi- 
tion of  1528  and  had  since  been  kept 
as  a  slave.  He  had  almost  forgotten 
his  mother  tongue  during  his  twelve 
years  of  captivity.  Characteristic 
of  the  desires  of  the  adventurers, 
Ortiz  was  asked  whether  he  had 
learned  of  any  region  where  gold 
could  be  found.  He  knew  of  none, 
but  said  there  was  a  country  thirty 
leagues  from  the  bay  which  pro- 
duced plenty  of  corn.  That  was  not 
what  De  Soto  had  come  for;  but  the 
time  soon  arrived  when  he  and  his 
men  would  have  been  content  with 
an  abundance  of  that  grain. 

A  third  exploring  party  pretended 
to  have  heard  of  a  province  to  the 



westward  called  Cale,  where  there 
was  much  gold.  This  encouraged 
the  drooping  spirits  of  his  men,  and 
to  Cale,  De  Soto  determined  to  direct 
his  expedition.  Before  leaving  the 
coast  he  sent  his  ships  back  to  Cuba 
for  provisions.  With  .them  went 
a  certain  Vasco  Porcallo  de  Figueroa, 
who  had  come  to  capture  slaves  for 
his  mines,  and,  finding  the  bogs  and 
swamps  a  poor  country  for  such 
game,  was  now  returning  to  Cuba 
greatly  disappointed.  Doubtless 
he  expressed  the  feelings  of  most  of 
the  adventurers,  when  he  exclaimed: 
"Hurri  Harri,  Hurri  Higa,  Burra 
Coja,  Hurri  Harri!  The  devil  take 
a  country  where  the  first  and  most 
frequent  words  are  so  vile  and  in- 

Leaving  in  Florida  a  garrison  of 
thirty  horses  and  fifty  footmen,  and 
provisions  for  two  years,  De  Soto 
on  August  1,  1539,  started  out  in 
search  of  Cale.  When  the  expedi- 
tion arrived  there,  (probably,  as 
Lowery  thinks,  in  the  region  of  the 
Suwanee  River),  "the  soldiers  were 
content  to  beat  the  corn  they  had 
gathered,  in  mortars  made  of  tim- 
ber, while  others  sifted  the  meal 
through  their  shirts  of  mail."  Gold 
was  sought  in  vain. 

It  would  lead  us  far  beyond  our 
purpose  to  note  even  the  chief  inci- 
dents in  the  wanderings  of  De  Soto. 
Much  edification  could  not  be  de- 
rived from  the  description.  King 
Carlos  had  made  it  a  condition  that 
the  commander  should  take  along 
priests  and  religious,  "for  the  in- 
struction of  the  natives  in  our  holy 
Catholic  Faith,  .  .  .  with  which  mat- 
ter we  seriously  charge  you  to 
comply  for  the  service  of  God  and 
of  our  own.  Anything  contrary  to 
this  we  shall  deem  contrary  to  our 

Secular  priests  and  friars  had 
therefore  been  enlisted;  but  the  re- 

ligious influence  which  they  were 
permitted  to  exercise  appears  to 
have  been  slight.  No  mention  is 
made  of  the  celebration  of  Sundays 
or  holydays,  though,  when  the  ex- 
pedition rested  in  camp,  holy  Mass 
seems  to  have  been  offered  up, 
until  October,  1540,  when  a  fire  con- 
sumed all  the  paraphernalia  for 
celebrating  the  holy  Sacrifice.  After 
that,  only  the  Mass  prayers  were 
recited  before  a  rude  altar.  Indeed, 
four  of  the  secular  priests  succumbed, 
as  much  from  grief  probably  as  from 
corporal  privations,  during  the  very 
first  year.  Their  names  have  not 
been  recorded.  Only  once  does  the 
clergy  appear  conspicuously  in  any 
scene.  This  was  toward  the  end  of 
the  journey  at  an  Indian  village 
west  of  the  Mississippi.  The  natives 
there  begged  the  Spaniards  to  relieve 
them  of  a  long  drought.  De  Soto  ac- 
knowledged that  he  and  his  people 
were  only  sinful  creatures,  but  that 
they  would  pray  to  the  almighty 
Creator  for  them.  He,  therefore, 
had  a  huge  cross  erected.  The  whole 
force,  except  a  small  guard,  formed 
a  procession,  and,  led  by  the  sur- 
viving priests  chanting  litanies, 
moved  towards  the  Sign  of  Redemp- 
tion. There  all  knelt,  prayers  were 
offered  up,  and  then  each  one  in 
turn  kissed  the  cross.  Thereupon 
the  procession  returned  to  the  camp 
chanting  the  Te  Deum. 

Quite  contrary  to  the  king's  in- 
structions, De  Soto  early  put  into 
practice  a  most  unwise  system  of 
dealing  with  the  Indians.  By  fair 
means  or  foul  he  would  obtain  pos- 
session of  the  local  chief  in  order  to 
secure  the  safety  of  himself  and 
expedition.  The  Indian  chief  was 
then  compelled  to  provide  male  and 
female  servants  and  food  for  his 
troops.  Attempts  to  rescue  their 
chiefs  on  the  part  of  the  natives 
usually  ended  in  bloody  disaster  for 
the  poor  Indians.  Indian  men  and 
women  were  captured  and  held   as 



slaves,  "in  chains,  with  iron  collars 
around  their  necks."  These  were 
made  to  carry  the  baggage,  grind 
the  corn,  and  do  other  menial  work. 
Sometimes  it  happened  that,  going 
for  fuel  or  corn  with  their  captives, 
the  Spanish  guards  were  killed,  and 
the  captives  ran  away  with  their 
chains.  Those  who  were  caught 
in  an  attempt  at  flight,  had  to  pay  for 
the  attempt  in  order  to  terrify  the 
others.  In  the  end  De  Soto  had  as 
many  as  five  hundred  of  these  un- 
happy slaves.  We  pass  over  the 
harrowing  details,  which,  doubtless, 
became  traditional  among  the  In- 
dians, and  explains  why  they  later  on 
spared  no  one  in  their  thirst  for 
revenge.  Naturally  the  work  of 
the  priests  was  thus  frustrated  from 
the  beginning,  and  that,  besides  the 
terrible  hardships  on  the  road,  must 
have  brought  on  the  death  of  three 
more  priests  before  the  expedition 
reached  the  Mississippi,  or  before 
the  commander  himself  passed  away. 
They  were  Rev.  Dionisio  de  Paris, 
a  native  of  France,  Rev.  Diego  de 
Bannuelos,  a  native  of  Cordova,  and 
Fr.  Francisco  de  la  Rocha,  a  native 
of  Badajoz  and  member  of  the  Order 
of  the  Most  Holy  Trinity. 

The  intrepid  commander  con- 
tinued westward  through  marshes 
and  thick  forests,  until  on  or  about 
May  2,  1541,  he  came  upon  the 
Mitchi  Sipi  (Mitchi  Sibi  of  the 
Chippewas)  or  Great  River,  as  the 
Menominees  style  the  stream  which 
the  English  turned  into  the  Mississ- 

ippi. He  thus  became  the  dis- 
coverer of  the  greatest  watercourse 

n  North  America,  unless  the  honor 
be  credited  to  Cabeza  de  Vac  a,  who 
must  have  crossed  the  river  about 
ten  years  before.  A  month  later 
three  barges  had  been  constructed, 
and  by  means  of  these  De  Soto 
ferried  his  much  reduced  army 
across  the  mighty  current.  Thirst 
for  gold  and  pride  urged  him  onward, 
until  he  found  his  search  for  the 
elusive  metal  hopeless.  Thereupon 
he  returned  to  the  Great  River,  ill 
and  melancholy,  and  on  May  31, 
1542,  passed  away,  only  forty-two 
years  of  age.  He  was  buried  in  the 
center  of  the  stream  he  had  dis- 
covered the  year  before.  Luis  de 
Moscoso,  his  favorite  lieutenant, 
contrived  to  lead  the  remnant  of 
the  expedition  down  the  river  into 
Mexico,  accompanied  by  indescrib- 
able sufferings  which  carried  off 
the  five  priests  who  had 'survived 
De  Soto.  These  were:  Rev.  Rodrigo 
de  Gallegos,  a  native  of-  Sevilla, 
Rev.  Francisco  del  Pozo,  a  native 
of  Cordova,  Fr.  Juan  de  Torres, 
a  Franciscan  from  Seviila,  and  the 
Dominicans  Fr.  Juan  Gallegos  of 
Sevilla,  and  Fr.  Luis  de  Soto,  a 
native  of  Villanueva  and  relative  of 
the  unfortunate  leader. 

(To  be  Continued.) 

"NOTE:  In  the  May  issue  of  the  Franciscan  Herald 
there  appeared  two  chronological  errors:  Line  8  should 
read  1511  instead  of  1501;  line  eleven,  two  instead  of 

Missionary    Trip  to    the    Papago    Indians. 

By  Fr.  Tiburtius  Wand,  O.  F.  M. 

In  my  last  letter  to  the  Francis- 
can Herald  I  endeavored  to  give  a 
general  idea  of  the  newly  established 
Franciscan  missions  among  the  Pima 
and  Papago  Indians  of  Arizona.  The 
following  account  of  one  of  my  first 

missionary  trips  will  enable  the  kind 
reader  to  judge  of  the  hardships 
and  difficulties  to  be  endured  in  this 
part  of  the  Lord's  vast  vineyard. 
It  is  only  recently  that  I  returned 
from  a  five  weeks'  journey  to  one 



of  my  missions,  which  is  two  and 
a  half  days'  ride  from  our  main 
residence  at  San  Xavier,  near  Tuc- 
son. The  outset  of  this  trip  was  all 
but  encouraging,  the  end,  however, 
proved  very  favorable.  On  the 
first. day  of  this  trip  I  covered  forty 
miles.  The  only  mishap  encountered 
was,  when  we  attempted  to  cross 
a  creek  and  got  stuck;  it  required 
the  combined  efforts  of  an  Indian 
of  the  neighborhood  and  our  own 
to  release  the  wagon  and  bring  it 

could  make  but  little  progress.  After 
having  gone  about  ten  miles  and 
not  seeing  any  shelter  in  the  neigh- 
borhood, I  headed  the  team  back 
again  to  Nariska,  where  we  arrived 
in  the  afternoon.  Here  I  had  a 
chance  to  dry  my  wet  clothes,  whilst 
Mr.  Harrington  prepared  and  served 
a  cup  of  hot  coffee,  It  rained 
steadily  the  following  night  and 
only  towards  morning  did  it -begin 
to  clear  up,  and  I  could  not  resist 
the    temptation  "to    try    my    luck 

Sodality  of  the  Blessed  Virgin  at  St.  John's  Mission  School. 

to  the  opposite  bank.  Towards 
evening  we  arrived  at  Nariska,  a 
section-house  of  the  Southern  Pacific 
R.  R.,  where  I  encamped  for  the 
night  with  Tim  Harrington,  the 
section  boss.  During  the  night  the 
clouds  gathered  and  towards  morning 
the  rain  began  to  pour  down  in 
torrents.  Towards  9:00  A.  M. 
I  judged  it  best  to  resume  my  jour- 
ney despite  the  inclemency  of  the 
weather.  The  only  road  that  could 
be  used  was  the  bed  of  a  shallow 
creek  and  going  against  the  rain  we 

again.  For  about  three  miles  it  was 
slow  driving  over  the  soft,  heavy 
clay  roads,  but  then  we  came  to 
the  sand  roads  and  so  we  made 
almost  twenty  miles  that  day. 

In  the  afternoon  I  arrived  at  a 
Mexican  ranch,  where  I  was  cordi- 
ally received.  Immediately  before, 
I  had  the  misfortune  to  get  stuck 
in  a  ditch  again,  but  Senor  Boldene- 
gro  (i.  e.  Blackjar)  noticed  it  and 
with  his  hired  men  he  soon  freed 
me  from  my  plight.  In  the  evening 
the    guitar,    indispensable    in    every 



Mexican  family,  was  brought  in 
and  Leandro  sang  some  beautiful 
Mexican  and  Spanish  ballads  to 
the  accompaniment  of  the  guitar. 
Every  Mexican  household  is  blessed 
with  a  large  number  of  children,  and 
Senor  Boldenegro  told  me  that  he 
intended  to  apply  for  a  special 
school  on  his  ranch  for  his  grand- 
children, as  they  live  fifteen  miles 
away  from  the  nearest  school.  In 
the  morning  all  attended  holy  Mass 
with  great  devotion. 

The  weather  being  bright  I  had 
hopes  of  easily  covering  the  seven- 
teen miles  to  Tschuhutscho  (i.  e. 
cave  in  the  hills),  the  first  settlement 
of  the  Kivahadka  tribe  of  the  Pima 
Indians.  For  a  time  all  went  well, 
but  soon  a  strong  wind  drove  the 
rain  clouds  together  and  before  long 
a  heavy  rain  was  falling.  The  clayey 
roads  became  softer  and  softer  and 
soon  my  poor  mules  were  literally 
plowing  through  the  mud.  Once  I 
was  forced  to  go  out  of  my  way 
for  about  two  miles  to  get  past  a 
swamp.  About  four  o'clock  in  the 
evening,  after  we  had  made  thirteen 
of  the  seventeen  miles,  came  the 
catastrophe.  Try  as  we  might 
to  release  the  wagon  caught  fast 
in  the  mud,  we  could  not.  All 
pleading  and  urging  was  useless,  the 
mules  could  not  move  the  wagon. 
Submitting  to  the  inevitable,  we 
did  the  next  best  thing  and  that  was 
to  unhitch  the  team  and  leave  the 
wagon  behind.  I  put  the  mass- 
wine  and  altar-bread  in  my  pockets — 
forgetting  the  chalice — took  my 
sick-call  outfit  along  and  thus  I 
proceeded  on  foot,  leading  the  team 
by  the  lines. 

I  had  hardly  left  the  scene, 
when  I  noticed  a  coyote  prowling 
about  the  forsaken  wagon,  in  search 
of  food,  which  was,  however,  se- 
curely packed  away.  The  mules, 
hungry  and  thirsty,  pulled  me  along 
towards  every  shrub  and  pool  we 
passed.  We  traveled  thus  almost 
five  miles,  coming  close  to  the  settle- 

ment. In  the  vicinity  of  the  village 
is  a  broad  and  deep  "wash,"  which 
gathers  all  the  water  in  the  neigh- 
borhood and  brings  it  to  the  Gila 
river.  This  had  to  be  crossed.  The 
mules,  at  least,  seemed  to  have  this 
idea  as  they  made  but  one  dash 
and,  willing  or  unwilling,  I  had  to 
follow  them.  How  we  ever  got  to  the 
other  side  so  quickly  is  still  a  puzzle 
to  me.  My  habit  was  coated  with 
mud  and  slime.  To  this  I  had  the 
ill-luck  to  lose  one  of  my  sandals, 
and  thus  I  was  forced  to  tie  the  team 
whilst  I  went  back  in  search  of  my 
foot-wear,  which  I  soon  found  hidden 
below  the  surface.  In  this  condition 
I  arrived  at  Tschuhutscho,  and  took 
lodging  for  the  night  in  a  cold 
Indian  hut.  I  engaged  an  Indian 
to  ride  back  to  my  forsaken  wagon 
for  my  blankets  and  by  the  time  he 
returned  I  had  a  little  fire  started. 
About  10:00  P.  M.  I  was  at  last 
able  to  take  a  much  needed  rest. 

So  far  my  journey  was  fraught  with 
nothing  but  difficulties;  the  rest  of 
the  trip,  however,  was  more  en- 
couraging. I  remained  in  Tschuhut- 
scho over  Sunday,  and  Monday  I 
began  the  real  missionary  tour. 
Already  at  the  next  station  I  bap- 
tized six  adults,  who  had  been  taking 
instructions  before,  but  whom  I 
again  prepared  previously  to  the 
reception  of  the  holy  Sacrament. 
The  chapel  here  is  small  and  low, 
destitute  even  of  windows.  Some- 
thing will  have  to  be  done  soon  if 
our  mission  is  to  be  a  success.  Bells 
are  wanting  at  all  the  stations,  and 
since  the  Indians  live  scattered 
and  at  times  far  from  the  church,  the 
priest  must  often  wait  a  long  time 
until  at  least  most  of  the  people  have 
assembled.  The  kind  readers  will 
admit  that  there  is  still  a  great  field 
open  to  their  charity,  as  there  is  much 
work  here  for  the  missioner.  In  Tschu- 
hutscho the  Indians  have  already 
made  some  5000  adobes  for  a  new 
chapel,  but  we  need  about  5000  more 
before  we  can  begin  with  the  work. 



From  Waiwawaa  (Cockle-burr), 
the  last  station,  we  traveled  west- 
ward to  the  mountains,  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  the  once  famous  Vekol  silver- 
mines,  which  have  yielded  millions 
to  their  owners,  but  which  are  now, 
as  almost  all  the  mines  in  the  neigh- 
borhood, closed.  And  it  is  well  that 
they  are  closed;  for  the  whites,  who 
worked  these  mines  taught  the 
Indians  the  use  of  fire  water  and  other 
vices.  Only  as  long  as  the  Papagos 
keep  aloof  of  the  whites,  that  is 
the  wicked  element,  will  they  be  able 
to  make  progress  spiritually  and 

Our  journey  brought  us  now  to 
one  town  after  another.  The  after- 
noons were  spent  in  conversing  with 
people  and  inviting  them  to  the 
services  in  the  evening,  which  were 
chiefly  the  rosary  and  instructions. 
Regarding  the  instructions,  the  In- 
dians seem  to  follow  the  rule: 
"The  longer  the  better."  With  the 
older  people  I  have  never  noticed 
any  lack  of  attention  during  devo- 
tions, and  for  hours  they  will  squat 
upon  the  ground  without  ever  chang- 
ing their  positions.  The  next  morn- 
ing we  generally  had  holy  Mass, 
sermon,  and  baptism,  if  there  were 
any  to  be  baptized.  Thereupon 
the  trip  was  resumed. 

The  Indians  prepared  our  meals, 
consisting  mainly  of  beans  and  tor- 
tillas; at  times  they  prepared  a  cer- 
tain root  (seliaat)  having  a  rather 
pungent  taste.  This  is  eaten  with 
pinole  and  salt.  Pinole  is  wheat 
crushed  and  ground  on  the  metate 

between  two  stones  and  is  certainly 
more  nourishing  than  the  so-called 
breakfast  foods.  In  war  and  on  their 
expeditions  against  the  Apaches  it 
was  carried  in  small  pouches  by  the 
old  Indians  and,  mixed  with  a  little 
water,  it  was  at  times  for  entire  weeks, 
their  only  food.  The  Indians  get 
their  salt  on  annual  expeditions  from 
the  seashore.  They  will  hear  nothing 
of  refined  or  market  salt;  one  Indian 
told  me  that  the  refined  salt  has  a 
peculiar  odor. 

The  greatest  hindrance  to  the 
conversion  of  the  Papago  Indians, 
is  their  nomadic  life,  as  they  refuse 
to  live  in  settled  homes.  At  Santa 
Rosa,  the  largest  settlement  of  the 
Santa  Rosa  valley,  we  met  but  three 
or  four  families,  the  others  were  in 
the  mountain  camps,  where  more 
water  is  to  be  had,  or  were  working 
for  Americans  at  very  low  wages. 
The  old  Padres,  the  Jesuits  and  Fran- 
ciscans, tried  to  induce  the  Papagos 
to  settle  in  certain  places,  but  their 
endeavors  were  more  or  less  fruit- 
less. San  Xavier  near  Tucson  is 
one  of  the  few  places  where  a  number 
of  Papagos  have  fixed  abodes.  The 
Papago  Indians  are  an  interesting 
people  and  I  hope  will  in  time  make 
good  Catholics. 

My  next  letter  to  the  Franciscan 
Herald  will  tell  you  more  about  this 
trip.  I  will  now  close  with  fond 
hopes  that  the  patient  readers  will 
always  remember  the  Papago  Indians 
and  their  priests,  in  their  charity 
and  prayers. 

"Cultivate  not  only  a  solid  love, 
but  a  tender,  gentle,  meek  love  for 
those  about  you ;  I  have  learned  from 
experience  that  infirmities  destroy, 
not  our  charity,  but  our  meekness  to- 
wards our  neighbor,  if  we  are  not 
strongly  on  our  guard." — St.  Fran- 
cis de  Sales. 

"Nothing  can  give  us  deeper  peace 
in  this  world  than  to  frequently  con- 
template our  Lord  in  all  the  afflict- 
ions He  endured  from  His  birth  to 
His  death:  contempt,  calumnies, 
poverty,  abjection,  weariness,  suffer- 
ing, nakedness,  wrongs  and  grief  of 
every  kind." — St  Francis  de  Sales. 



Current  Comment. 

The  Badge  of    Tertiaries. 

THE  ancient  schools  of  philos- 
ophy were  distinguished  from 
one  another  by  tenets  peculiar 
respectively  to  each  of  them,  and 
the  disciples  of  these  schools,  to 
show  their  conviction  of  the  truth 
of  these  tenets,  made  a  display  of 
them  to  the  world,  in  their  lives. 
In  like  manner,  Jesus  Christ,  in 
establishing  his  divine  school,  de- 
livered a  characteristic  tenet,  and 
made  its  practice  the  badge  by  which 
his  disciples  were  distinguished  from 
those  of  every  other  school.  This 
doctrine  was  that  of  fraternal  char- 
ity. "By  this  shall  all  men  know 
that  you  are  my  disciples,  if  you 
love  one  another." 

St.  Francis  also  founded  a  school, 
and  having  faithfully  copied  the 
Divine  Model  in  all  other  things,  he 
too  made  brotherly  love  the  dis- 
tinguishing mark  of  his  followers. 
There  is  no  virtue  that  he  incul- 
cated on  them  so  often  as  this. 
Hence,  the  Sovereign  Pontiff  in 
his  letter  on  the  Third  Order  Tertium 
Franciscalium  Ordinem  makes  spec- 
ial mention  of  this  characteristic 
trait  of  Tertiaries.  "There  has  never 
been  a  time,"  says  he,  "when  the 
cares  and  thoughts  of  the  Roman 
Pontiffs  Our  Predecessors  have  not 
been  directed  to  making  all  the 
Franciscan  Tertiaries  one  body,  as 
it  were,  illustrating  the  charity  of 
the  Seraphic  Father  by  their  union 
•of  hearts." 

It  would  ill  become  Tertiaries, 
therefore,  to  pose  as  ideal  Christians 
or  faithful  followers  of  St.  Francis 
if  they  were  lacking  in  this  the  favor- 
ite virtue  of  Christ  and  of  the  holy 
Patriarch.  Without  true  union  of 
hearts  and  minds  no  society  can 
prosper  or  achieve  any  good.  Fra- 
ternal charity  is,  therefore,  of  para- 

mount importance  for  every  con- 
fraternity of  Tertiaries.  Of  course, 
if  the  members  of  a  confraternity 
take  little  or  no  interest  in  the  affairs 
of  the  Order;  if  they  never  meet  to 
discuss  or  undertake  matters  per- 
taining to  the  common  weal,  there 
will  be  no  danger  of  their  clashing, 
and  violations  of  charity  will  be 
extremely  rare.  It  is  in  the  active 
confraternities  that  the  members 
must  be  on  their  guard  not  to  cause 
bitter  feelings  and  dissensions  by 
indiscreet  remarks  or  uncharitable 
actions.  In  confraternities  engaged 
in  social  work,  differences  of  opin- 
ion may  easily  arise  regarding  the 
expediency  of  this  or  that  measure, 
and  it  may  often  be  necessary  to 
submit  to  the  will  of  the  majority 
or  to  the  ruling  of  the  Director, 
and  to  sacrifice  some  pet  idea  or 
favorite  scheme,  in  order  to  insure 
the  success  of  an  undertaking.  After 
all,  it  matters  not  what  program  of 
social  action  is  followed,  if  only  the 
glory  of  God  is  increased  and  the 
welfare   of   our   neighbor   promoted. 

The  law  of  fraternal  charity  not 
only  applies  to  the  members  of  the 
same  confraternity,  but  it  should 
govern  the  relation  between  the 
various  confraternities.  For  this 
reason  the  Holy  Father  says,  "This 
same  charity  should  flourish  not 
only  among  the  Tertiaries  of  each 
Sociality,  but  also  among  the  Sodal- 
ities of  Tertiaries;  just  as  in  the  case 
of  various  monasteries  of  all  Orders 
of  Religious,  so  the  Sodalities  of 
the  Third  Order  are  by  their  nature 
bound  together  in  a  friendly  federa- 
tion." This  is  of  importance  in 
places  where  two  confraternities 
exist,  the  members  of  which  are 
under  separate  direction  or  of  dif- 
ferent nationality.  The  question  of 
directorship  or  nationality  should 
never  be  touched  upon  by  the  mem- ji 



bers,  nor  should  they  on  that 
account  treat  each  other  as  stran- 
gers. True,  one  confraternity  should 
not  meddle  in  the  affairs  of  the  other, 
but  whenever  there  is  need  of  con- 
certed action  to  achieve  some  com- 
mon purpose,  the  members  of  both 
confraternities  should  stand  shoulder 
to  shoulder  and  work  hand  in  hand 
for  the  glory  of  God  and  the  welfare 
of  their  neighbor.  By  this  shall 
all  men  know  that  they  are  true 
children  of  St.  Francis. 

"  Missions     and     Mission- 
aries of  California. 

As  briefly  stated  in  our  last  num- 
ber, the  third  volume  of  Missions 
and  Missionaries  of  California,  by 
Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  O.  F.  M., 
one  of  our  regular  contributors,  has 
lately  come  to  us.  The  preceding 
volume  brought  the  history  of  the 
Franciscan  missions  of  California 
down  to  the  year  1810,  when  they 
stood  at  the  height  of  spiritual  suc- 
cess and  temporal  prosperity.  This 
volume  gives  the  history  of  the 
gradual  decline  of  the  missions 
from  1810  to  1836;  the  next  volume 
will  recount  their  total  destruction. 
The  present  volume  is  a  stately  one 
of  663  pages,  with  many  fine  illus- 
trations,  and   a  valuable  appendix. 

It  is  with  feelings  of  genuine  satis- 
faction that  the  earnest  student 
of  history  peruses  this  valuable  con- 
tribution to  the  religious  history  of 
our  country.  The  stirring  events 
of  the  time,  described  with  a  wealth 
of  historical  detail  and  in  a  pleasing 
style,  make  the  volume  as  interesting 
as  a  romance.  We  see  the  Fathers 
before  us  as  living,  breathing  men, 
laboring  amidst  disheartening  dif- 
ficulties, to  spread  the  kingdom  of 
Christ,  and  struggling  manfully, 
yet  unsuccessfully,  for  the  rights  of 
their  neophytes  against  unscrupu- 
lous officials,  whose  only  aim  was  to 

obtain  control  of  the  mission  pro- 
perty, without-  any  regard  to  the 
temporal  and  spiritual  welfare  of 
the  Indians.  We  thus  become 
acquainted  with  the  true  inner 
history  of  what  Fr.  Zephyrin  rightly 
calls  "the  Crime  of  the  Nineteenth 
Century."  And  it  is  just  this  that 
makes  Fr.  Zephyrin's  work  so  valu- 
able. A  work  of  this  kind  has  long 
been  desired.  For,  though  the  num- 
ber of  books,  pamphlets,  and  maga- 
zine articles  dealing  with  the  his- 
tory of  the  missions  of  California 
is  very  large,  much  of  what  has 
been  written  is  misleading  and  even 
false.  This  is  especially  true  of  the 
sad  period  of  the  "secularization," 
when  the  sons  of  St.  Francis  were 
removed  from  the  administration 
of  the  mission  property  to  make 
room  for  scheming  politicians,  who 
worked  for  their  own  interests,  thus 
impoverishing  the  Indians  and  caus- 
ing the  ruin  of  the  once  flourishing 
establishments.  Fr.  Zephyrin  now 
gives  us  an  accurate  and  thoroughly 
reliable  account  of  the  period,  and 
once  for  all  does  away  with  the  accu- 
sations of  cruelty,  mal-administra- 
tion,  and  dishonesty,  so  often  made 
against  the  Fathers  by  ignorant  or 
malevolent  writers.  The  reverend 
author  takes  nothing  for  granted; 
for  every  assertion  he  conscientiously 
quotes  his  authorities,  which  in 
practically  every  case  are  official 
reports  and  communications.  His 
volumes  will  therefore  for  years  to 
come  be  the  standard  history  of  the 
missions  of  California. 

We  congratulate  Fr.  Zephyrin  on 
the  success  of  his  historical  research- 
es, and  earnestly  pray  God  to  give 
him  the  strength  to  complete  this 
monumental  work,  and  also  others 
on  the  missions  of  the   Southwest. 

The  Missions  and  Missionaries  of  California.  By 
Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  O.  F.  M.  Vol.  III.  Upper 
California.  General  History,  Part  II.  The  James  H. 
Barry  Company,  San  Francisco,  Cal.  Price,  by  mail  or 
express  $3.00.  Send  orders  to  the  James  Barry  Com- 
pany, San  Francisco,  Cal.,  or  to  Rev.  Fr.  Zephyrin 
Engelhardt,  O.  F.  M.,  Old   Mission,  Santa  Barbara, 



A  Modern  Midas. 

On  the  last  day  of  March  there 
passed  away  in  the  Eternal  City  one 
of  America's  foremost  citizens  and 
greatest  financiers,  J.  Pierpont  Mor- 
gan. Commenting  on  his  death,  the 
secular  dailies  vied  with  each  other 
in  singing  his  praises.  They  found  no 
words  to  express  their  admiration  for 
the  "Napoieon  of  Finance,"who  with 
his  golden  rod,  held  sway  over  two 
worlds.  Mr.  Morgan  was,  without 
doubt,  a  man  of  exceptional  con- 
structive talent  and  of  rare  execu- 
tive ability.  But,  after  all,  he  owed 
his  dominating  position  in  the  world 
of  finance  not  so  much  to  his  personal 
qualities  as  to  the  economic  condi- 
tions of  our  country,  which  make  it 
possible  for  men  like  Mr.  Morgan 
to  amass,  within  a  comparatively 
short  time,  fortunes  so  colossal. 
Besides  being  a  great  financier,  he 
is  said  to  have  been  a  generous 
philanthropist,  a  passionate  lover 
of  art,  a  man  of  high  ideals,  rugged 
honesty,  and  public  spirit.  We  do 
not  wish  to  dispute  these  claims  or 
in  any  way  to  belittle  the  good  he 
may  have  done,  but  whether  history 
will  record  his  name  as 
"One  of  the  few  of  the  immortal 

That  were  not  born  to  .die," 
remains  to  be  seen. 

The  question  that  interests  us, 
is,  who  did  more  for  humanity,  who 
contributed  more  to  the  world's 
happiness,  to  the  civilization  of  man- 
kind, to  the  moral  uplift  of  society, 
to  the  alleviation  of  human  misery 
and  suffering — J.  Pierpont  Morgan, 
with  his  boundless  wealth,  or  St. 
Francis  of  Assisi  with  his  gospel  of 
poverty  and  charity?  Whose  name 
will  be  remembered  longer  and 
cherished  more  affectionately,  that 
of  the  modern  Midas  or  of  the  Little 
Poor  Man?  An  answer  to  these 
queries  may  be  found  in  the  follow- 
ing glowing  tribute  to   St.    Francis 

from  the  pen  of  the  infidel,  Ernest 

"After  the  establishment  of  Christ- 
ianity, the  Franciscan  movement  is 
the  greatest  popular  work  that 
history  records.  If  any  one  atten- 
tively examines  the  phases  and  mul- 
tiple consequences  of  this  movement, 
he  will  be  forced  to  admit  that  he 
to  whom  we  owe  it,  St.  Francis  of 
Assisi,  has  done  infinitely  more  for 
the  real  welfare  of  humanity  than 
all  the  philanthropists.  I  defy  modern 
civilization  to  accomplish  one  half 
of  the  social  miracles  wrought  by 
the  Mendicant  of  Assisi." 

The  Campaign  against 
Suggestive  Songs. 

The  National  Federation  of  Musi- 
cal Clubs  has  entered  upon  a  vigor- 
ous campaign  against  the  smutty 
songs.  According  to  plans  adopted 
at  its  recent  convention  in  Chicago, 
an  appeal  will  be  sent  to  the  mayors 
of  all  the  larger  cities  to  assist  the 
members  of  the  federation  in  sup- 
pressing immoral  songs  by  establish- 
ing a  censorship  of  the  songs  given 
in  all  public  places  operating  under 
municipal  license. 

Following  is  the  text  of  the  reso- 
lutions adopted  by  the  convention: 

"Resolved,  That  the  National 
Federation  of  Musical  Clubs  deplores 
the  widespread  use  of  the  suggestive, 
coarse  and  vulgar  songs.  The  in- 
fluence of  these  songs  upon  our 
young  people  is  most  deleterious, 
harmful  and  pernicious. 

"Resolved,  That  the  clubs  and 
individual  club  members  of  the 
federation  use  their  influence  in  every 
way  to  minimize  this  danger  to 
the  moral  welfare  of  our  youth. 

"Resolved,  That  the  secretary  of 
the  federation  be  instructed  to  send 
a  copy  of  these  resolutions  to  the 
mayor  of  every  city  in  the  United 
States  of  more  than  25,000  popula- 



tion,  asking  for  the  establishment 
of  a  censorship  of  the  songs  given  in 
theatres,  cafes,  cabarets,  restaurants 
and  all  public  places  operating  under 
municipal  license." 

The  campaign  inaugurated  by  the 
federation,  is  worthy  of  the  hearty 
support  of  every  Catholic  who  has 
at  heart  the  welfare  of  the  rising- 
generation.  There  is  no  question 
that  the  coarse,  salacious  song  is 
more  demoralizing  than  the  worst 
of  the  moving  picture  films.  The 
immoral  songs  often  have  pleasing, 
catching  tunes  that  take  them  into 
thousands  of  homes  to  be  played  and 
sung  by  immature  boys  and  girls. 
It  is  high  time,  says  one  of  our  secu- 
lar dailies,  that  the  thoughtful  and 
decent  elements  in  the  various  com- 
munities asserted  themselves.  We 
can  not  afford  to  make  popular 
entertainment  a  source  of  moral 
degradation.  Play  largely  fashions 
character,  especially  among  the 
young.  If  play  is  not  wholesome, 
sweet,  refining,  then  good-by  to  the 
purity  of  mind  and  taste  of  the 
rising  generation.  It  is  doubtful 
whether  all  our  teaching  and  preach- 
ing of  right  conduct  and  right  think- 
ing would  avail  against  the  insidious 
and  corrupting  influence  of  the  in- 
decent song. 

What  do  our  Catholic  societies, 
notably  the  Third  Order,  intend  to 
do  in  this  matter?  Here  is  an  exten- 
sive field  that  needs  a  thorough 
weeding  out,  and  the  task  can  be 
accomplished  only  by  the  united 
efforts  of  all  well-meaning  citizens. 
Will  Catholics  leave  it  to  others  to 
bear  the  heat  and  burden  of  the  clay, 
while  they  themselves  lie  supinely 
basking  in  the  sunshine  of  stalwart 

Franciscan  priests  there  are  only 
35,000  Tertiaries.  Whence  the 
difference  in  number? 

In  the  Philippine  Islands,  which 
have  a  population  of  9,000,000 
there  are  60,000  Tertiaries  under 
the  spiritual  direction  of  81  Fran- 
ciscans. In  this  country  with  ten 
times     as     many     inhabitants     and 

Our  readers  will  be  pleased  to  learn 
that  the  founder  of  the  Society  of 
St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  Antoine-Freder- 
ick  Ozanam,  the  centenary  of  whose 
birth  was  recently  celebrated,  was 
a  Franciscan  Tertiary.  His  work 
on  "The  Franciscan  Poets  of  Italy 
in  the  Thirteenth  Century"  is  the 
best  that  has  ever  been  written  on 
this  subject. 

The  health  of  the  Holy  Father  is 
improving  steadily.  Let  our  readers 
not  forget  to  thank  God  for  having 
spared  the  life  of  the  zealous  Pontiff 
and  to  continue  their  prayers  for 
his  complete  recovery. 

"Be  a  live  wire,"  is  the  gist  of  an 
address  lately  delivered  by  John 
D.  Rockefeller,  Jr.    He  said  in  part: 

"There  are  several  things  in  con- 
nection with  a  live  wire.  It  is  the 
result  of  design  and  careful  work- 
manship, and  to  accomplish  its 
purpose  it  must  be  connected  at 
both  ends — one  with  some  great 
power  and  the  other  with  some  media 
or  medium  through  which  it  can 
expand  the  power  which  it  has  re- 
ceived and  give  it  out. 

"The  same  may  be  said  of  the 
human  live  wire.  He  is  a  man  whose 
life  has  been  planned — who  makes 
each  day  in  his  life  count.  Like 
the  other  live  wire,  the  human 
live  wire  must  be  connected  at  both 
ends — at  one  with  the  source  of 
power,  and  that  is  the  power  of  God." 

"The  world  has  a  great  many  wants, 
and  good  Christians  have  a  great 
many  wants  also;  but  it  so  happens 
that  the  world's  great  want  is  the 
same  as  a  good  Christian's  want — a 
right  appreciation  of  spiritual  things. 
This  want  is  the  source  of  all  mis- 
chief."— Father  Faber. 




For  the   Franciscan   Herald,    By  M.  L.    B. 

MADELEINE  Forsyth  paced 
back  and  forth  along  the 
path  before  her  father's  coun- 
try home.  The  last  rays  of  the  sum- 
mer sun  sent  their  benediction  over 
her,  making  golden  lights  in  the 
bronze  hair,  while  the  broad  ex- 
panse of  smooth  green  lawn  stretch- 
ing away  behind  her,  accentuated 
the  whiteness  of  her  attire,  relieved 
by  a  single  pink  rose  fastened  to  the 
drooping  garden  hat  she  lightly  held. 
The  beautiful  face  wore  just  now  an 
expression  of  sorrow  and  of  anxiety; 
her  eyes  again  and  again  sought  the 
entrance  to  the  grounds  as  though 
expecting  some  one,  and  her  lips 
murmured  a  silent  prayer.  The 
cause  of'  the  young  girl's  grief  was 
the  trial  which  had  been  going  on  all 
day  in  London.  Young  Robert 
Southerly,  now  accused  of  embezzle- 
ment, and  his  cousin  Gerald,  had 
been  employed  in  confidential  posi- 
tions by  one  of  the  large  firms  of  the 
city.  Taking  his  responsibilities 
seriously,  Robert  won  the  confidence 
of  his  employers;  noble  and  generous 
by  nature  he  was  generally  liked,  and 
there  was  little  doubt  that  a  success- 
ful career  was  before  him.  The 
Southerlys  and  Forsyths  had  been 
friends  for  years,  and  Robert  and 
Madeleine  were  engaged,  though  the 
fact  was  not  yet  generally  known. 
A  sum  of  money  disappeared  from 
the  office  where  he  was  in  charge, 
and  all  the  evidence  implicated 
Robert.  His  employer  seemed  loath 
to  prosecute  him,  but  the  loss  was 
a  serious  one,  and  ingratitude  coupled 
with  dishonesty  seemed  to  demand 
punishment.  Madeleine,  believing 
firmly  in  Robert's  protested  inno- 
cence, was  heartbroken,  but  he,  con- 
vinced that  he  would  be  acquitted 
on  the  day  of  his  trial,  had  endea- 
vored  to   impart   his   confidence   to 

her.  She  had  tried  to  be  brave  and 
patient,  and  now  her  heart  beat 
high  with  hope,  for  had  she  not 
placed  the  whole  affair  in  the  hands 
of  our  Lady  who  since  her  own  sweet 
mother's  death  years  ago,  had  been 
her  refuge  in  every  trial?  Neverthe- 
less, the  poor  girl  had  spent  a  most 
distressing  day:  she  was  all  alone, 
her  father  and  sister  having  gone  to 
Paris  to  attend  the  wedding  of  a 
cousin.  Madeleine  too  had  been 
invited  but  had  given  up  the  long 
anticipated  trip,  knowing  she  could 
enjoy  nothing  until  Robert's  inno- 
cence had  been  established. 

A  large  touring  car  swung  in  at 
the  gate  and  came  rapidly  up  the 
driveway.  Madeleine  hurried  for- 
ward to  meet  the  two  men  who 
sprang  out.  One  was  Mr.  Armstrong, 
the  lawyer  employed  in  Robert's 
defense,  and  the  other  was  Gerald 
Southerly,  a  tall,  pale  young  man 
whose  drawn  expression  betokened 
that  he  had  been  through  a  trying 
ordeal.  When  his  eyes  rested  on 
Madeleine's  fair  face  they  lighted 
up  immediately,  and  Mr.  Armstrong 
looking  at  him  realized  the  intensity 
of  his  love.  Gerald  answered  Made- 
leine's mute  inquiry  with  a  sad  shake 
of  the  head. 

"I'm  sorry,"  he  said,  "but  we 
could  do  nothing  to  save  Robert. 
Armstrong's  defense  was  admirable, 
but  the  evidence  was  too  strong; 
everything  pointed  straight  to  the 
poor  fellow."  "Yes,"  added  Mr. 
Armstrong,  "it  seemed  as  though 
Southerly's  guilt  was  too  plain  to 
be  denied;  and  even  while  I  argued  in 
his  favor  I  felt  the  utter  uselessness 
of  my  plea.  He  took  it  bravely 
though,  and  we  all  admired  his 
splendid  courage."^    . 

Madeleine  said  ^never  a  word  but 
stood    andjPstared   at   the   far-away 



hills.  After  several  moments  of  op- 
pressive silence  Gerald  said  gently: 
"Come  into  the  house,  Madeleine, 
and  let  us  have  a  cup  of  tea  to  brace 
up.  I  am  going  to  stay  here  at 
Fair  Oaks  for  a  few  days  until  your 
father  returns;  he  asked  me  to  as  he 
does  not  wish  you  and  your  aunt  to 
be  without  a  man  in  the  house  at 
night.  Will  you  join  us  at  the  tea- 
table,  Armstrong?" 

The  lawyer  declined,  alleging  im- 
portant business  in  town,  and  when 
the  machine  had  whirled  out  of  the 
gate  Gerald  and  Madeleine  walked 
towards  the  house  in  silence.  Mov- 
ing as  in  a  dream  she  reached  her 
own  room  and  sank  into  a  chair, 
covering  her  face  with  her  hands, 
then  she  rose  and  going  into  her 
little  oratory,  knelt  before  the  shrine 
of  her  Immaculate  Mother  to  pray 
as  she  had  never  prayed  before  that 
help  might  come  for  Robert  and  for 

A  few  days  later,  while  walking  in 
the  garden  she  was  joined  by  Gerald 
who  after  a  short  silence,  as  though 
unable  to  stem  the  torrent  of  his 
thoughts,  broke  into  sudden  passion- 
ate protestations  of  love.  He  told 
her  how  he  had  watched  her  and 
Robert  growing  daily  dearer  to  each 
other,  and  how,  thinking  he  had  no 
chance,  he  had  stood  aside  suffering 
in  silence.  "But  now,"  he  cried, 
"now  Madeleine,  you  cannot  marry 
Robert;  he  has  been  convicted  and 
will  forever  be  branded  as  a  thief. 
Won't  you  try  to  forget  him,  for 
indeed  he  is  not  worthy  of  you; 
and  perhaps,  who  knows,  you  may 
even  learn  to  care  a  little  for  me!" 

Madeleine  turned  and  looked  at 
him.  For  the  first  time  she  felt  a 
real  aversion  for  the  man;  he  was  too 
ready  to  denounce  his  unhappy 
cousin,  too  violent  in  his  speech. 
Robert  never  spoke  thus.  There  was 
always  a  courtesy  and  chivalrous 
respect,  a  something  akin  to  rever- 
ence in  his  manner  towards  her. 
Gerald  read  his  answer  in  her  in- 

stinctive shrinking,  and  stood  for 
a  few  seconds  as  though  turned  to 
stone,  then  anger  seized  him,  but  he 
clinched  his  hands  until  he  was 
again  master  of  himself,  when  he 
said  simply:  "Forgive  me,  I  should 
not  have  spoken  so  soon."  But 
Madeleine  felt  a  shiver  run  through 
her  as  she  caught  the  defiant  gleam 
in  his  eyes. 


The  next  evening  saw  Madeleine 
at  the  door  of  the  prison,  Mr.  Arm- 
strong having  at  last  succeeded  in 
securing  admittance  for  her;  she 
did  not  hesitate  in  her  walk  down  the 
long  passage  lined  with  cells  until 
she  came  to  one  in  which  a  man  was 
sitting  with  his  head  bowed  in  his 
hands.  As  the  door  clanged  open 
and  Madeleine  entered  it  seemed 
to  the  heartsick  prisoner  as  though 
an  angel  of  light  had  brought  radiance 
to  his  lonely  cell. 

It  was  a  sad  scene.  Robert  was 
very  young  and,  when  one  looked 
at  the  frank  blue  eyes  and  tender 
steady  lips,  one  wondered  how  a 
man  with  such  a  countenance  could 
be  a  convicted  criminal.  For  a 
moment  two  hearts  were  happy  and 
oblivious  of  all  but  each  other's 
presence:  for  a  moment  only,  for 
the  dreadful  reality  could  not  long 
be  absent  from  their  thoughts; 
then  Robert  said:  "You  are  free 
now,  Madeleine,  I  could  never  let 
you  bear  the  burden  which  must  be 
mine  through  life.  I  am  branded  as 
a  felon,  condemned  to  years  of 
prison.  Even  though  I  should  drag 
on  to  serve  my  term  the  disgrace 
could  never  be  lived  down.  I  should 
have  to  go  away  to  begin  anew  among 
strangers.  You  must  forget  me, 
and  live  your  life  apart  from  mine." 
"I  will  never  forget  you,  Robert, 
you  are  not  guilty,  you  must  be 
proved  innocent,  and  you  will  be. 
Let  us  ask  Him  who  can  make  all 
things  right  to  help  us  now."  And 
the   two   knelt   on   the   hard   stone 



floor,  the  stalwart  man  and  the  fair 
brave  girl,  and  when  Madeleine's 
sweet  voice  had  finished  its  confident 
supplication,  Robert's  answered  a 
fervent  "Amen." 

It  was  late  when  she  reached  home, 
and  the  lights  at  Fair  Oaks  had  long 
been  extinguished;  but  as  she  alighted 
from  the  automobile  she  saw  a  red 
glare  near  her  own  room,  and  as  she 
entered  the  house  she  .was  met  by  a 
roll  of  smoke.  She  sprang  up  the 
stairs  to  awaken  the  sleeping  ser- 
vants. A  panic  ensued.  The  maids 
thoroughly  alarmed  and  utterly  use- 
less, Madeleine  was  the  only  one 
who  kept  her  presence  of  mind.  She 
thought,  instantly  of  Gerald  whose 
room  was  on  the  third  floor  and  who 
was  probably  sleeping  soundly 
through  all  the  turmoil.  Without 
hesitation,  she  rushed  up  the  stairs 
and  pounded  madly  on  the  door. 
"Gerald,  Gerald,  the  house  is  in 
flames,  and  you  have  barely  time  to 
save  your  life!"  She  heard  an  alarmed 
exclamation  and  in  a  few  moments 
Gerald  and  she  were  hurrying  to  the 
stairs.  They  reached  the  second 
floor  in  safety,  then  down  the  last 
flight  they  stumbled  blindly  in  a 
desperate  effort  to  escape  before 
the  smoke  should  suffocate  them 
or  the  walls  give  way.  They  had 
almost  reached  the  door  opening  on 
the  garden  when  Gerald  staggered 
and  falling  forward  struck  his  head 
with  a  dull  thud  against  the  door 
post.  A  neighboring  farmer  who 
had  hurried  to  the  scene,  dragged 
the  limp  form  out,  barely  in  time 
to  escape  a  deluge  of  bricks  and 
plaster.  The  fresh  air  quickly  re- 
vived Madeleine,  but  Gerald  lay 
almost  as  one  dead. 

For  weary  days  that  followed 
Gerald  Southerly  remained  uncon- 
scious, and  when  he  awoke  it  was 
to  find  Madeleine's  white  face  bend- 
ing over  him.  She  had  nursed  him 
faithfully   through   his   long   illness, 

and  now  that  he  was  recovering  she 
spent  hours  by  the  bedside  trying  to 
cheer  and  distract  him.  His  eyes 
often  rested  on  her  face,  and  he 
seemed  to  be  pondering  over  some- 
thing that  worried  him.  A  subtle 
change  had  come  over  him.  He 
had  been  face  to  face  with  death 
and  had  fought  his  way  back  to 
life  and  now  he  was  waging  a  still 
harder  battle  with  his  old  self. 

One  day  that  he  was  feeling  better, 
his  friend,  Mr.  Armstrong,  had  been 
allowed  to  see  him.  The  two  men 
were  watching  Madeleine's  graceful 
movements  as  she  arranged  a  trifle 
here  and  there  before  leaving  the 
sick  room.  Gerald's  eyes  were  filled 
with  pain  and  longing:  suddenly  he 
called  Madeleine  and  asked  her  to 
bring  him  pen  and  paper,  and  excus- 
ing himself  he  began  to  write.  When 
he  had  finished  he  handed  the 
paper  to  Mr.  Armstrong,  saying, 
"Read  it  to  her  and  then  put  your 
signature  to  it  as  witness."  What  the 
lawyer  read  was:  "I,  Gerald  South- 
erly, am  writing  this  of  my  own  free 
will  as  an  act  of  reparation  towards 
one  whom  I  have  cruelly  wronged. 
A  friend  of  mine  wished  me  to  help 
him  to  finance  a  speculation  he  was 
about  to  make.  My  father  did  not 
approve  of  the  scheme  and  refused 
the  money.  This  placed  me  in  a 
very  awkward  position  as  I  had  given 
my  word,  and  to  my  mind  the  ven- 
ture promised  certain  success.  In 
absolute  faith  that  I  could  refund  the 
money  in  a  very  short  time,  I  took 
it.  Unluckily  the  loss  was  discovered 
before  it  could  be  made  good  and 
suspicion  fell  on  my  cousin.  Then 
a  strong  temptation  assailed  me: 
Robert  loved  Madeleine,  but  not 
more  than  I,  and  if  he  were  con- 
victed she  could  not  marry  him,  and 
in  time  I  might  succeed  in  winning 
her.  I  know  now  that  it  is  useless: 
more  than  that,  in  the  long  sleepless 
hours  of  these  past  days  of  suffering 
I  have  learned  to  know  myself  and 
to  realize  the  great  wrong  of  which 



I  am  guilty.  May  this  acknowledg- 
ment restore  happiness  to  Madeleine, 
and  bring  God's  peace  and  forgive- 
ness to  my  sin  stained  soul." 


"Gerald  Southerly." 

When     Mr.     Armstrong     finished 
reading    there    was    intense    silence 

in  the  room.  Gerald's  eyes  turned 
to  Madeleine  as  he  said,  "Can  you 
forgive  me,  Madeleine!"  For  the 
first  time  in  all  her  trouble  she  broke 
down,  and  kneeling  by  the  bedside 
murmured,  between  sobs,  "Yes, 
Gerald,  a  thousand  times.  You  are 
atoning  nobly  for  your  sin." 

The  Hero  of  Belgrade. 


By  Fr.  Ferdinand,  O.  F.  M. 

10.     Belgrade  in  Great  Danger. 

Meanwhile,  the  Turks  had  not 
been  idle.  Soon  after  the  departure 
of  Capistran  from  Belgrade,  the 
Turkish  galleys  occupied  both  rivers, 
thus  completing  the  blockade.  There 
were  sixty-four  large  vessels  carrying 
guns,  and  manned  by  sailors,  trained 
in  marine  warfare.  Of  smaller  craft 
there  was  a  great  number.  On  the 
land  the  Turks  extended  their  earth- 
works from  river  to  river,  and  be- 
hind the  entrenchments  they  mount- 
ed their  powerful  artillery  in  three 
principal  batteries,  which  kept  up 
a  terrific  bombardment  by  day  and 
by  night.  Though  the  city  was  strong- 
ly fortified  with  a  double  rampart 
and  a  huge  wall,  the  heavy  bom- 
bardment soon  wrought  great  havoc. 
The  mortars,  throwing  immense 
stones,  over  the  walls,  into  the  town 
caused  the  greatest  consternation 
among  the  people.  Yet,  there  was 
very  little  loss  of  life  from  this  cause. 
A  greater  evil  was  the  pestilence 
that  broke  out  among  the  inhabi- 
tants. There  was  also  a  scarcity  of 
provisions,  since  every  approach 
to  the  city  was  closed.  It  was  evi- 
dent to  the  besiegers  as  well  as  to 
the  besieged  that,  without  immediate 
relief,  Belgrade  must  fall. 

11.  The  Naval  Battle. 
But,  already  the  relief  expedi- 
tion under  Capistran  and  Hunyady 
in  their  flotilla  of  two  hundred  small 
boats,  all  laden  with  weapons,  ammu- 
niiton,  and  food,  and  manned  with 

the  bravest  of  the  crusaders,  was 
within  hailing  distance  of  the  city. 
On  the  morning  of  July  14,  the  fore- 
most Christian  vessels  were  sighted 
by  the  watchmen  on  the  walls,  and 
the  joyful  news  was  instantly  com- 
municated to  the  famished  and  ex- 
pectant multitude  below.  A  shout 
of  exultation  ascended  to  the  welkin, 
and  the  Christians  at  once  took 
steps  to  give  aid  in  the  naval  battle, 
which  they  saw  was  inevitable.  They 
had  forty  small  caravels  in  their 
docks,  and  these  they  quickly  pre- 
pared for  action. 

The  Turks  also  had  learnt  of  the 
approach  of  the  Christian  fleet,  and 
forthwith  the  great  Turkish  galleys 
advanced,  and  took  up  a  position 
a  little  above  the  city.  They  were 
tied  together  side  by  side  so  as  to 
form  a  complete  barrier  across  the 
river.  Capistran  advised  Hunyady 
to  attack  the  enemy  without  delay, 
while  he  went  ashore  with  a  detach- 
ment of  crusaders  to  ward  off  any 
danger  that  might  threaten  the 
Christian  fleet  from  that  quarter. 
No  sooner  had  the  Turkish  warships 
gained  their  position,  when  the 
Christians,  loudly  calling  on  the 
name  of  Jesus,  made  sail  for  the 
enemy's  line.  They  were  welcomed 
by  a  volley  of  darts  and  cannon 
balls.  Nothing  daunted,  they  still 
pressed  onward,  well  knowing  that 
their  only  hope  lay  in  a  fight  at 
close  quarters.  Meanwhile,  the 
forty  small  craft  from  the  city  closed 



in  behind  the  enemy.  For  some  time 
the  Christians  kept  up  a  well  directed 
fire,  but  they  soon  realized  that  their 
frail  vessels  could  not  long  withstand 
the  heavy  discharges  from  the  en- 
emy's guns.  There  was  no  alter- 
native but  to  meet  the  Turks  on 
the  decks  of  their  own  ships.  Fear- 
lessly the  crusaders  bore  clown  upon 
the  Turkish  line,  boarded  the  galleys, 
and  engaged  the  enemy  hand  to 
hand.  So  fierce  was  the  onslaught 
of  the  Christians,  so  sanguinary  the 
engagement,  that  the  decks  were 
strewn  with  dead  and  wounded  Turks, 
and  the  waters  of  the  Danube  seemed 
changed  into  blood.  At  last,  after 
five  hours  of  hideous  carnage,  the 
line  of  battle  was  broken;  three 
Turkish  galleys  were  sunk,  and  four 
others  captured;  the  rest,  being 
vigorously  pressed  by  the  Christians, 
finally  gave  way,  and  making  all 
the  sail  they  could,  escaped  by  flight, 
but  only  after  being  damaged  beyond 
all  hope  of  repair,  while  most  of  the 
crew  were  either  killed  or  wounded. 

During  the  encounter  Capistran 
on  the  shore  stood  praying  for  vic- 
tory and  waving  his  standard  with 
the  images  of  Christ  crucified  and 
St.  Bernardine  embroidered  on  it. 
The  very  sight  of  the  grand  old  man, 
so  full  of  youthful  ardor  and  un- 
bounded confidence  in  the  mercy 
and  power  of  God,  was  enough 
to  fill  the  crusaders  with  courage 
and  to  spur  them  on  to  untold  deeds 
of  heroism.  Thus  was  the  proud 
Turkish  fleet  destroyed,  the  spell 
of  the  invincibility  of  the  crescent 
broken,  the  passage  of  the  Danube 
reopened,  and  the  beleaguered  city 
filled  with  joy  and  hope. 

12.     Crusaders  Enter  Belgrade. 

The  conquerors  entered  the  city 
amid  the  acclamation  of  the  in- 
habitants, who  hailed  the  arrival 
of  St.  John  Capistran  and  the  cele- 
brated Hunyady  as  a  sure  sign  of 
their  approaching  deliverance.  Now 
that  the  siege  was  raised,  the  city 
daily  received  supplies  of  men  and 

provisions.  In  the  nine  days  following 
the  naval  victory,  more  than  60,000 
crusaders  gathered  in  the  city.  They 
arrived  in  companies.  Each  company 
was  headed  by  a  priest  or  a  relig- 
ious, and  had  its  own  standard  on 
which  was  embroidered  the  picture 
of  some  Franciscan  saint.  St.  John 
received  the  crusaders,  imparted  to 
them  his  blessing,  exhorted  them  to 
courage,  constancy,  and  martyrdom, 
and  assigned  to  each  detachment  its 
place  in  the  camp  or  on  the  ramparts. 
So  great  was  their  confidence  in  the 
man  of  God  that  they  would  ac- 
knowledge no  one  but  him  as  their 
commander,  and  they  obeyed  him 
as  novices  obey  their  superiors.  As 
watchword  he  gave  them  the  ador- 
able Name  of  Jesus.  "Whether  you 
advance  or  whether  you  retreat," 
he  said,  "whether  you  strike  or  are 
struck,  invoke  the  Name  of  Jesus, 
for  there  is  no  other  name  whereby 
we  must  be  saved." 

13.    Capistran's  Wonderful  Ac- 

The  holy  friar  remained  with  the 
crusaders  day  and  night,  and  went 
through  untold  labors,  fulfilling  in 
turn  the  duties  of  a  priest,  father, 
and  military  commander.  Although 
he  was  past  seventy,  he  displayed  in 
a  decrepit  frame  all  the  energy  of 
a  youthful  warrior.  He  was  to  be 
seen  everywhere,  consoling  the  timid, 
providing  for  the  needs  of  the  sick 
and  wounded,  exhorting  the  soldiers 
to  bravery,  inspiring  all  with  his 
own  unbounded  trust  in  God.  So 
unremitting  were  his  exertions  that 
no  one  could  accompany  him  for 
any  length  of  time  without  being 
overcome  by  fatigue.  Even  a  power- 
ful horse  that  Hunyady  had  given 
him  to  lighten  his  toil,  was  worn 
out,  and  died  within  a  few  days. 
Yet  he  appeared  to  grow  stronger  as 
the  days  passed  by.  Each  morning 
he  celebrated  Mass,  and  addressed  to 
the  people  words  of  hope  and  en- 

(To  be  Continued.) 



Franciscan  Missions  in  Japan, 

By  Fr.  Wenceslaus  Kinold,  O.  F.  M. 

TIME  and  again  I  have 
heard  it  remarked,  yes,  it  has 
even  been  written  to  me,  that 
the  mission  in  Japan  does  not  de- 
serve any  support,  as  so  far  it  has 
been  unfruitful  and  barren  of  suc- 
cess. As  proof  for  this  sweeping 
assertion,  the  present  blooming  con- 
dition of  China  is  brought  forward  in 
comparison.  Compared  with  the 
mission  in  some  parts  of  China,  we 
must  admit  that  Japan  can  in  truth 
be  called  unfruitful.  But,  kind  reader, 
we  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  pre- 
sent promising  condition  of  China 
is  extraordinary  and  by  no  means 
the  normal  state  of  affairs.  It 
required  more  than  1000  years  to 
convert  Europe  and  even  as  late 
as  the  13th  century,  heathens  were 
found  in  the  region  bordering  on 
the  Baltic  sea.  But  what  about 
Japan?  Knowledge  of  this  island 
was  first  received  after  Europe  re- 
ceived the  true  Gospel.  St.  Francis 
Xavier  was  the  first  priest  to  ven- 
ture upon  its  shores  and  he  remained 
there  for  but  two  years.  He  sent 
others  there  in  his  place,  and  the 
true  faith  was  soon  preached  by 
many  missioners  and  with  great 
success.  Within  a  hundred  years, 
however,  all  trace  of  the  new  religion 
had  been  wiped  out  by  fire  and 
sword,  and  until  towards  the  middle 
of  the  last  century,  the  country  was 
closed  to  the  messengers  of  Christ- 
ianity. A  few  priests  were  allowed 
within  the  district  open  to  foreigners, 
but  no  one  was  permitted  to  leave 
the  same  without  permission  and 
escort.  Somewhat  later,  missioners 
were  permitted  to  enter  the  land, 
but  their  word  was  rendered  null 
by  the  required  passports  and  the 
many  obstacles  connected  with  the 
same.  For  some  twenty  years  already 
even  this  barrier  has  fallen  away; 
but  in  the  meantime  Japan  has  been 

fairly  modernized.  From  Europe 
she  accepted  the  pernicious  doctrine 
that  a  nation  can  rise  to  great  power 
without  Christianity  or  religion  of 
any  kind.  The  schools  in  Japan 
were  put  into  the  hands  of  the 
government,  and  in  order  to  fore- 
stall the  wrangles  of  European 
schools,  all  religious  instruction  was 
strictly  prohibited.  At  the  same  time 
Protestants  of  many  sects  came  and 
outclassed  the  poor  Catholic  mission- 
ers, both  in  number  and  in  the  means 
of  sustenance.  They  preached  an 
easy-going  religion,  without  any  set 
dogmas  or  commandments,  a  reli- 
gion that  would  not  embarrass  a 
resectable  heathen. 

And  what  have  the  Catholics 
been  doing  during  this  time?  The 
Parisian  Seminary  was  the  only 
congregation  at  work  in  this  vast 
field  until  they  were  joined  by 
some  school-brothers,  who  took 
charge  of  the  education  of  the  con- 
verts. The  noble  work  of  these 
valiant  pioneers  was  sadly  hindered 
by  a  lack  of  workers  and  supplies. 
Without  help  of  any  kind  they  toiled 
amidst  the  greatest  hardships — and 
still  Japan  can  now  boast  of  at  least 
72,000  Christians,  many  indeed  the 
descendants  of  former  Christians, 
who,  however,  were  harder  to  con- 
vert than  the  others.  72,000  is 
a  number  not  to  be  despised.  Com- 
pare it,  e.  g.,  with  India,  where  the 
Catholic  religion  had  been  preached 
for  so  many  years  already  and  under 
such  favorable  circumstances.  We 
may  even  justly  compare  it  with  some 
European  countries  where  so  many 
have  denied  and  lost  their  faith. 
Bearing  all  this  in  mind  we  must 
conclude  that  the  mission  in  Japan 
can  hardly  be  called  unfruitful  and 
undeserving  of  support. 

To  this  must  be  added  the  in- 
fluence,  which,  thanks   to   the   help 



of  the  Protestants,  Christianity  has 
had  upon  public  opinion  and  upon 
the  pagan  inhabitants.  In  their 
laws,  in  their  transactions  with  one 
another,  many  truly  Christian  mea- 
sures have  been  adopted.  Even 
Buddhism  could  not  remain  en- 
tirely free  from  this  influence  and 
its  priests  have  also  begun  to  preach, 
to  visit  the  prisons,  to  organize 
societies,  etc.  Sunday  has  been 
decreed  a  day  of  rest  for  the  mili- 
tary, the  students,  and  officials. 
'Tis   true   these    all    might   be   only 

Lavigerie  once  remarked:  "The  first 
missioners  are  as  the  first  stones  in 
a  building,  they  disappear  in  the 
foundation,  but,  nevertheless,  they 
support  the  whole."  The  Church 
here  in  Japan  can  in  all  truth  be  con- 
sidered in  her  infancy.  But  she  is 
steadily  on  the  increase  and  in  time 
will  reap  a  greater  and  more  lasting 
harvest  of  souls.  Now  it  is  still 
necessary  to  care  for  the  individuals 
and  see  to  it  that  they  are  well 
instructed.  A  catechumen,  who  is 
not  well  grounded  in  his  faith,  will 

The  Franciscan  Mission  at  Muroran,  Japan. 

initial  successes,  but  they  are  not 
to  be  overlooked,  as  they  prepare 
the  way  for  the  future.  Christianity 
is  being  recognized  more  and  more 
and  its  influence  is  growing,  despite 
the  small  number  of  its  adherents. 
Conversions  en  masse  are  not  to 
be  expected  at  the  present  day,  but 
the  way  to  success  is  gradually 
being  prepared.  The  present  mission- 
ers will  not  see  the  full  extent  of 
their  labors,  but  their  work  is,  there- 
fore, not  less  important.     Cardinal 

rarely  withstand  the  many  attacks 
against  his  faith,  both  from  within 
and  without.  Good  and  lasting 
conversions  can  safely  be  called 
miracles  of  grace  here,  but  thanks 
be  to  God,  such  miracles  are  wrought. 
If  the  mission  in  Japan  is  to  be  a 
success,  then  we  must  have  such 
necessary  institutions  as  hospitals, 
orphanages,  schools,  societies,  etc.; 
but  owing  to  the  scarcity  of  workers 
and  means  of  sustenance,  they  are 
more  readily  imagined  than  erected. 

Franciscan  News. 

Rome  (Correspondence). —  The 
Holy  Father  has  been  dangerously 
ill  in  the  sense  that  his  illness  might 
have  developed  grave  complica- 
tions; he  is  much  better  now,  but 
he  is  still  weak;  the  daily  prayers 
of  all  Catholics  for  his  recovery  are 

Cardinal  Vives  y  Tuto,  O.  M. 
Cap.,  is  ill  for  some  time  with  acute 
neurasthenia.  The  doctors  insist 
on  a  complete  rest  for  several  months. 

Cardinal  Pompili  has  been  ap- 
pointed by  His  Holiness  Cardinal 
Vicar  of  Rome,  and  Cardinal  Fer- 
rata  Archpriest  of  the  Lateran 
Basilica,  the  "Head  and  Mother  of 
all  Churches."  The  late  Cardinal 
Respighi  held  the  two  offices  con- 
jointly. Close  were  the  ties  that 
joined  this  eminent  prince  of  the 
Church  to  the  Seraphic  Order.  He 
himself  was  prefect"  of  the  Permanent 
Commission  of  the  Third  Order  of 
St.  Francis,  his  nephew,  Msgr. 
Charles  Respighi,  is  a  very  fervent 
member  of  the  Third  Order,  and  his 
sister  is  Abbess  of  the  celebrated 
monastery  of  Poor  Clares  at  Bo- 
logna. The  new  Cardinal  Vicar 
and  several  others  of  the  Cardinals 
residing  in  Rome,  also  glory  in  being 
members  of  the  great  Seraphic 
Family,  thus  Cardinal  Agliardi,  Fer- 
rata,  Rampolla.  The  newly  appoint- 
ed Apostolic  Nuncio  at  Madrid, 
Msgr.  Ragonesi,  is  also  a  Tertiary, 
as  he  declared  with  great  satisfac- 
tion to  the  Most  Rev.  Fr.  General, 
who  went  to  visit  him  before  his 
departure  for  Spain,  to  thank  him 
for  the  sincere  affection  that  he 
had  always  manifested  for  the  Re- 

ligious in  his  capacity  as  Apostolic 
Delegate  Extraordinary  to  Colom- 
bia, South  America. 

The  revised  statutes  of  the  Friars 
Minor  appeared  April  23.  They 
have  been  finally  approved  under 
date  of  March  27.  One  of  the  more 
important  modifications  decrees 
that  there  shall  be  in  future  only 
six  Definitors  General  in  the  Order, 
one  to  represent  the  English-speak- 
ing provinces,  one  the  French,  one 
the  German,  one  the  Hungarian 
and  Slavonian,  one  the  Spanish,  and 
one  the  Italian  provinces. 

Very  Rev.  Fr.  Ludovico  Anto- 
melli,  O.  F.  M.,  Definitor  General, 
has  been  appointed  first  Vicar  Apos- 
tolic of  Tripolitania.  The  missions 
in  Tripolis  are  served  by  the  Fran- 
ciscan Fathers  of  the  Milan  province, 
of  which  Father  Antomelli  was  pro- 
vincial previous  to  his  appointment 
as  Definitor  General  in  October  1911. 
■  April  21,  Fr.  Agostino  Gemelli, 
O.  F.  M.,  gave  a  lecture  under  the 
auspices  of  the  "Circolo  Universi- 
tario  Cattolico  Romano"  on  a  quite 
interesting  subject:  The  "thinking" 
horses  of  Elberfeld,  Germany.  The 
great  hall  of  the  Cancelleria  was 
filled  to  its  utmost  capacity  by  a 
representative  audience  of  scien- 
tists, physicians,  students  of  the 
different  universities,  priests  and 
religious.  Several  Cardinals  were 
also  present.  Admitting  the.  truth 
of  the  alleged  facts  (Fr.  Gemelli 
had  personally  made  a  number  of 
experiments  with  the  famous  "Hans" 
and  other  "thinking  horses"),  the 
renowned  psychologist  rejected  the 
theory  of  those  who  hold  that  these 



horses  are  really  endowed  with  in- 
telligence, and  proposed  and  de- 
fended as  the  most  plausible  hypo- 
thesis that  the  experimenter  him- 
self, though  unconsciously,  by  way 
of  sensations,  gives  the  answer  to 
the  questions  proposed  to  the  animal. 
The  lecture  which  was  illustrated 
with  a  number  of  projected  pictures 
was  received  with  great  applause 
by  the  audience.  On  April  29, 
Father  Gemelli  repeated  his  lecture  at 
the  International  College  at  the  re- 
quest of  the  students  and  professors, 
who  were  highly  interested  to  hear 
their  learned  confrere's  attempt  at 
a  scientific  explanation  of  the  much- 
vaunted  "intelligence  of  the  thinking 

During  the  International  Euchar- 
istic  Congress  on  the  island  of  Malta, 
Father  Gemelli,  at  the  special  re- 
quest of  Schoepfer,  the  bishop  of 
Tarbes,  France,  delivered  a  stirring 
and  highly  applauded  lecture  on 
the  "Holy  Eucharist  and  Lourdes." 
In  a  number  of  public  .debates  the 
learned  Franciscan  has  defended 
the  authenticity  of  the  miracles 
wrought  at  this  famous  shrine  of 
Mary  against  the  attacks  of  modern 

April  29,  the  Most  Rev.  Fr.  Gen- 
eral received  the  following  telegram 
sent  from  Scutari  by  the  Very  Rev. 
Dominic  Facin,  0.  F.  M.,  Com- 
missary Provincial  of  Albania:  "The 
Friars  and  the  Sisters  of  the  Sacred 
Stigmata  alive — through  a  miracle. 
Ask  your  blessing.  Letter  will 

Some  time  ago,  Fr.  General  pre- 
sented the  Holy  Father  with  a  con- 
siderable sum  of  money  which  the 
members  of  the  Third  Order  had  col- 
lected for  a  Peter's  Pence.  In  the 
course  of  the  conversation  Fr.  Gen- 
eral touched  upon  the  sad  condition 
to  which  the  glaring  injustice  of  the 
government  has  reduced  the  Re- 
ligious Women  throughout  Italy, 
depriving  them  practically  of  every 
means  of  support.     "Thus,"  he  said, 

"it  is  only  a  few  days  that  I  received 
a  letter  from  a  Superior  telling  me 
that  in  her  convent  they  had  neither 
bread  to  eat  nor  oil  to  keep  the 
sanctuary  lamp  burning."  Where- 
upon the  Holy  Father  replied: 
"Here,  take  all  that  you  have  brought 
and  send  it  to  these  my  poor  child- 
ren." Similar  cases  occur  quite 
frequently  at  the  Vatican. 

Italian  papers  have  lately  given 
their  attention  to  a  congress  of 
Tertiaries  held  at  Milan,  April 
10,  1913,  under  the  auspices  of  the 
Capuchin  Fathers.  The  convention, 
the  first  of  its  kind  in  those  parts, 
was  an  important  religious  and  social 
event,  and  as  such  a  grand  success. 
A  feature  of  the  "Franciscan  Week," 
as  the  event  was  called,  was  the 
general  lively  participation  in  the 
work  of  the  convention  by  all  classes 
of  the  clergy  and  laity.  The  Holy 
Father  sent  a  special  blessing.  The 
Cardinal-Archbishop  of  Milan  was 
honorary  president  of  the  first  day's 
sessions;  his  address  to  the  dele- 
gates glowed  with  enthusiasm  for 
their  religious  and  social  work.  There 
were  delegates  from  all  the  provinces 
of  Northern  Italy.  Among  the 
speakers  were  the  most  eminent 
ecclesiastics  and  lay  men  and  women, 
— professors,  men  of  affairs,  nobles. 
The  discussions  were  live  religious 
and  social  issues  of  the  day  viewed 
in  the  light  of  the  Franciscan 
movement:  the  Third  Order  in  papal 
decrees,  the  education  of  youth, 
laymen's  retreats,  the  Third  Order 
and  public  morality,  the  work  of  the 
Buona  Stampa  (Good  Press),  the 
Third  Order  and  the  clergy.  Vigor- 
ous applause  by  the  thronged  audi- 
torium greeted  the  opportune  re- 
marks of  the  speakers.  The  imme- 
diate fruit  of  the  congress  is  a  well- 
advised  enthusiasm  for  the  Third 
Order,  a  close  sympathy  among  the 
various  branches,  and  a  more  sys- 
tematic and  effectual  accomplish- 
ment of  the  blessings  for  which  the 
Third  Order  stands.       Commenting 



on  the  "Franciscan  Week,"  the 
Osservatore  Romano  quotes  Renan: 
"The  Franciscan  movement  repre- 
sents the  broadest  social  action  since 
the  days  spread  of  Christianity." 
In  connection,  the  Osservatore  de- 
clares: "The  Franciscan  institutes 
were  the  timely  anchor  of  safety  in 
most  distressful  times  past,  and  they 
stand  before  us  now  in  all  their 
lusty  regenerative  vigor.  ...  It 
seems  we  are  approaching  the  ful- 
fillment of  the  desires  of  Leo  XIII 
which  he  expressed  briefly  in  the 
words:  'My "plan  of  social  reform  is 
the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis.' 
Only  a  few  days  since,  in  the  Bel- 
gian parliament,  where  many  of  the 
members  are  Tertiaries,  it  was  pub- 
licly and  solemnly  attested  that  the 
Third  Order  is  a  powerful  instru- 
ment for  social  balance  and  pros- 
perity, as  it  tends  to  unite  all  men 
with  the  sweet  bonds  of  genuine  and 
heartfelt  brotherhood.  The  first 
"Franciscan  Week"  has  brought  out 
this  glorious  purpose  of  the  Third 
Order,  which  spreading  and  taking 
root  among  all  classes  of  society,  pro- 
moting works  of  piety,  charity,  and 
education,  must  eventually  make  for 
upright   character   and   conscience." 

Belgium. — Following  the  suit  of 
the  French  Chamber  of  Deputies, 
the  Belgium  Parliament  has  done 
the  Third  Order  the  honor  of  an 
interpellation.  M.Cocq,  a  Mason, 
called  up  the  question  in  an  argu- 
ment against  the  suppression  of 
secret  societies. 

The  following  from  the  minutes  of 
the  session  shows  what  importance 
is  attached  to  the  Third  Order 
abroad  by  the  enemies  of  the 

M.  Cocq:  Are  you  going  to  forbid 
men  to  enter  the  political  secret 
society,  the  Third  Order?  (Shouting 
and  laughter  on  the  right).  You 
laugh;  that  is  as  I  expected.  You 
have  a  way  of  resorting  to  bursts  of 
laughter  when  you  lack  arguments. 
What    is    the    Third    Order    of    St. 

Francis?  It  is  more  than  difficult 
to  get  information  on  the  subject. 

M.  Goblet:  Come  with  me  Sunday, 
February  23,  to  Liege.  I'll  take 
you  to  a  meeting.  I  am  a  Tertiary. 
In  return  you  can  take  me  to  a  Ma- 
sonic   meeting. 

H.  Hoijois:  But  he'll  choose  the 

M.  Cocq:  The  Third  Order  reaches 
as  far  back  as  the  Middle  Ages. 
But  it  has  been  strikingly  modernized 
by  Leo  XIII.  That  Pope  recom- 
mended that  more  men  and  young 
men  be  induced  to  join,  adding  that 
the  world's  salvation  lay  in  the 
Franciscan  ideals.  He  also  said: 
"Freemasonry  is  the  army  of  evil; 
the  Tertiaries  are  the  army  of  good." 
(Shouts  on  the  left.) 

M.  Cocq:  The  associations  of  the 
Third  Order  are  real  fraternities  to 
which  you  are  admitted  only  after 
a  severe  probation,  which,  for  that 
matter,  I  am  far  from  censuring. 
To  enter  it  you  must  strictly  live 
up  to  your,  religion  and  defend  it 
under  all  circumstances.  At  the 
congress  at  Malines,  1909,  Mme 
Van  Gehuchten  and  M.  Leon  de 
Kerval  reported  on  the  Third  Order. 
So  said  M.  Kerval:  "The  age  we  have 
entered  upon,  is  incontestably  an 
age  of  social  issues  and  democratic 
aspirations.  The  mission  of  prac- 
tical Catholics,  clergy  and  laity, 
pastor  and  faithful,  is  not  to  view 
the  situation  from  afar  and  aimlessly 
mourn  over  ruins  and  dead  forms: 
it  is  to  diffuse  the  spirit  of  the  Gospel 
in  the  heart  of  democracy,  here- 
after irrevocably  triumphant;  it  is 
to  Christianize  its  aspirations,  it  is, 
in  the  words  of  an  eloquent  bishop, 
to  give  the  Church  to  the  world  and 
the  world  to  the  Church.  Now,  one 
of  the  means  of  compassing  this 
object  is  the  spread  of  the  Third 
Order  of  St.  Francis.  Why?  Be- 
cause the  Third  Order  can  give  this 
modern  people,  thirsting  for  liberty, 
equality,  and  brotherhood,  true  li- 
berty,   equality,    and   brotherhood." 



(Good!  Good!  on  the  right).  As  you 
see,  the  Third  Order  has  political 
and  social  tendencies. 

M.  Ortegat:  Social,  yes;  but  not 

M.  Cocq  (unheeding) :  It  is  there- 
fore like  the  Order  of  Masons. 
(Protest  on  the  right.) 

M.  Goblet:  Come  and  see! 
Our  meetings  are  public! 

M.  Cocq:  It  is  a  question  of  turn- 
ing the  world  over  to  the  Church, 
of  securing  for  the  Church  a  free 
hand  over  the  direction  of  society. 
(Protesting  on  the  right,  approval 
on  the  left).  One  means  to  this 
end,  says  the  report,  is  the  spread  of 
the  Third  Order.  Why?  "By  the 
official  instruction  of  Leo  XIII 
the  Third  Order  can  give  true  liberty, 
equality,  and  brotherhood  to  this 
modern  people  thirsting  for  liberty, 
equality,  and  brotherhood."  I  ap- 
prove of  a  purpose  of  that  kind,  but 
that  is  precisely  what  the  Order  of 
Masons  is  doing.  If  you  put  the 
interdict  on  the  Masonic  lodges,  are 
you  not  also  going  to  put  it  on  the 
Third  Order  of  St.  Francis? 

Of  course,  we  do  not  subscribe 
to  M.  Cocq's  views  concerning  the 
Third  Order.  It  is  not  an  organiza- 
tion with  political  or  even  social 
aims.  Its  immediate  and  only  formal 
purpose  is  to  foster  a  lively  Christian 
spirit  of  piety  and  charity  in  its 
members,  from  which,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  Christian  social  relations 
must  eventually  arise.  All  its  en- 
deavors must  be  understood  as  the 
output  of  Christian  charity,  and  not 
as  the  pursuance  of  a  political  or 
social  program.  We  quote  the  scene 
in  the  Belgian  Chamber,  to  show 
that  the  Third  Order  is  a  live  force, 
deserving  of  support  and  member- 
ship of  the  best  strength  of  heart 
and  mind. 

France. — On  occasion  of  the  cen- 
tenary of  the  birth  of  the  famous 
Tertiary  Frederick  Ozana  m,  whilom 
professor  of  literature  at  the  Uni- 
versity of  Paris  and  founder  of  the 

Society  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  a 
large  number  of  Parisian  admirers 
have  started  a  movement  to  erect 
a  monument  in  his  honor.  A  design 
submitted  by  the  sculptor  Robert 
Ruprich,  has  been  approved,  and 
the  monument  will  be  placed  in  the 
crypt  of  the  "Cannes,"  where  re- 
poses the  body  of  the  great  savant 
and  famous  student  of  Franciscan 

Scotland.— Mother  Columba  of  the 
Franciscan  community,  Glasgow, 
Scotland,  who  died  there  a  few  weeks 
ago,  was  born  in  Dublin  in  1828. 
Sixty  years  ago,  she  with  a  few  other 
Franciscan  nuns  went  to  Glasgow, 
and  living  in  a  couple  of  rooms,  gath- 
ered around  them  the  Catholic 
children  of  the  city,  and  taught  them 
to  keep  alive  the  faith  of  their  an- 
cestors. At  that  time  Catholics 
were  few  in  Glasgow.  Today  they 
form  one  fifth  of  the  population. 

Canada. — The  director  of  the  art 
galleries  at  Laval  University,  Que- 
bec, was  in  Rome  lately,  exhibit- 
ing a  portrait  of  Bl.  Thomas  More, 
England's  martyr  statesman.  The 
protrait  is  an  original  painting  by 
the  German  master,  Albrecht  Duerer. 
It  was  found  in  the  possession  of 
an  old  English  family,  who  had 
treasured  it  for  three  hundred  years, 
taking  it  with  them  to  Canada  about 
one  hundred  years  ago.  At  the  Vati- 
can, Director  Carter  showed  the 
portrait  to  His  Holiness,  who  evinced 
a  lively  interest  in  it.  Thomas  More 
was  a  faithful  Tertiary,  and  in  the 
observance  of  the  Rule  he  gained 
the  strength  to  die  for  his  belief  in 
the  papal  authority. 

New  York. — The  Rev.  Cherubino 
Viola,  0.  F.  M.,  visited  the  two  public 
schools  within  the  limits  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Anthony,  New  York, 
and  obtained  from  the  principals 
permission  for  the  Catholic  children, 
nearly  all  of  whom  are  Italians,  to 
attend  special  instructions.  Boys 
and  girls,  numbering  above  1,000, 
came  to  the  church  for  an  hour  on 



three  successive  days,  and  were 
given  instruction.  Among  the  num- 
ber were  some  who  had  rarely  if 
ever  been  at  church  before.  Four 
hundred  of  those  thus  gathered  are 
now  preparing  for  their  First  Com- 
munion and  Confirmation  on  May  25. 

Chicago,  111.— St.  Peter's  Church. 
— At  the  monthly  meeting  of  the 
English  branch  of  the  Third  Order 
in  April,  the  Rev.  Fr.  Director 
preached  on  the  text  of  the  Apoca- 
lypse, 2,  10:  "Be  thou  faithful  until 
death,  and  I  will  give  thee  the  crown 
of  life."  He  spoke  of  the  nature  and 
importance  of  Profession  in  the 
Third  Order.  At  the  end  of  the  cere- 
monies all  Tertiaries  present  renewed 
their  Profession,  solemnly  and  pub- 
licly declaring  their  willingness  to 
keep  the  commandments  of  God  and 
to  observe  the  Rule  of  the  Third 
Order.  The  custom  of  renewing  the 
Profession  at  the  meeting  in  April 
was  introduced  here  three  years 
ago.  It  was  in  the  month  of  April 
on  the  feast  of  St.  Raphael  in  the 
year  1209,  when  St.  Francis  and  his 
first  companions  made  their  Pro- 
fession to  Pope  Innocent  III.  Every 
year,  all  the  children  of  St.  Francis 
renew  their  Profession  on  this  day, 
the  16th  of  April,  or  on  the  following 

Twenty-nine  candidates  received 
the  cord  and  scapular  and  entered 
their  year  of  probation,  whilst  six 
members  belonging  to  this  branch, 
passed  to  their  eternal  reward. 
Their  souls  are  recommended  to  the 
charity  of  all  Tertiaries. 

Cleveland,  O. — The  meeting  of  the 
German  branch  of  the  Third  Order 
was  held  April  20.  Three  new 
members  were  invested  and  one  was 

At  the  regular  meeting  of  the  Eng- 
lish branch,  May  4,  two  members 
were  professed.  To  this  meeting  the 
Rev.  Fr.  Director  had  especially 
invited  the  young  people.  The  at- 
tendance was  large.  Fr.  Director 
explained  the  Rule  and  pointed  out 

the  privileges  which  the  members  of 
the  Third  Order  enjoy.  He  also 
exhorted  the  young  ladies  and  men 
to  join.  A  great  number  showed 
their  willingness  by  calling  for  ap- 
plication cards.  At  this  meeting 
thirty-one  new  subscriptions  for  the 
Franciscan  Herald  were  handed 

Among  several  deeds  of  charity 
there  is  one  especially  worthy  of 
mention;  it  is  a  private  donation  of 
$112.00  for  the  Holy  Land. 

St.  Louis,  Mo. — The  venerable 
and  beautiful  old  church  of  St. 
Antony,  which  stood  vacant  after 
the  new  church  was  completed,  has 
been  refitted,  so  that  it  may  serve 
as  a  hall  for  the  societies  of  the 
parish,  particularly  for  the  ever 
growing  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 
In  future  it  will  be  known  as  "Ter- 
tiaries Hall."  Whilst  the  spacious 
auditorium  has  been  furnished  with 
comfortable  opera  chairs  and  will  be 
reserved  for  meetings  of  the  various 
sodalities  of  the  parish,  the  sanctuary 
has  been  partitioned  off  and  will 
serve  as  an  office  of  the  Third  Order, 
where  the  members  may  congregate 
after  their  services  in  the  new 
church  in  order  to  transact  the  busi- 
ness of  the  Order.  Besides  the  beau- 
tiful book-case,  which  will  house  the 
free  library  of  the  Tertiaries,  the 
Order  has  installed  desks  for  the 
officers,  as  also  a  new  piano  for  the 
use  of  the  Order's  choir.  To  counter- 
act, as  far  as  possible,  the  evil  in- 
fluence of  the  numerous  nickel- 
odeons, the  parish  has  also  installed 
an  Edison  Kinetoscope  and  will,  from 
time  to  time,  give  illustrated  lec- 
tures both  for  amusement  and  edu- 
cation, carefully  selecting  films  and 
slides  that  are  unassailable  on  moral 
grounds.  With  keenest  interest 
have  the  good  people  of  St.  Antony's 
followed  the  work  of  remodeling  the 
old  church  and  it  is  a  source  of  satis- 
faction to  all  that  their  dear  old 
church  shall  again  be  put  to  such 
good  use. 



On  May  6,  the  following  Fathers 
of  the  Sacred  Heart  Province  cele- 
brated the  25th  anniversary  of  their 
ordination  to  the  holy  priesthood: 
Fr.  Gregory  Knepper  at  St.  Louis, 
Fr.  Hyacinth  Schroeder  at  Union, 
Mo.,  Fr.  Ladislaus  Czech  at  Radom, 
111.,  and  Fr.  Marcelline  Kollmeyer  at 
Platte  Centre,'  Neb.,  Ad  multos 

Omaha,  Neb. — April  13,  Rev. 
Mother  M.  Rock  Monaghan,  of  the 
Poor  Clares,  died  at  Omaha,  Neb., 
after  a  short  illness,  though  her 
health  had  been  failing  for  some 
time.  She  was  an  exemplary  re- 
ligious and  for  many  years  up  to 
her  death  held  the  important  office 
of  abbess.  The  funeral  took  place 
April  16,  the  Requiem  being  sung 
by  the  Very.  Rev.  Fr.  Provincial 
Benedict  Schmidt,  O.  F.  M.;  about 
fifteen  priests  were  in  attendance. 
The  body  was  interred  in  a  vault 
which  the  Poor  Clares  have  on  their 
premises.     R.  I.  P. 

Union,  Mo. — On  May  6,  Rev.  Fr. 
Hyacinth  Schroeder,  0.  F.  M.,  cele- 
brated the  twenty-fifth  anniversary 
of  his  ordination  to  the  holy  priest- 
hood. He  sang  solemn  High  mass  at 
10  o'clock.  The  Rev.  Brockmeyer, 
pastor  at  Neier,  Mo.,  officiated  as 
deacon,  and  Fr.  Marcellus  Buehl- 
mann,  O.  F.  M.,  of  Hermann,  Mo., 
as  subdeacon.  Fr.  Canutus  Lobin- 
ski,  O.  F.  M.,  preached  an  appro- 
priate sermon.  Fr.  Alphonse  Ber- 
gener,  0.  F.  M.,  of  Washington, 
Mo.,  and  Fr.  Seraphine  Lampe,  O. 
F.  M.,  of  Hermann,  Mo.,  were  also 
present  at  the  celebration.  After 
services  Fr.  Hyacinth  received  the 
congratulations  of  parishioners, 
friends,  and  relations.  At.  2  o'clock 
P.  M.  the  children  of  the  parish 
rendered  a  program  of  congratula- 
tion. It  was  a  joyful  and  memorable 
day,  not  only  for  Fr.  Hyacinth, 
but  also  fqr  the  whole   parish. 

Menominee  Reservation,  Wis. — 
The  Rev.  Fr.  Francis  Haase,  0.  F. 
M.,  gave  three  very  successful  mis- 

sions successively  at  Neopit,  Little 
Oconto,  and  to  the  children  of  the 
boarding-school  at  Keshena.  De- 
spite the  inclement  weather  at 
Neopit  and  the  bad  roads  at  Little 
Oconto,  the  Indians  came  in  crowds, 
some  from  a  distance  of  fifteen, — and 
even  fifty  miles.  The  Confessions 
and  Communions  at  Neopit  num- 
bered about  360,  while  seven  per- 
sons were  baptized,  two  converts 
received,  three  adults  admitted  to 
their  first  Holy  Communion,  and 
four  marriages  blessed.  At  Little 
Oconto  120  Confessions  were  heard, 
and  145  Communions  received. 

Caledonia,  Minn. — A  holy  mission 
was  given  in  St.  Boniface's  church, 
Caledonia,  Minn.,  by  the  Rev. 
Fathers  Francis  Haase,  O.  F.  M., 
and  John  Joseph  Brogger,  O.  F.  M., 
which  was  blessed  by  Almighty  God 
in  a  special  manner.  Nearly  every 
day  of  the  mission  the  weather  was 
bad;  nevertheless,  the  good  people 
came.  Every  service  was  well  at- 
tended. At  the  close  of  the  mission, 
seventy-two  members  of  the  parish 
were  received  into  the  Third  Order 
of  St.  Francis.  A  new  branch  of  the 
Order  was  organized,  which  will  be 
directed  by  Rev.  M.  Borresch,  the 
zealous  pastor  of  the  congregation, 
who  is  a  fervent  member  of  the 
Third  Order  since  the  time  of  his 
studies  at  St.  Joseph's  College,  Teu- 
topolis,  111. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — It  was  a 
cause  of  regret  for  the  Tertiaries  of 
St.  Boniface,  to  lose  their  beloved 
director,  Fr.  Josaphat;  O.  F.  M., 
under  whose  wise  guidance  the 
local  branch  of  the  Third  Order 
flourished,  so  that  it  at  present  num- 
bers between  nine  hundred  and  one 
thousand  members,  exclusive  of  the 
German  branch  of  which  he  also  was 
the  spiritual  director.  But  the  sorrow 
of  the  Tertiaries  was  softened  by  the 
first  appearance  of  the  new  director, 
Fr.  Juniper  Doolin,  O.  F.  M.,  who 
lately  returned  from  the  missions  in 
China.     Fr.  Juniper  is  blessed  with 



a  personality  that  almost  instantly 
commands  the  love  and  esteem  of 
all  who  come  in  contact  with  him. 
On  Sunday  afternoon,  April  6, 
Fr.  Juniper  presided  over  the  first 
general  meeting.  In  a  sermon  ring- 
ing with  true  love  and  devotion  to 
the  Franciscan  Order,  he  put  forth 
the  great  work  of  the  Seraphic  Fa- 
ther and  his  immediate  successors 
and  followers.  He  then  commended 
his  hearers  upon  the  success  of  their 
efforts  in  the  past,  exhorting  them 
to  continue  their  great  work.  '  The 
meeting  of  the  councillors,  which 
was  to  be  held  as  usual  on  the 
Wednesday  preceding  the  first  Sun- 
day, was  postponed,  in  order  to  give 
the  new  spiritual  director  and  the 
councillors     time     to     become      ac- 

quainted with  one  another.  The 
report  of  the  good  works  of  the  month 
was  postponed  to  the  next  meeting. 
Papago  Indian  Missions. — Some 
time  ago  a  most  remarkable  episode 
occurred  at  the  Papago  Indian  Vil- 
lage Maricopa,  during  the  absence 
of  the  missioner,  the  Rev.  Gerard 
Brenneke,  O.  F.  M.  A  gentleman 
arrived  in  the  company  of  two 
wives.  He  claimed  to  be  a  Catholic 
missionary,  and  proved  his  assertion 
by  distributing  holy  pictures  cut  from 
Benziger's  catalog  to  the  amazed 
villagers.  After  a  short  stay  he 
sent  his  two  partners  to  the  railway 
station  whilst  he  proceeded  alone  in 
the  direction  of  the  Quijotoa  valley 
to  continue  his  labors  in  behalf  of  the 
benighted  heathens. 

Our  Colleges. 

St.  Joseph's  Seraphic 

THE  third  quarterly  report  cover- 
ing  the    months  of  February, 
March  and  a  part  of  April,  put 
the  following  students  at  the  head 
of  their  respective  classes: 

II  Collegiate,  John  Sailer,  95.00. 
I  Collegiate,  John  Kola,  96.67. 
IV    Academic,  Joseph    Hermes, 


III  Academic,  Raymond  Duling, 

II  Academic,  Henry  Bene,  95.56. 

On  April  27,  the  beautiful  celebra- 
tion of  solemn  first  holy  Communion 
took  place  in  our  chapel.  Frank 
Theobald  of  Joliet  and  Fred  Huster 
of  St.  Louis  were  the  happy  boys  of 
the  day.  The  solemn  renewal  of  the 
baptismal  vows  did  not  fail  to  make 
a  deep  impression  on  all  students. 

During  the  month  of  May  the 
boys  very  frequently  gathered  around 
thejshrine  of  Mary.     Every  evening 

May  devotions  were  held,  and  cer- 
tainly the  students  did  not  apply 
in  vain  to  the  "Mother  of  Good 
Counsel,"  the  "Seat  of  Wisdom." 

In  preparation  for  the  holy  feast 
of  Pentecost  a  novena  in  honor  of 
the  Holy  Ghost  was  held,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  decree  of  Pope  Leo 
XIII,  of  blessed  memory. 

After  a  preparation  of  about  two 
months  almost  all  the  students  en- 
tered the  contest  in  Latin  composi- 
tion-writing, which  took  place  Wed- 
nesday morning,  May  7.  The  tasks 
allotted  to  the  different  classes  were 
graded  according  to  the  abilities  of 
the  pupils.  The  results  of  the  contest 
will  be  published  in  our  next  issue. 

After  the  hard  work  of  the  con- 
test the  boys  well  merited  and  fully 
enjoyed  an  outing  on  Pentecost 
Monday  to  a  neighboring  place  called 

On  April  23,  Aurelius  Brumleve 
was  called  to  his  home  in1  Red  Bud, 
111.,  to  attend  the  funeral  of  his 
father  Frank  Brumleve,  whose  death 


was  quite  sudden  and  unexpected. 
The  bereaved  has  our  sincerest 

Fr.  R.  M.,  O.  F.  M. 

large  framed  picture  of  St.  Antony. 
It  is  a  beautiful  print  of  Murillo's 
famous  painting. 

Frank  Oblasser. 

St.  Antony's  College.        St.  Francis  Solanus  College. 

During  the  first  part  of  the  school 
year's  last  quarter,  life  at  St.  An- 
tony's was  unusually  quiet  and  un- 
eventful. Whether  it  was  that  the 
thought  of  the  final  examinations 
was  weighing  on  the  minds  of*  the 
boys,  or  whether  they  were  engrossed 
in  making  plans  for  the  vacation — 
at  any  rate  nothing  extraordinary, 
or  even  noteworthy,  happened  during 
the  month  of  April.  Still  we  must 
eke  out  a  few  items,  lest  our  friends 
begin  to  have  evil  thoughts  about  us. 
On  April  6,  the  St.  Antony's 
Literary.  Circle  held  its  regular 
meeting.  The  program  was  made  up 
of  several  good  numbers.  There  was 
an  historical  sketch  of  " Venerable 
Bede"  by  John  Walsh;  a  paper  on 
"Thomas  More"  by  Joseph  Mueller; 
an  essay  on  the  personal  element  of 
literature  as  exemplified  in  Cardinal 
Newman's  writings  by  James  Goggin; 
and  a  recitation  by  Frank  Dieringer. 
The  criticisms  and  comments  which 
the  members  are  free  to  make  on  the 
pieces  rendered  are  still  meager  and 
timid.  But  time  and  practice  will, 
it  is  hoped,  awaken  to  the  full  the 
critical  faculty  in  some  of  our  alert 

On  April  27,  the  Literary  Circle 
again  met;  and  the  members  were 
treated  to  some  very  palatable 
things :  an  essay  on  the  Fickleness  of 
Fame  by  John  McXamara;  a  paper 
by  William  O'Callaghan  on  St. 
Antony's  oratorical  powers;  a  dis- 
course by  George  Lombard  on  Virgil; 
a  recitation  by  Al.  Knauff;  and  a 
paper  by  Leslie  Tariel  on  Philately. 
Perhaps  we  ought  to  mention  too 
and  gratefully  acknowledge,  that 
through  the  kindness  of  Rev.  Fr. 
Rector,  our  Society  Room  has  been 
embellished    by    the    addition    of    a 

Among  our  College  societies  the 
Third  Order  ranks  first  and  is  the 
most  active  and  popular.  In  the 
course  of  this  scholastic  year  twenty- 
eight  novices  were  received  and 
twelve  made  their  profession.  The 
total  membership  is  fifty-six,  more 
than  one  third  of  the  number  of  our 
boarders.  A  considerable  percentage 
belong  to  the  commercial  depart- 
ment. It  is  our  aim  to  have  many  of 
our  commercial  students  interested 
in  the  Third  Order;  for  if  they. are 
imbued  with  the  principles  of  the 
Order  at  College,  there  is  reason  to 
hope  that  having  once  entered 
practical  life  as  business  men,  they 
will  also  promote  the  Third  Order 
by  word  and  example.  Society 
has  need  of  such  men,  laymen  of 
practical  piety  and  solid  virtue. 
It  is  only  to  be  regretted  that  many 
of  these  young  men  find  so  little 
encouragement  at  home,  where  with 
few  exceptions  they  have  no  branches 
of  the  Third  Order.  We, therefore, 
try  to  have  the  students  for  the 
holy  priesthood  join  the  Order,  so 
that  they  may  in  due  time  introduce 
this  holy  institution  in  their  par- 
ishes. The  members  of  our  branch 
are  very  zealous  in  the  practice  of 
daily  Communion.  To  promote  and 
foster  this  pious  practice,  a  weekly 
bulletin  is  published  with  intentions 
for  every  day  of  the  week.  The 
students  are  encouraged  to  hand  in 
their  own  special  intentions  signed 
with  a  certain  initial,  so  that  they 
may  recognize  their  own  intention 
when  published.  Every  day  the 
boys  offer  up  their  holy  Communion, 
holy  Mass  and  other  works  of  piety 
for  the  intentions  of  the  day,  thus 
aiding  one  another  spiritually.  It 
is  remarkable   with   what   zeal   and 



discretion  they  offer  their  intentions. 
This  practice  deserves  to  be  re- 
commended as  a  great  encourage- 
ment to  frequent  Communion. 

Also  financially  our  branch  is  in 
a  flourishing  condition.  The  beau- 
tiful statue  of  the  Sacred  Heart  and 
the  large  candle-sticks  on  the  main 
altar  of  the  College  Chapel  were 
donated  by  the  members  of  the 
Third  Order.      . 

May  the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus 
bless  and  prosper  our  branch,  that 
it  may  bear  rich  fruits  for  the  sal- 
vation of  these  young  men  and  of 
others  who  may  later  chance  to 
come  within  the  sphere  of  their 

Fr.  Timothy,  O.  F.  M. 

Golden  Jubilee  of  Rev.  Fr. 
Francis  Albers,  O.   F.  M. 

We  are  happy  to  acquaint  our 
leaders  with  another  venerable  Fran- 
ciscan Father  who  is  about  to 
celebrate  the  fiftieth  anniversary 
of  his  ordination  to  the  holy  priest- 
hood, Rev.  Fr.  Francis  Albers,  as- 
sistant pastor  of  St.  Augustine's 
church,  Chicago.  Fr.  Francis  was 
born  in  Dorsten,  Westphalia,  Ger- 
many, and  received  his  college  edu- 
cation in  the  gymnasium  of  his  na- 
tive city.  He  completed  his  studies 
in  Muenster,  and  was  ordained 
priest  in  the  historic  cathedral  of 
that  place,  May  20,  1863.  After 
having  labored  for  four  years  with 
great  zeal  and-  success  for  the  sal- 
vation of  souls  as  a  secular  priest, 
he  entered  the  Order  of  St.  Francis 
on  the  feast  of  the  holy  Patriarch 
in  the  year  1867. 

Having  completed  his  year  of 
novitiate,  he  asked  his  superiors 
to  be  employed  in  the  foreign  mis- 
sions. His  request  was  granted,  and 
he  was  sent  to  Teutopolis,  Illinois, 
where  he  was  active  for  some  time 
as  professor  at  St.  Joseph's  College. 

Later  he  was  sent  to  St.  Louis  to 
lecture  on  Theology.  His  zeal  for 
the  salvation  of  souls  and  the  con- 
version of  sinners  would  not  allow 
him  to  confine  his  activities  to  the 
class  room;  preaching,  catechizing, 
and  hearing  confessions  was  to  him 
a  delight  as  well  as  a  necessity.    To 

give  full  scope  to  his  burning  -zeal, 
his  superiors  appointed  him  chap- 
lain of  the  state's  prison  in  Joliet  and 
later  pastor  of  St.  Antony's  church, 
St.  Louis.  Here  he  labored  for  twelve 
years  till  he  was  removed  to  Chicago. 
It  is  not  our  intention  to  give  even 
so  much  as  a  brief  sketch  of  his  priest- 
ly career,  for  we  feel  that  we  are 
unequal  to  the  task.  Suffice  it  to 
say  that,  despite  his  three-score 
years  and  fifteen,  Fr.  Francis  is  just 
as  active  and  zealous  in  the  discharge 
of  his  sacerdotal  duties  as  he  was  fifty 
years  ago.  He  is  a  popular  preacher, 
a  brilliant  theologian,  a  zealous  con- 
fessor, a  prudent  counsellor,  a  friend 
of  the  poor  and  sick,  a  true  Friar 
Minor,  guileless,  simple,  affable, 
genial,  pious,  obedient— in  fine,  he 
is  loved  and  revered  by  all  as  a  man 



after  the  heart  of  God.  Those  who 
know  him  will  not  find  this  state- 
ment overdrawn. 

The  Franciscan  Herald  has 
found  in  him  a  generous  friend  and 
supporter.  Indeed,  that  the  Herald 
is  a  financial  success,  is  due  in  no 
small  measure  to  his  untiring  endea- 
vors to  secure  subscribers.  He  has 
made  a  house  to  house  canvass  not 
only  of  the  parish  in  which  he  is 
stationed  but  also  of  the  neighboring 
congregations,  and  in  this  manner 
he  has  secured  no  less  than  800 

We,  therefore,  take  this  oppor- 
tunity publicly  to  express  our  sin- 
cere gratitude  and  to  extend  to  him 
our  heartfelt  congratulations  on  his 
golden  jubilee.  Also,  we  should  like 
to  ask  our  readers  to  unite  their 
prayers  with  ours  that  God  may  long 
preserve  this  zealous  priest  in  good 
health  and  strength.  The  Church 
has  need  of  men  like  Fr.  Francis. 

Our  Correspondence. 

Rev.  Fr.  Benedict: 

For  some  time  I  was  under  a  doc- 
tor's care  for  a  hemorrhage  of  the 
ear  which  was  a  very  serious  trouble. 
On  the  morning  of  his  feast  I  asked 
St.  Antony  to  send  me  a  cure.  Most 
unexpectedly  I  received  a  blessed 
lily  which  I  applied  to  my  ear. 
Thanks  to  the  help  of  St.  Antony 
I  was  cured.  The  doctor  said  it  was 
most  unusual  and  regarded  it  as  a 

Respectfully,  K.  E.  M. 

"We  should  find  great  peace  if  we 
would  imbue  ourselves  with  this 
thought,  that  we  are  here  solely  to 
accomplish  the  Will  of  God;  that  that 
Will  is  accomplished  from  day  to 
day;  and  that  he  who  dies  leaving  his 
work  unfinished  is  just  as  far  advanced 
in  the  eyes  of  Supreme  Justice  as  he 
who  has  leisure  to  accomplish  it  fully." 
— Frederic  Ozanam. 

"Our  sweet  Savior  is  pleased  that 
we  should  speak  to  Him  of  the  trou- 
ble He  sends  us,  and  that  we  should 
complain,  provided  it  be  lovingly  and 
humbly,  and  to  Himself — just  as 
little  children  do  when  their  mother 
has  punished  them." — St.  Francis 
de  Sales. 

"A  true  servant  of  God  has  no  care 
for  the  morrow;  he  performs  faith- 
fully what  is  required  of  him  to-day 
and  to-morrow  he  will  do  what  is 
required  of  him  without  a  word." 
St.  Francis  de  Sales. 


Chicago,  111.,  St.  Peter's  Church: 

Catherine  Tyler,  Sister  Francis; 
Rose  Murrin,  Sister  Gertrude;  Mar- 
garet Hurst,  Sister  Mary  Frances, 
Margaret  Shaughnessy,  Sister  Eliza- 
beth; Mary  Gilbert,  Sister  Clare; 
Mary  Crowley,  Sister  Anne. 

Cleveland,  O.,  St.  Joseph's  Church: 

Frances    Patten,    Mrs.    Catherine 

Gorman,  John  Kolker,  Mrs.  Behrlo. 

New  Prague,  Minn.: 

Mathias  Schoenecker,  Brother 
John;  Joseph  Hoffman,  Brother  An- 



Franciscan  Calendar. 

JUNE,  1913 

Dedicated  to  the 
Sacred  Heard  and  to 
St.  Antony. 















S.  - 






.  T. 










































3d  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — Bl.  James,  O.  F.  M.,  C. 
Gospel:     Parable  of  the  lost  sheep.     Luke  xv,  1-10. 

Bl.  Baptista,  2d  Order,  V.— St.  Marcellinus,  M. 

Bl.  Andrew,  O.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Clotilda,  Queen. 

St.  Francis  Caraciolo,  C. 

Bl.  Pacificus,  O.  F.  M.,  C. 

St.  Norbert,  Bp.  C— St.  Claude,  Bp. 

Bl.  Stephen  and  Comp.,  O.  F.  M.,  MM.— St.  Robert,  Ab. 

4th  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — St.  Mary  Magdalene  of  Pazzi,  V. 
Gospel:     The  miraculous  draught  of  fishes.     Luke  v,  1-11. 

St.  Paul  of  the  Cross,  C,  Founder  of  the  Passionists. — (P.  I.) 

Bl.  Jolenta,  2d  Order,  W.— St.  Margaret,  Queen  of  Scotland. 

St.  Barnabas,  Apostle. 

Bl.  Guido,  O.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Basilides  and  Comp.,  MM. 

St.  Antony  of  Padua,  O.  F.  M.,  C— (P.  I.) 

St.  Basil  the  Great,  Bp.  D.  . 

6th  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — St.  Vitus  and  Comp.,  MM. 
Gospel:     The  justice  of  the  Pharisees.     Matt,  v,  20-24. 

Feast  of  Bl.  Virgin  of  Perpetual  Help. — St.  John  Francis  Regis. 

St.  Boniface,  Bp.  M.,  Apostle  of  Germany. — St.  Rainerius,  C. 

St.  Augustine  of  Canterbury,  Bp. — SS.  Marcus  and  Marcellianus, 

Bl.  Michelina,  3d  Order,  W.— (P.  I.) 

Octave  of  St.  Antony.— St.  Silverius,  P.  M.— (P.  I.) 

St.  Aloysius  Gonzaga,  S.  J.,  C,  Patron  of  Youth. 


6th  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — Nativity  of  St.  John  the  Baptist. — (P.I.) 
Gospel:     Jesus  feeds  the  multitude.      Mark  viii,  1-9. 

St.  Vincent,  C. 

St.  Faustus,  M.— St.  Hero,  Soldier,  M. 

St.  William,  Ab. — St.  Prosper  of  Aquitaine,  C. 

SS.  John  and  Paul,  MM. 

Bl.  Benvenutus  of  Gubbio,  O.  F.  M.,  C— St.  Ladislaus,  Bp. 

St.  Leo  II,  P.  C—  St.  Irenaeus,  Bp.  M. 

7th  Sunday  after  Pentecost.— SS.  Peter  and  Paul,  Ap.— (G.A.,  P.I.) 
Gospel:     The  false  prophets.     Matt,  vii,  15-21.  

Commemoration  of  St.  Paul,  Ap. 

Abbreviations.— St.— Saint;  Bl.— Blessed;  Ap.— Apostle;  M.— Martyr;  C— Con- 
fessor; P.— Pope;  Bp.--Bishop;  D.— Doctor;  V.— Virgin;  O.  F.  M.— Order  of  Friars 
Minor;  O.  M.  Cap.— Order  of  Minors  Capuchin;  P.  I.— Plenary  Indulgence. 

Tertiaries  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession, 
communion  and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of  St. 
Francis;  2d,  once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on  day  of 
monthly  meeting  for  those  who  attend,  usual  conditions. 

g>t.  &nne,  jffiotber  of  ttje  Plesteeb  "Virgin 

Jfranrigcan  j)eralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
\M  Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  Third  Order  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions 

Vol.   1.  JULY,  1913.  Xo.  7. 

Feast  of   the  Most  Precious    Blood. 

Come,  stand  with  me  before  the  cross 
On  which  the  Lamb  of  God  was  slain, 
And  gaze  upon  His  Seven  Wounds 
Which  for  our  sinful  deeds  remain. 
Contemplate  Him  Who  on  it  died, 
Savior  of  men  of  every  name; 
And  offer  Him  His  Precious  Blood 
And  all  His  Wounds  and  bitter  shame, 
And  all  He  suffered  on  the  Rood, 
'Xeath  which  our  Blessed  Mother  stood, 
All  that  was  given  for  sin's  release! 
Plead  for  His  pardon  and  for  peace, 
And,  as  for  guilty  sinners  meet, 
Plead  for  His  mercy  at  His  Feet, 
Like  Dismas  let  our  pleading  be:- 
"Jesus,  dear  Lord,  remember  me!" 

Dr.  W.  Th.  Parker,  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 



St.   Francis  Solano,  Confessor,  of  the 
First  Order. 

July  24th. 

T.    Francis   Solano,   the   Apostle      convent    of    his    native  city.       His 

fervor  in  the  practice  of  every 
religious  virtue  had  to  be  checked 
rather  than  stimulated,  and  he  was 
soon  looked  upon  as  a  model  reli- 
gious.     After    he    had    finished    his 

^  of  Peru,  was  born  at  Montilla 
^^^  in  the  fair  province  of  An- 
dalusia, Spain,  in  1549.  His  pa- 
rents distinguished  by  their  virtuous 
life    no    less    than    by    their    noble 

St*.  Francis  Solano,  Apostle  of  South  America. 

birth,  early  instilled  into    his  heart  a  studies     and     had     been     ordained 

great  love  of  God  and  of  heavenly  priest,   he  showed   an   untiring   zeal 

things.     At   the    age   of   twenty   he  for    the    salvation    of    souls.      His 

took  the  habit  of  St.  Francis  in  the  great  charity  and  spirit  of  sacrifice 



manifested  itself  especially  during 
the  pestilence  which  raged  in  An- 
dalusia in  1583.  Day  and  night 
he  attended  the  sick,  providing  for 
their  corporal  and  spiritual  needs, 
and  curing  many  in  a  miraculous 
manner.  To  escape  the  praise 
and  honors  bestowed  upon  him  on 
all  sides,  he  urgently  begged  his 
superiors  to  allow  him  to  go  to  the 
missions  of  Africa.  They,  however, 
thought  otherwise  and  sent  him  in 
1589  to  South  America. 

After  a  voyage  full  of  hardships 
and  dangers,  —  the  vessel  that 
carried  him  and  his  companions 
from  Panama  to  Peru  was  wrecked 
in  a  violent  storm, — he  began  his 
apostolic  labors  in  Tucuman,  in  the 
northern  part  of  Argentine  Republic. 
The  Sons  of  St.  Francis  had  entered 
this  vast  territory  already,  many 
years  before,  and  had  reaped  a  rich 
harvest.  They  had  gathered  large 
numbers  of  Indians  in  villages,  where 
they  guided  them  in  the  practice  of 
the  Christian  religion  and  taught 
them  agriculture  and  the  mechanical 
arts,  that  they  might  the  more  easily 
give  up  their  barbarous  habits  and 
adopt  the  manners  and  customs  of 
civilization.  But  there  were  still 
many  in  the  forests  and  mountains 
who  had  not  yef  been  reached,  or  who 
had  thus  far  shown  the  greatest 
hostility  to  the  advance  of  the  whites 
and  to  the  preaching  of  the  Christian 
religion.  Francis  labored  for  a  time 
among  the  Spaniards  and  the  con- 
verted Indians,  but,  filled  as  he  was 
with  divine  love  and  longing  to 
bring  all  men  to  the  knowledge  and 
service  of  God,  he  thought  with  pity 
and  compassion  of  the  multitudes  in 
the  mountains,  and  forests,  and  dis- 
tant plains,  that  knew  not  the  true 
God,  and  petitioned  his  superiors  to 
permit  him  to  preach  the  Gospel  to 

His  superiors,  knowing  his  great 
sanctity  and  the  power  of  his  preach- 
ing, readily  granted  the  permission. 
And  now  the  Saint  went  forth  like 

another  apostle  in  quest  of  souls. 
Without  a  thought  of  self,  he  crossed 
burning  deserts  and  chilling  moun- 
tain passes,  treacherous  swamps  and 
rivers,  and  fearlessly  traversed  dense 
forests  to  bring  the  glad  tidings  of 
the  Gospel  to  the  numerous  tribes 
that  were  living  in  the  darkness  and 
vices  of  paganism.  In  the  course 
of  time  he  thus  passed  through  entire 
Tucuman,  the  Grand  Chaco,  Para- 
guay, and  Uruguay.  His  powerful 
words,  his  kindness  and  charity,  dis- 
armed the  hostility  of  the  most  savage 
tribes  and  opened  their  minds  and 
hearts  to  the  teachings  of  the  Gospel. 
Thousands  were  converted  and,  as  the 
Bull  of  Canonization  says,  "led 
through  the  sacred  water  of  baptism 
to  a  new  and  better  life. " 

God  confirmed  the  preaching  of  his 
servant  by  so  many  miracles  that 
they  have  earned  for  him  the  name  of 
the  "Wonderworker  of  the  New 
World."  Thus  the  Saint  by  divine 
assistance  learned  to  speak  the  lan- 
guages of  the  various  tribes  in  an 
incredibly  short  time;  it  frequently 
happened  that  the  Indians  of  differ- 
ent tribes  understood  him  perfectly, 
though  he  spoke  only  in  one  lan- 
guage. God  gave  him  great  power 
over  the  hearts  of  his  hearers.  When 
Francis  was  on  one  occasion  in  the 
city  of  Rioxa,  a  large  band  of  savages 
approached,  intent  on  killing  all 
Europeans  and  Christian  Indians. 
The  Saint  went  out  to  meet  them. 
His  word  disarmed  their  fury;  they 
asked  for  instruction  and  nine  thou- 
sand of  their  number  received  bap- 
tism. Even  the  elements  and  wild 
animals  obeyed  him.  When  about  to 
pass  over  into  Paraguay  to  preach 
to  the  tribes  of  that  region,  he  came 
to  the  river  of  the  same  name,  and  as 
there  was  no  boat  to  take  him  across, 
he  confidently  placed  his  cloak  upon 
the  water  and  on  it  passed  over.  A 
bull  that  had  been  wounded  in  a  bull- 
fight and  was  rushing  furiously 
through  the  streets  of  the  city, 
permitted  itself  to  be  bound  and  led 



by  him  like  a  lamb.  Such  miracles 
gained  for  him  the  veneration  of  all, 
and  contributed  much  to  the  spread 
of  Christianity  and  to  the  reforma- 
tion of  morals. 

After  Francis  had  labored  among 
the  Indians  of  Tucuman  for  four- 
teen years,  he  was  called  to  Lima, 
in  Peru.  Here  his  zeal  found  another 
field.  Though  the  Christian  religion 
had  long  been  established  here  and 
the  country  had  prospered  in  mater- 
ial ways,  success  and  wealth  had 
brought  with  them  great  luxury  and 
immorality.  Francis,  zealous  for  the 
honor  of  God,  immediately  strove 
to  bring  the  people  back  to  a  good 
Christian  life.  He  preached  against 
the  prevailing  vices  of  the  people  of 
Lima  with  such  fervor,  threatening 
them,  like  another  Jonas,  with  the 
chastisement  of  heaven  unless  they 
would  mend  their  evil  ways,  that  all 
were  struck  with  fear,  repented  of 
their  evil  deeds  and  began  to  lead 
good  Christian  lives.  He  also 
preached  penance  to  the  inhabitants 
of  Truxillo,  and  foretold  the  destruc- 
tion of  their  city  on  account  of  its 
wickedness.  But  the  people  ridiculed 
his  warning  and  continued  in  their 
sins.  Fifteen  years  later  a  violent 
earthquake  buried  the  entire  city 
with  its  inhabitants,  the  pulpit  alone, 
from  which  the  Saint  had  foretold  the 
disaster,  remaining  standing,  as  he 
had    predicted. 

The  life  of  Francis,  "a  holy,  un- 
interrupted course  of  action,"  was 
blessed  with  a  happy  death.  The 
Saint  was  called  to  his  eternal 
reward  on  July  14,  1610,  and  was 
buried  in  the  Franciscan  church  at 
Lima.  God  glorified  him  after  his 
death  by  many  miracles.  He  was 
beatified  by  Pope  Clement  X  on 
January  25,  1675,  and  canonized  by 
Benedict  XIII  on  December  27, 
1726.  His  feast  is  celebrated  on 
July    24th. 


Filled  with  the  spirit  of  God, 
which  teaches  them  to  value  things 
according  to  their  true  worth,  the 
Saints  fully  understand  the  value  of 
a  human  soul,  which  is  created  to 
possess  God;  and  sufferings,  priva- 
tions, and  even  death  are  considered 
as  of  no  account,  if  there  is  question 
of  saving  an  immortal  soul  Hence 
it  was  that  St.  Francis  Solano  joy- 
fully left  home  and  country  and 
spent  a  life  of  suffering  and  self-denial 
among  barbarous  tribes,  to  lead  them 
to  the  knowledge  of  God  and  thus  to 
eternal  salvation.  We  can  show 
our  love  of  God  and  our  gratitude 
for  the  gift  of  faith  in  no  better  man- 
ner than  by  zeal  for  the  conversion 
of  sinners,  infidels  and  pagans.  This 
every  one  can  do  by  example,  prayer, 
and  alms.  How  many  pagans  were 
not  converted  to  the  true  faith  by  the 
exemplary  lives  of  the  first  Christ- 
ians? And  so  it  is  today.  By  regu- 
lating his  public  and  private  life 
according  to  the  principles  of  his 
holy  religion,  every  Catholic  becomes 
a  missionary  who  preaches  in  a  con- 
vincing manner  to  a  doubting  and 
unbelieving  world  the  beauty  and 
truth  of  his  religion.  Then,  we 
should  pray  daily  that  the  kingdom 
of  God  be  spread  more  and  more, 
that  all  heretics,  unbelievers,  and 
pagans  enter  the  Church,  so  that,  as 
our  divine  Savior  says,  "there  be  one 
shepherd  and  one  flock." — Finally, 
the  Catholic  should,  if  possible, 
aid  the  labors  of  the  missionaries  by 
alms.  For  they  must  not  only  con- 
vert the  pagans,  but  must  build 
churches,  schools,  orphan  asylums, 
and  hospitals,  and  contribute  to  the 
support  of  their  converts;  and  for  the 
means  to  do  all  this  they  must  rely 
to  a  great  extent  on  the  voluntary 
offerings  of  the  faithful.  Every  alms 
given  for  this  purpose  will  receive  a 
special  reward,  for  it  contributes  to 
the  spread  of  the  kingdom  of  God  on 
earth.         Fr.  Silas  Barth,  O.  F.  M. 


Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  O.  M.  Cap.) 

6.     The  Decision. 

"Lord,  what  wilt  thou  have  me  do?"  Acts 

FRANCIS  went  forth  to  ac- 
quire fame  on  the  field  of 
battle  and  thus  gain  admitt- 
ance to  the  order  of  knighthood. 
The  mercantile  profession  seemed 
too  low  for  the  aspiring  youth. 
On  this  journey  our  hero  was 
destined  to  make  a  most  unex- 
pected  conquest. 

On  the  first  day  they  came  to 
Spoleto,  but  even  then  Francis 
had  become  pensive.  He,  the  rol- 
licking youth,  was  in  an  earnest 
mood.  What  may  have  been  the 
cause?  Perhaps  the  loose  life  of 
the  soldiery,  perhaps  the  manner 
of  his  reception  by  them,  had 
aroused  in  him  the  thought  as 
to  whether  such  a  career  .could 
or  would  lead  him  to  the  desired 
end.  Be  that  as  it  may,  we  must 
here  recognize  the  ruling  of  Prov- 
idence and  the  operation  of  grace, 
which  so  often  is  conditioned  by 
natural   circumstances. 

Francis'  determination  to  engage 
in  the  war  was  shaken.  The  fol- 
lowing night  brought  him  to  a 
decision.  He  heard  a  sweet  voice 
which  addressed  him  thus,  ' '  Fran- 
cis, who  can  do  you  the  most  good, 
the  master  or  the  servant,  the 
rich  man  or  the  poor?"  He  an- 
swered, "The  master  and  the  rich 
man."  "Why,  therefore,"  pursued 
the  voice,   "why  do  you  desert  the 

master  for  the  sake  of  the  ser- 
vant, and  the  God  of  infinite  riches 
for  the  sake  of  a  poor  man?" 
Francis,  deeply  affected  by  these 
words,  cried  out  like  St.  Paul  of 
yore,  '  ■  Lord,  what  wilt  thou  have 
me  to  do?"  "Return  to  thy  coun- 
try," was  the  answer,  "the  vision 
you  have  seen  must  be  construed 
in  a  spiritual  sense.  Its  realiza- 
tion depends  not  on  man  but  on 
God."  (St.  Bonaventure.)  He  obeys 
the  call  and  returns.  This  then 
was  the  campaign  in  which  Francis 
had  taken  part.  It  lasted  but  one 
day  and  one  night,  and  yet  it 
was  of  the  most  far-reaching  sig- 
nification and  consequences.  It 
exercised  a  determining  influence 
on  the  career  of  our  hero,  and  he 
clearly  saw  whereto  he  had  been 
called    by    God. 

In  prayer  the  light  from  heaven 
was  vouchsafed  unto  our  youth. 
Now  the  Man  of  God  perceived 
that  for  him  also  the  words  held 
true,  "If  any  man  will  come 
after  me,  let  him  deny  himself,  and 
take  up  his  cross  and  follow  me." 
( Matt,  xvi,  24. )  Francis  now 
perceived  the  way  he  was  to  travel. 
Not  the  broad  road  of  earthly 
honor  and  pleasure  should  he 
tread,  but  the  small  and  thorny 
pathway  of  the  Cross.  He  is  to 
become  a  prince;  not,  however, 
one  laden  with  the  honors  of  the 
world,    but    a   prince   and  leader  in 



the  school  of  the  Crucified.  The 
world  shall  admire  him,  not  on 
account  of  his  worldly  wealth,  but 
on  account  of  his  mortified  life 
and  his  love  for  Jesus  Crucified. 
Even  the  present  day  and  genera- 
tion cannot  refuse  him  the  tribute 
of   its   wonder   and   veneration. 

Francis  had  clearly  seen  his  way. 
"He  rejoiced  as  a  giant  to  run  his 
way,"  (Psalm  xviii,  6)  for  what  he 
attempts  he  wishes  also  to  com- 
plete. The  Cross  and  the  Cruci- 
fied were  henceforth  the  object  of 
his  love.  "To  the  mortification  of 
the  flesh  Francis  was  zealously 
attentive,  in  order  that  the  cross 
which  he  bore  in  his  heart  he  might 
also  bear  on  his  body.  All  this 
Francis  did,  though  he  had  not 
yet  completely  broken  with  the 
world."    (St.    Bonaventure.) 

What  zeal  was  manifested  by 
our  Disciple  of  the  Crucified! 
How  does  it  compare  with  our 
zeal  and  efforts  towards  perfection? 
Do  the  words  of  Holy  Scripture 
merit  application  in  our  case, 
"Desires  kill  the  slothful?"  Do  we 
belong  to  the  number  of  those  who 
long  for  perfection  but  do  not  wish 
to  apply  the  necessary  means. 
Are  we  likewise  so  disposed  that 
we  would  attain  perfection  without 
undergoing   any   sacrifice? 

By  the  example  of  St.  Francis 
may  our  zeal  be  again  enkindled 
so  that  we  too  may  pray  with 
determined  will,  ' '  Lord,  what  wilt 
thou  have  me  to  do?" 

Back  in  Assisi,  Francis  was  wel- 
comed in  the  kindest  manner  by 
his  friends,  though  an  occasional 
note  of  ridicule  may  have  greeted 
his  ears.  His  friends  urged  him  to 
celebrate  the  event  with  a  revel. 
He  consented.  It  was  to  be  the 
last.  The  lighthearted  youths  were 
starting  out  on  a  tour  of  the  city 
to  the  accompaniment  of  jovial 
songs.  Francis  remembers  the  re- 
cent   occurrence    and    drops   to   the 

rear.  Whilst  he  stands  there  sunk 
in  thought,  one  of  his  friends  ad- 
dressed him,  "Have  you  perhaps 
decided  to  get  married?"  "Oh 
yes,"  he  answered,  "and  to  one 
so  fair,  that  you  have  never  seen 
her  equal."  Thereupon,  he  with- 
draws from  his  friends.  Grace  had 
carried  off  the  victory.  His  thoughts 
and  plans  now  moved  in  other 
grooves.  From  now  on  he  devotes 
himself  to  fervent  prayer  to  learn 
the  will  of  God.  In  prayer  he 
hears  the  words,  "All  things  which 
thou  hast  hitherto  so  loved  and 
earnestly  desired,  thou  must  now 
despise  and  hate,  if  thou  wouldst 
know  my  will."  Our  youth,  to 
whom  half -measures  are  unknown, 
obeys  the  admonition  from  above. 
He  retires  from  the  turmoil  of  the 
world  and  seeks  in  prayer  enlight- 
enment   and    strength. 

Now  indeed  he  stands  before 
the  parting  of  the  ways,  and  at 
this  juncture  he  has  recourse  to 
the  only  proper  source  of  help, 
to  prayer.  Oh,  that  we  would  al- 
ways follow  his'  example,  and  in 
all  our  needs  would  beg  for  light 
and  strength  from  that  same  heav- 
enly source!  So  many  a  disap- 
pointment would  be  thus  avoided, 
and  so  much  more  good  attend  our 

"Whilst  he  (Francis)  again  was 
absorbed  in  prayer,  Christ,  the 
Crucified,  appeared  to  him.  At 
this  sight,  'his  soul  melted  when 
he  spoke!'  (Cant,  v,  6).  The 
picture  of  Christ's  sufferings  was 
so  deeply  impressed  upon  his  heart, 
that  at  the  recollection  he  could 
scarce  refrain  from  tears."  (St. 

Francis  applied  himself  with  ever 
greater  zeal  to  prayer.  His  ex- 
perience was  similar  to  that  which 
St,  Paul  had  undergone.  The 
latter  had  in  like  manner  taken 
his  recourse  to  prayer.  "There  fell 
from  his  eyes,  as  it  were,  scales." 
(Acts  ix,   18). 



My  God  and  My  All 

By  Fr.   Honoratus  Bonzelet,  O.  F.  M. 

THE  lives  of  the  saints  are  in 
a  measure  living  Gospels.  The 
difference  that  exists  between 
the  Gospel  narrative  and  the  lives 
of  the  saints  may  be  compared  to 
the  difference  that  exists  between 
the  beautiful  musical  composition 
set  to  notes  and  the  rendering  of 
it  by  an  expert  performer.  The 
predominant  note  in  the  Gospel, 
however,  is  that  of  love.  An  ex- 
pert performer,  a  chivalrous  trou- 
badour, of  the  love  of  God  was 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi,  and  his  heart 
was  a  harp  whose  silvery  chords 
were  attuned  to,  and  susceptible 
of,  the  gentle  touch  of  God's 
inspiring    love. 

"My  God  and  my  all" — this 
was  the  watchword  of  St.  Francis, 
a  characteristic  which,  like  a  golden 
thread,  was  woven  through  his 
whole  life.  He  loved  God  above 
all  else,  and  all  else  because  of  God. 
The  creatures  were  to  him  so 
many  monuments  of  God's  .love, 
and  everywhere  he  found  the  foot- 
prints of  his  Beloved.  The  greater 
the  manifestation  of  God's  love 
he  discerned  in  a  creature,  the 
more  intimately  he  was  drawn  to 
it.  Now,  God  has  shown  to  fallen 
mankind  the  most  extraordinary 
manifestations  of  His  love,  in  as 
much  as  He  has  not  spared  His 
only-begotten  Son,  but  has  given 
Him  unto  death  that  man  may  live. 
What  wonder,  then,  if  Francis 
loved  human  kind  and  everything 
that  concerns  them?  Hence  it 
was  that  he  considered  the  ail- 
ments and  sufferings  of  his-  fellow- 
men  his  own.  "In  his  heart,  as 
an  old  chronicler  puts  it,  the  whole 
world  found  refuge,  the  poor,  the 
sick  and  the  fallen  being  the  ob- 
jects of  his  solicitude  in  a  more 
special  manner."  A  beggar  once 
asked   insistently   for   an   alms,   but 

was  treated  harshly  by  one  of  the 
Saint's  disciples.  When  Francis 
heard  of  this,  he  commanded  the 
brother  to  go  to  the  beggar  and 
to  prostrate  himself  at  his  feet 
asking  pardon  for  his  offense. 
Thereupon  he  admonished  the 
brother:  "My  brother,  whenever 
you  behold  a  poor  man,  remember 
that  a  mirror  of  the  Lord  and  His 
poor  Mother  is  held  before  your 
eyes."  Frequently  Francis  would 
take  the  burden  from  the  shoulders 
of  the  poor  and  place  it  on  his 
own  weak  shoulders.  Sometimes 
would  he  bereave  himself  of  his 
own  necessary  clothes  and  give 
them  to  the  poor.  If  he  met  poor 
men  on  his  quest  for  alms,  he  would 
distribute  the  alms  among  them, 
saying  that  the  alms  were  lent  to 
him  till  he  should  find  somebody 
poorer  than  himself. 

So  great  was  the  sympathy  of 
Francis  for  the  suffering  that  he 
would  weep  with  those  in  distress, 
and  would  use  every  effort  to 
alleviate  their  sufferings.  In  the 
Rule  of  the  Order  of  Friars  Minor 
he  writes:  "If  a  mother  loves  and 
cares  for  her  bodily  son,  how  much 
more  should  one  love  and  care  for 
one's  spiritual  brother.  If  one  of 
them  has  fallen  into  sickness,  then 
his  brothers  must  serve  him,  as 
they  themselves  should  like  to  be 
served."  This  word  is  a  product 
of  Francis'  *ery  soul;  for  he  was 
filled  with  such  tender  solicitude 
for  his  brothers  that  he  tried  all 
in  his  power  to  sweeten  their  suf- 
ferings. One  night,  we  are  told, 
the  friary  was  aroused  by  the  cry, 
"I  am  dying."  "Who  are  you," 
exclaimed  Francis  arising,  "and 
why  are  you  dying?"  "I  am 
dying  of  hunger,"  answered  the 
voice  of  one  who  had  been  too 
prone  to  fasting.    Whereupon  Fran- 



cis  had  a  table  laid  out  and  sat 
down  beside  the  famished  friar,  and 
lest  the  latter  might  be  ashamed  to 
eat  alone,  ordered  all  the  other 
brethren  to  join  in  the  repast. 
Francis'  devotedness  in  consoling 
the  afflicted  made  him  so  condes- 
scending  that  he  shrank  not  from 
abiding  with  the  lepers  in  their 
loathly  lazar-houses  and  from  eating 
with  them  out  of  the  same  platter. 
But  above  all  it  is  his  dealings 
with  the  erring  that  reveal  the 
truly  Christian  spirit  of  his  charity. 
"Saintlier  than  any  of  the  saints," 
writes  Celano,  "among  sinners  he 
was  as  one  of  themselves."  Writ- 
ing to  one  of  the  ministers  in  the 
order,  Francis  says:  "Should  there 
be  a  brother  anywhere  in  the 
world  who  has  sinned,  no  matter 
how  great  soever  his  fault  may  be, 
let  him  not  go  away  after  he  has 
once  seen  your  face  without  show- 
ing pity  towards  him;  and  if  he 
seek  not  mercy,  ask  him  if  he  does 
not  desire  it.  And  by  this  I  will 
know  if  you  love  God  and  me." 
"Again,"  remarks  Fr.  Paschal  Rob- 
inson, "to  medieval  notions  of 
justice  the  evil-doer  was  beyond 
the  law  and  there  was  no  need  to 
keep  faith  with  him.  But  according 
to  Francis,  not  only  was  justice  due 
even  to  evil-doers,  but  justice  must 
be  preceded  by  courtesy  as  by  a 
herald.  Courtesy,  indeed,  in  the 
saint's  quaint  concept,  was  the 
younger  sister  of  charity  and  one 
of  the  qualities  of  God  Himself, 
who  '  of  His  courtesy,'  he  declares, 
'gives  His  sun  and  His  rain  to  the 
just  and  the  unjust."  This  habit 
of  courtesy  Francis  ever  sought 
to  enjoin  on  his  disciples.  '  Who- 
ever may  come  to  us,"  he  writes, 
'whether  a  friend  or  a  foe,  a  thief 
or  a  robber,  let  him  be  kindly  re- 
ceived,' and  the  feast  which  he 
spread  for  the  starving  brigands  in 
the  forest  at  Monte  Casale  sufficed 
to  show  that  'as  he  taught  so  he 
wrought.'  " 

Another  feature  of  Francis's  love 
for  his  fellows  we  cannot  pass  by 
unnoticed,  we  mean  the  influence 
he   exerted    upon   the   world   social. 

"St.  Francis,"  says  the  learned 
Fr.  Cuthbert,  O.  S.  F.  C,  "had 
a  fine  feeling,  which  in  him  was 
a  religious  conviction,  that  em- 
braced all  humanity  in  fraternal 
affection  and  intimate  reverence. 
It  was  not  that  he  had  any 
theory  about  the  equality  of  man 
socially  or  politically.  He  had  no 
such  theories;  he  accepted  as  a 
matter  of  course  the  distinction  of 
rank  and  position  which  existed 
amongst  men;  but  behind  such 
acceptance  was  always  an  intense 
feeling  for  the  brotherhood  of  man. 
Every  man,  whether  rich  or  poor, 
noble  or  beggar,  was  to  him  a 
brother,  in  whose  joy  or  sorrow 
he  had  a  ready  interest.  The 
reforming  influence  upon  social  re- 
lations of  such  a  truth  keenly  felt 
by  large  numbers  of  men,  can  be 
imagined  when,  as  was  the  case 
in  St.  Francis'  day,  there  was  so 
wide  a  separation  of  class  from 
class,  and  even  family  from  family." 
And  again:  "To  St.  Francis  all 
men  are  a  family — the  family  of 
God — with  claims  upon  each  other. 
To  refuse  to  share  one's  goods  with 
another  who  needed  help  was, 
in  the  eyes  of  the  saint,  a  be- 
trayal of  the  kinship  which  unites 
all  men  in  God  and  a  disruption 
of  that  bond  of  charity  which  he 
regarded  as  a  first  law  of  Christian 
society."  Here  then  we  have  the 
real  concept  of  the  social  influ- 
ence exerted  by  the  poor  man  of 
Umbria  upon  the  world  around 
him,  in  contradistinction  to  the 
sentimental  vagaries  and  the  en- 
thusiasm which  have,  of  late  years, 
been  evoked  by  the  story  of  St., 
Francis  and  his  thirteenth  century 

But  let  us  hasten  to  another 
aspect  of  the  love  of  St.  Francis, 
his     love    for    the    irrational     crea- 



tion.  The  sight  of  nature  was  for 
Francis  an  inexhaustible  source 
of  holy  thoughts  and  pious  re- 
flections, which  formed  for  him  a 
ladder  on  which  he  ascended  to 
God.  At  the  sight  of  nature  Fran- 
cis was  inebriated  with  such  love 
that  he  invited  all  creatures,  the 
sun,  the  moon,  and  the  stars, 
plants  and  animals,  yes,  even  the 
inanimate  beings,  such  as  fire, 
the  air,  light,  frost  etc.,  to  praise  and 
glorify  God,  that  he  called  them 
his  brothers  and  sisters  and  lived 
on  the  most  amicable  terms  with 

The  beauty  and  sweet  odor  of 
the  flowers  reminded  him  of  Jesus, 
who  is  the  most  beautiful  Flower, 
gone  forth  from  the  root   of  Jesse. 

If  he  found  little  worms  on  the 
wayside,  Francis  would  put  them 
aside,  lest  they  be  crushed  by  the 
footsteps  of  the  wayfarers.  Little 
bees  he  fed  in  winter,  lest  they 
die  of  cold  or  starvation. 

But  it  was  especially  those  ani- 
mals that  reminded  him  of  the 
Savior  or  some  Christian  virtue 
that  Francis  embraced  in  his  sym- 
pathetic love.  Above  all  the  little 
lambs  claimed  his  attention.  If 
he  saw  a  lamb  led  to  the  shambles, 
he  would  try  his  best  to  liberate 
it;  for  he  was  thereby  vividly  re- 
minded of  the  Lamb  of  God,  which 
by  its  bloody  death  took  away  the 
sins""of  the  world.  The  little  doves 
Francis  also  loved  exceedingly; 
because  they  were  to  him  the 
symbol  of  simplicity  and  reminded 
him  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  The  lark 
was  also  his  favorite,  which  sang 
with  him  in  sweetest  content  in 
the  Ilix  Grove  at  the   Carceri. 

Of  the  affectionate  relation  that 
existed  between  Francis  and  nature 
the  renowned  Goerres  has  given 
us  a  most  graphic  pen-picture; 
"Thus  Francis  walked  through  na- 
ture, and  wherever  his  foot  stepped, 
the  old  curse  was  forthwith  taken 
away  from  the  earth.    The  animals 

played  affectionately  with  him, 
the  flowers  looked  with  loving  eyes 
up  to  him,  the  very  elements  drow- 
sily raised  up  their  heads  and  looked 
with  astonishment  into  the  un- 
wonted lustre.  Spell-bound  by  a 
higher  power  which  emanated  from 
Francis,  they  readily  fulfilled  his 
behest,  and  only  when  he  had 
passed  by,  the  curse  asserted  its 
right,  Paradise  sunk  back  into 
nothing  and  life  hid  itself  behind 
the  rough  bark  and  the  Cherub 
again  stepped  forth,  with  his  fiery 
sword,   into   the   portal." 

But,  to  see  in  Francis  only  the 
loving  friend  of  all  God's  creatures, 
the  joyous  singer  of  nature,  is  to 
overlook  altogether  that  aspect  of 
his  life  which  is  the  explanation  of 
all  the  rest — his  supernatural  love 
of  God.  His  love  for  the  creatures  was 
entirely  subordinate  to  this  highest 
and  noblest  love.  Especially,  three 
mysteries  claimed  his  love  for  God— the 
Incarnation,  the  Blessed  Eucharist, 
and  the  Passion.  Francis  was  filled 
with  a  glowing  charity  towards  the 
Incarnation  and  the  Birth  of  the  Sav- 
ior. With  unspeakable  joy  he  greeted 
their  annual  recurrence.  To  give  vent 
to  his  love  and  veneration  for  the 
Babe  of  Bethlehem,  Francis  in- 
troduced and  popularized  the  beau- 
tiful devotion  of  the  Crib.  The 
mystery  of  the  Holy  Eucharist 
held  a  preponderant  place  in  the 
life  of  Francis,  and  he  had  nothing 
more  at  heart  than  all  that  con- 
cerned the  cultus  of  the  Blessed 
Sacrament,  Hence,  we  not  only 
hear  of  Francis  conjuring  the 
clergy  to  show  befitting  respect  for 
everything  connected  with  the  Sac- 
rifice of  the  Mass,  but  we  also  see 
him  sweeping  out  poor  churches, 
questing  sacred  vessels  for  them, 
and  providing  them  with  altar- 
breads  made  by  himself.  So  great, 
indeed,  was  Francis'  reverence 
for  the  priesthood,  because  of  its 
relation  to  the  adorable  Sacra- 
ment,    that     in     his     humility     he 



never  dared  to  aspire  to  that 
dignity.  It  was,  however,  the 
Passion  of  our  Lord  in  which  the 
love  of  Francis  found  its  cul- 
mination. Whole  days  might  he 
be  seen  absorbed  in  the  media- 
tion of  the  bitter  Passion.  His 
only  desire  then  was  to  become 
totally  united  with  Christ.  Well 
might  he  then  exclaim:  "I  am 
crucified  with  Christ."  It  was 
on  Alvernia's  heights  that  this 
actually  happened.  There  it  was 
that  when  Francis  was  absorbed  in 
the  meditation  of  the  Passion, 
Christ  appeared  to  him  in  the  form 
of  a-  Seraph  and  impressed  upon 
his  body  the  stigmas.  Truly 
might  the  Saint  then  exclaim: 

"Into   Love's  fire   I   am   cast 

By  my  sweet  bridegroom  new. 

As    on    the     ring     He     passed, 

This    loving    Lamb    me    threw 

Into    a    prison    fast; 

He    pierced    me    through    and 

And    broke    my    heart    at   last. 

Love  sets  me  all  on  fire." 
Are  we  then  not  right  when  we 
say  that  "My  God  and  my  All" 
is  a  characteristic  that  is  like  a 
golden  thread  woven  through  his 
whole  life?  Yes,  Francis  loved 
God  above  all  else,  and  all  else 
because  of  God.  Let  our  love  be 
such,  and  let  our  motto  be:  "My 
God   and   my   all." 

An  Avowal 

The  principles  of  the  Third  Order 
were  very  simple.  Francis  did  not 
give  the  world  a  new  doctrine; 
the  novelty  about  his  message  was 
purely  in  his  charity,  in  his  direct 
appeal  to  the  life  of  the  Gospel, 
to  an  ideal  of  moral  vigor  of  labor 
and  love.  The  great  novelty  aimed 
at  by  the  Third  Order  was  har- 
mony. This  brotherhood  was  a 
union  of  peace,  and  it  brought  to 
astonished  Europe  a  new  truce  of 
God.      For,     to    fulfill     gladly    the 

duties  of  one's  state  of  life;  to 
actuate  the  least  of  one's  actions 
with  a  spirit  of  holiness;  to  find 
in  matters  the  most  trifling  of 
nature  and  commonplace  of  ap- 
pearance, instances  of  divine  work; 
to  remain  unsullied  by  any  un- 
worthy occupation;  to  use  things 
as  if  not  possessing  them;  to  close 
the  heart  to  hatred  and  to  open 
it  wide  to  the  poor,  the  sick,  the 
abandoned  of  every  kind,  such 
were  the  essential  duties  of  the 
Brothers  and  Sisters  of  Penance. 
— Paul  Sabatier. 

Though  it  is  only  four  years 
since  Pope  Pius  X  beatified  the 
Blessed  Joan  of  Arc,  the  Sacred 
Congregation  of  Rites  has  already 
taken  up  the  process  of  her  canon- 
ization. Three  miracles  alleged  to 
have  been  worked  through  the 
intercession  of  the  maid,  have 
been  proposed  by  Cardinal  Fer- 
rata,  Ponent  of  the  Cause.  As 
Joan  of  Arc  was  a  Franciscan 
Tertiary,  the  members  of  the 
three  Orders  of  St.  Francis  should 
make  her  cause  their  own,  and 
pray  that  the  crown  of  sainthood 
may  soon  be  placed  on  the  brows 
of  this  model  of  Christian  heroines, 
and  another  glorious  name  added 
to  the  long  list  of  Franciscan  Saints. 

A  welcome  sign  of  life  in  the 
branch  of  the  Third  Order  es- 
tablished in  Quincy,  Illinois,  was 
the  reception  of  one  hundred  new 
members.  The  event  was  one  of 
great  eclat,  as  may  be  seen  from 
the  report  of  the  proceedings,  which 
we  bring  on  another  page.  We 
believe  in  making  the  reception 
and  profession  of  Tertiaries  as 
solemn  as  possible,  since  it  helps 
to  increase  the  prestige  of  the  Third 
Order,  and  prestige  is  what  the 
Third  Order  in  this  country  so 
sadly  lacks.' 

Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among 
the  Indians  of  the  Early  Days. 


By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  O.  F.  M. 

WHEN  with  the  arrival  of 
De  Soto's  ragged  remnant 
under  Luis  de  Moscoso  the 
failure  of  the  grand  expedition  be- 
came known  in  Mexico,  the  famous 
Dominican,  Father  Luis  Cancer  de 
Barbastro,  resolved  to  achieve  in 
another  manner  the  conquest  of 
Florida  and  the  conversion  of  the 
fierce  natives.  Alone,  unsupported 
by  military  attendants,  armed  only 
with  the  crucifix,  this  apostolic 
man  had  conciliated  the  wild  tribes 
of  Vera  Paz,  the  Land  of  True 
Peace,  and  he  thought  that  what 
had  succeeded  in  Central  America 
could  not  fail  on  the  peninsula. 
Accordingly,  he  crossed  over  to  Spain 
and,  laying  his  plans  before  the 
king,  asked  permission  to  under- 
take the  conversion  of  the  Floridans. 
Charles  V  gave  his  consent  quite 
heartily.  "Four  tyrants,"  he  is 
said  to  have  exclaimed,  "have  en- 
tered Florida,  effecting  no  good,  but 
causing  much  damage.  Now  I 
shall  try  the  religious." 

Unfortunately,  the  emperor  as  well 
as  the  zealous  Fr.  Cancer,  overlooked 
a  most  important  circumstance.  If 
it  was  folly  to  expect  to  win  the 
natives  by  sending  among  them 
adventurers  who  thirsted  only  for 
gold  or  fame,  with  permission  to 
enslave  the  Indians  and  to  kill  those 
that  resisted,  it  was  highly  imprudent 

to  allow  missionaries  to  expose  them- 
selves unprotected  to  the  wrath  of 
such  outraged  natives.  Under  such 
circumstances  it  could  not  be  hoped 
that  the  revengeful  savages  would 
except  the  unarmed  missionaries. 
In  their  present  state  of  frenzy,  the 
enraged  Indians  of  the  country  from 
the  ocean  to  the  Mississippi  held  all 
white  men  alike  in  detestation,  what- 
ever their  garb.  No  success,  save 
through  a  miracle,  could  therefore 
be  looked  for  from  any  such  attempt 
as  contemplated  by  Fr.  Cancer.  The 
friars  should  have  proceeded  under 
some  sort  of  military  protection, 
though  the  soldiers  must  remain  in 
the  background  and  not  venture 
forth  until  needed  to  protect  the 
lives  of  the  missionaries.  It  was  well 
enough  for  the  friars  to  seek  martyr- 
dom to  prove  their  love  for  Christ, 
but  as  things  were,  they  must  become 
victims  of  savage  fury,  not  because 
of  their  faith  in  Christ,  but  because 
they  were  white  men, — members  of 
the  hated  race  that  had  butchered 
and  enslaved  the  kith  and  kin  of 
these  Indians. 

However,  Fr.  Luis  Cancer  was 
formally  commissioned  to  undertake 
the  pious  task  of  winning  the  Flori- 
dans for  God  and  for  the  king.  He 
was  accompanied  by  the  Dominican 
Fathers  Gregorio  de  Beteta,  Diego 
de  Tolosa,  or  Pennalosa,  and  Juan 



Garcia,  and  a  donado  or  Tertiary 
brother  named  Fuentes.  Without  any 
military  protection  whatever,  the 
heroic  friars  sailed  from  Vera  Cruz 
in  an  unarmed  ship  commanded  by 
Juan  de  Arana.  Arana  had  been 
directed  to  avoid  all  ports  where  the 
Spaniards  had  previously  landed  and 
spread  terror  for  the  white  men.  His 
ignorance,  or  his  wanton  disobedi- 
ence, contributed  materially  to  the 
ultimate  failure  of  the  undertaking. 
At  Havana  a  Floridan  convert  named 
Magdalena  was  secured  as  inter- 

On  the  eve  of  Ascension  Day,  1549, 
the  west  coast  of  the  peninsula  was 
touched  in  about  28  degrees  latitude; 
but  the  vessel  continued  northward 
to  28  degrees  and  30  minutes  in 
search  of  a  port,  anchoring  in  shallow 
water  about  six  leagues  from  land. 
Here  Arana  resolved  to  land,  unfor- 
tunately for  the  friars;  for  they  were 
in  the  neighborhood,  apparently, 
of  Tampa  Bay,  where  the  Spaniards 
under  De  Soto  had  left  no  agreeable 
remembrances  to  the  natives.  Pilot 
Arana  with  some  sailors  rowed 
Fathers  Cancer  and  Diego,  also 
Fuentes  and  the  Indian  woman,  to 
a  bay  where  some  deserted  huts  were 
discovered,  Father  Diego,  Fuentes 
and  Magdalena  landed  and  were 
soon  surrounded  by  fifteen  or  twenty 
savages.  Lastly,  Fr.  Cancer  himself, 
gathering  up  his  habit,  sprang  into 
the  sea,  the  water  being  waist  deep. 
"  The  Lord  knows  what  haste  I  made" 
he  writes,  "lest  they  should  slay  the 
friar  before  hearing  what  we  were 
about.  Reaching  the  beach  I  fell 
upon  my  knees  and  prayed  for  grace 
and  divine  help.  I  ascended  to  the 
plain  where  I  sighted  the  Indians; 
but  before  approaching  them  I  re- 
peated my  actions  on  the  beach. 
Then  rising  from  my  knees  I  began 
to  draw  from  my  sleeves  some  trifling 
gifts  which  Indians  prized." 

The  savages  appeared  so  friendly 
that  Fr.  Cancer  permitted  Fr.  Diego, 
Fuentes,  and  Magdalena  to  remain 

ashore,  and  to  seek  the  desired  port 
by  land,  whilst  he  himself  returned 
to  the  ship  for  more  presents.  On 
again  approaching  the  place,  Fr. 
Diego  and  Fuentes,  as  well  as  the 
woman  and  the  Indians  had  disap- 
peared. A  sailor,  wiio  had  been  lured 
to  the  shore  through  curiosity,  was 
suddenly  set  upon  and  likewise  spirited 
away.  Fr.  Cancer  waited  in  vain  un- 
til sunset  for  the  return  of  his  com- 
panions, and  the  next  day  he  landed 
once  more  with  the  same  result.  The 
following  eight  days  were  spent 
in  the  boat  in  search  of  the  harbor  of 
which  the  Indians  had  spoken,  and 
eight  days  more  passed  by  while  the 
sailors  endeavored  to  effect  an  en- 
trance; but  their  hopes  that  Fr. 
Diego  and  Fuentes  might  have  pre- 
ceded and  awaited  them  anywhere 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  harbor,  proved 

On  Corpus  Christi  Day  Fathers 
Luis  and  Juan  went  ashore  and  cele- 
brated holy  Mass,  and  the  next  day 
Fathers  Luis  and  Gregorio  resumed 
the  search.  Just  as  they  had  given 
up  hopes  of  ever  hearing  of  their  com- 
panions and  were  about  to  sail  away, 
an  Indian  appeared  carrying  a  staff, 
to  the  top  of  which  was  fastened  a 
bunch  of  palm  leaves.  He  was 
followed  by  another  savage  who  called 
out  in  broken  Spanish,  "Friends, 
friends,  good,  good!  Come  here,  come 
here;  sword  no,  sword  no!"  Fr.  Luis 
Cancer  answered  them  in  their  own 
language,  "  We  are  good  men.  "  They 
seemed  to  understand,  for  they 
shouted  back  the  same  words.  Cau- 
tiously the  two  friars  approached, 
and  after  receiving  from  the  Indian 
the  wand  with  the  palms,  they  signi- 
fied by  signs  that  the  three  Spaniards 
and  Magdalena  should  be  returned. 
The  savages  agreed  to  this.  On  the 
following  day  the  Fathers  heard  from 
Magdalena,  whom  the  Indians  had 
brought  to  the  beach,  that  Fr.  Diego 
and  the  two  Spaniards  were  in  the 
house  of  the  cacique;  that  the  whole 
region  was  aroused,  thinking  a  fleet 



had  arrived;  and  that  she  had  told 
them  that  there  were  but  four  priests, 
who  had  come  to  preach  of  great 
matters.  She  also  informed  the  two 
Fathers  that  about  fifty  or  sixty 
savages  had  assembled  in  the  place. 
It  is  strange  that  Fr.  Luis  evinced 
no  suspicion  from  the  fact  that  Fr. 
Diego  and  Fuentes  had  not  come 
along  with  Magdalena  to  reassure 
their  anxious  superior  of  their  safety. 
Instead,  full  of  expectations  that 
their  companions  would  be  returned 
on  the  morrow,  the  three  friars  went 
back  to  the  ship.  Here  they  were 
met  with  the  most  distressing  reports. 
During  their  absence  a  Spaniard 
named  Juan  Munnoz,  one  of  De 
Soto's  soldiers,  who  had  been  held 
captive,  had  escaped  and  reached  the 
ship  in  a  canoe.  He  related  that  the 
Indians  had  already  killed  Fr. 
Diego  and  Fuentes  but  that  the 
sailor  was  still  alive.  Consternation 
seized  the  poor  friars.  Nevertheless 
Fr.  Luis  Cancer  declared  he  would 
go  ashore,  as  agreed  upon  with  the 
Indians,  in  order  to  obtain  certainty 
about  the  fate  of  their  companions. 
He  spent  all  day  Monday,  which 
happened  to  be  the  feast  of  St.  John 
the  Baptist,  writing  letters.  Tuesday 
a  storm  frustrated  an  attempt  at 
landing;  but  on  Wednesday,  June 
26,  in  spite  of  the  tempestuous 
weather,  the  friars  were  brought  to 
the  shore  by  dint  of  hard  rowing.  At 
the  approach  of  the  boat  the  Indians 
armed  with  bows,  arrows,  clubs,  and 
darts  gathered  on  a  small  elevation. 
Fr.  Luis  Cancer  was  not  deterred  by 
these  signs  of  hostility,  nor  by  the 
entreaties  of  Fr.  Gregorio,  who  said, 
"No  people  in  the  world  could  be 
more  enraged  than  they  are.  For 
the  love  of  God  wait  a  little;  do  not 
land. "  In  answer  he  threw  himself  in 
the  water  and  soon  reached  the  land. 
As  he  drew  nigh  the  hillock,  he  fell 
upon  his  knees.  A  few  moments  later 
he  arose  and  approached  the  savages. 
One  of  them  came  forth  and  em- 
braced him,  and  then  seizing  him  by 

the  arm  urged  him  forward.  Another 
savage  followed  him,  and  then  others, 
who  pushed  the  friar  to  the  foot  of  the 
hill.  One  of  them  snatched  his  hat 
from  his  head,  whereupon  another 
struck  him  on  the  head  with  a  club 
and  knocked  him  down.  "We  were 
very  near,  so  near  that  we  saw  and 
heard  distinctly  what  occurred," 
Fr.  Gregorio  relates.  "Then  he 
cried  out  aloud,  but  they  did  not  let 
him  finish,  and  so  many  rushed  upon 
him  that  they  made  an  end  of  him 
there."  The  savages  next  attacked 
the  boat  with  a  shower  of  arrows,  but 
the  crew  managed  to  escape  and  re- 
gained the  ship  unharmed. 

Seeing  that  all  was  lost,  the  ship 
with  the  two  surviving  friars,  Gre- 
gorio de  Beteta  and  Juan  Garcia,  set 
sail  on  June  28  and  after  some  beat- 
ing about,  reached  the  port  of  San 
Juan  de  LTloa  off  Vera  Cruz,  July 
19,  1549. 

Fr.  Gregorio  de  Beteta  later  made 
another  effort  to  establish  a  mission 
in  Florida.  For  that  purpose  he  re- 
nounced the  bishopric  of  Cartagena, 
and  in  1561  accompanied  Angel  de 
Villafane,  who  sailed  to  the  relief  of 
Tristan  de  Luna's  abortive  settle- 
ment; but  he  was  again  doomed  to 
disappointment;  for  Villafane  re- 
turned from  Florida,  having  accom- 
plished nothing  beyond  exploration 
of  the  eastern  coast.  Fr.  Gregorio 
died  at  the  ripe  old  age  of  ninety-one 

As  to  Fr.  Luis  Cancer,  Davila 
Padilla  writes:  "A  martyr  he  is 
counted  in  the  History  of  Fr.  Juan 
de  la  Cruz ;  a  martyr  he  is  counted  in 
the  Triumph  of  martyrs,  arranged  by 
Fr.  Thomas  Castellar,  and  printed  in 
Rome  with  the  approval  and  the 
commendation  of  that  holy  city; 
a  martyr  he  is  held  by  the  holy  Bishop 
Chiapas,  Fr.  Bartolome  de  las  Casas, 
who  loudly  calls  him  Holy  Fray 
Luis  and  Blessed  Fray  Luis." 

(To  be  continued. ) 



Corpus  Christi  among  the  Menominee 

By  Fr.  Nicholas  Christoffel,  O.  F.  M. 

The  feast  of  Corpus  Christi  was 
celebrated  at  Keshena  this  year  with 
the  usual  solemnity.  This  feast  may 
rightly  be  called  the  National  Holy- 
day  of  the  Menominees.  The  cus- 
tomary solemn  procession  has  been 
annually  observed  ever  since  1835, 
when  it  was  introduced  by  their  mis- 

church  presents  a  most  festive  ap- 
pearance, at  once  pleasing  and  de- 
votional. "Never  in  my  life  did  I 
see  a  church  so  beautifully  decor- 
ated," remarked  a  distinguished  visi- 
tor. Indeed,  the  Menominees,  es- 
pecially the  women,  deserve  high 
praise  for  their  sacrificing  spirit  and 

sionary,  Father  Van  den  Broek.    It      also  for  their  deftness  in  decoration  for 

must  be  said  to  the  highest  praise 
of  the  Menominees  that  they  mani- 
fest great  religious  enthusiasm  and 
zeal  in  making  this  solemnity  really 
"a spectacle  to  angels  and  to  men." 
All  that  their  religious  sentiments 
prompt  them  and  the  means  within 
their  reach  enable  them  to  do,  is 
done  for  a  manifestation  of  their 
faith  in  the  Real  Presence  of  Jesus 
in  the  Blessed  Sacrament. 

On  this  occasion  the  interior  of  the 

the  festival.  The  altars  stand  arrayed 
with  beautiful  bouquets  of  artificial 
flowers,  made  by  the  girls  of  the 
school  under  the  direction  of  one  of 
the  Sisters.  Large  garlands  twined 
of  fragrant  cedar-boughs  and  dotted 
with  artificial  flowers,  all  made  by  the 
Menominee  women,  hang  in  graceful 
curves  from  the  ceiling  and  pillars, 
and  along  the  walls,  Young  evergreen 
frees  fittingly,  adjusted  around  the 
altars   and   along  the   walls   greatly 



enhance  the  adornment  by  their 

However,  not  only  the  church,  but 
the  entire  village,  and  especially  the 
way  taken  by  the  procession  and  the 
chapels  are  elaborately  decorated. 
Several  days  before  the  feast  the 
Indians  living  in  the  other  settle- 
ments, from  8  to  20  miles  from 
Keshena,  come  with  their  families 
to  assist  at  the  preparations.  They 
house  with  their  relatives  and  friends, 
or  pitch  their  tents  on  the  neighbor- 
ing heights,  and  stay  till  the  feast 
is  over.  Three  stationary  chapels 
have  been  erected  along  the  way  taken 
by  the  procession,  one  for  each  of  the 
congregations  of  the  main  settlement 
— Keshena,  Little  Oconto,  and  Kine- 
poway.  A  laudable  pride  stirs  the 
separate  congregations  to  make  their 
respective  chapels  "the  best,"  and 
not  allow  the  others  to  outdo  them. 
With  deft  hand  and  refined  taste 
the  Menominee  women  lavishly  line 
and  decorate  them  with  beautiful 
material,  laces  and  flowers  and  pro- 
cure the  finest  religious  pictures  to 
adorn  the  little  altars  and  the  sides 

The  whole  way  of  the  procession 
in  its  circuit  about  a  mile,  is  lined  on 
both  sides  with  green  trees,  which  are 
all  surmounted  by  little  flags  of  vari- 
ous colors.  Here  and  there  are  pairs 
of  high  posts  which,  covered  with 
greens  and  flags  attached,  bear  green 
garlands  and  wreaths  of  flowers. 
Emblems  and  inscriptions  alluding  to 
the  most  Blessed  Sacrament  are 
affixed  here  and  there.  The  Mission 
buildings  especially  present  a  most 
festive  appearance,  as  they  stand 
decorated  with  greens  and  garlands, 
with  banners  and  flags  of  all  sizes  and 
colors,  floating  from  the  church 
steeple,  from  windows,  and  house 
tops.  In  a  similar  way  the  Catholic 
families  in  the  village  decorate  their 
houses  and  court-yards,  just  as  their 
piety  inspires  them.  Little  altars 
are  erected  at  doors  and  windows, 
and   nicely    fitted    out    with    sacred 

pictures,  flowers,  and  candles. 

A  feverish  activity  is  noticed  on 
the  eve  of  the  great  festival.  Every- 
body is  hurrying  "to  get  ready." 
What  is  the  cause  of  this  excitement? 
The  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  of  Green  Bay 
is  on  his  way  to  Keshena  and  the 
people  make  extensive  preparations 
to  receive  him  in  a  becoming  manner. 
He  comes  every  year  to  take  part 
in,  and  to  enhance  by  his  presence  the 
great  celebration.  He  personally 
carries  the  sacred  monstrance  during 
the  entire  procession  and  gives  Sacra- 
mental Benediction  at  the  several 
stations,  thus  giving  his  Indian  peo- 
ple ever  again  a  new  proof  of  his 
paternal  affection.  He  is  their  "  Mats 
Maghkotaghkonia, "  their  "Great 
Priest,"  for  whom  the  Indians  have 
a  deep-rooted  reverence.  A  commo- 
dious carriage  is  engaged  by  the 
Keshena  Fathers  to  convey  the  dis- 
tinguished visitor  from  Shawano, 
the  nearest  railway-station,  to  the 
Mission.  Many  of  the  Menominees 
go  out  to  meet  the  episcopal  carriage, 
some  all  the  way  to  Shawano, 
others  to  the  Reservation  line,  to 
await  his  arrival  About  a  hundred 
sturdy  youths  and  men  on  horse- 
back gather  at  the  boundary,  and 
when  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  comes 
in  sight,  all  form  in  line  and  begin 
their  orderly  march  to  the  church. 
Some  distance  from  the  church  they 
meet  the  long  train  of  children  from 
the  Mission-school,  all  in  festive  at- 
tire, who  precede  them  on  the  way 
to  the  church.  Crowds  of  people  line 
the  way  on  both  sides,  and  as  his 
Lordship  passes  through  their  midst, 
they  kneel  to  receive  his  paternal 
blessing.  The  tree  church-bells 
chime  forth  their  joyous  welcome  in 
melodious  accord  and  from  a  neigh- 
boring height  is  heard,  the  firing  of  a 
tremendous  salute.  The  reception 
at  the  church  follows  strictly  accord- 
ing to  the  ritual,  and  then  all  are  in 
great  expectation  of  the  solemn  exer- 
cise of  the  morrow. 

(To  be  concluded.) 



Current  Comment. 

Brothers  of  Penance. 

THIS  is  the  name  that  St. 
Francis  gave  to  the  members  of 
the  Third  Order.  From  this  ap- 
pellation the  Sovereign  Pontiff  in 
his  letter  Tertium  Franciscalium 
Ordinem  deduces  the  two  char- 
acteristic marks  of  Tertiaries — 
brotherly  love  and  the  practice  of 
penance.  We  have  already  con- 
sidered the  first  of  these  traits. 
Regarding  the  second,  the  prac- 
tice of  penance,  the  pontifical  letter 
says,  "God's  chief  commandment 
to  Francis  was  to  preach  penance 
and  turn  men  from  the  love  of 
this  world  to  the  love  of  the 
Crucified.  And  he,  bearing  ever 
with  him  in  his  body  the  morti- 
fication of  Jesus,  raised  up  on  all 
sides  a  marvelous  contempt  of  the 
world  and  love  of ,  the  Cross,  and 
divinely  began  to  study  how  at 
once  to  satisfy  the  yearnings  of 
the  multitude  for  his  Society  and 
at  the  same  time  bring  them  with- 
in the  confines  of  a  common 
life.  Thus  was  founded  this  Third 
Order,  which  has  proved  so  won- 
derful a  blessing  for  the  Church 
and  society  as  long  as  it  has  re- 
ligiously adhered  to  its  native  form 
of  penance.  There  can  be  no  doubt 
then,  that  it  will  bear  like  fruit, 
if  it  preserves  the  same  form  in 
the    future." 

The  Holy  Father,  wishing  to 
define  the  true  scope  of  the 
Third  Order  and  to  restore  it  to 
its  primitive  spirit,  refers  to  the 
beginnings  of  this  Franciscan  in- 
stitution. He  says  that  it  was 
expressly  founded  by  St.  Francis 
to  bring  about  a  revival  of  the 
Christian  spirit,  which  is  none  other 
than  the  spirit  of  self-denial.  St. 
Francis  was  commissioned  by  God 

to  preach  penance  and  to  instil 
into  the  hearts  of  men  the  love  of 
the  Cross.  So  marvelous  was  the 
effect  of  his  preaching,  and  so 
great  the  force  of  his  example, 
that  thousands  of  men  and  women 
desired  to  forsake  the  world  and 
lead  a  life  of  penance  in  the  clois- 
ter. It  was  to  satisfy  their  pious 
yearnings  for  a  more  perfect  life, 
that  St.  Francis  instituted  the 
Order  of  Penance.  He  wished  to 
preserve  to  Catholicism  the  stamp 
of  souls  who,  strengthened  by 
penance,  alone  are  capable  of  doing 
great  things.  He  desired  to  keep 
alive  by  means  of  this  religious 
family,  which  soon  spread  over  the 
whole  known  world,  the  super- 
natural leaven  of  self-denial  which, 
by  mingling  with  the  whole  mass, 
could  preserve  it  from  the  taint 
of  vice  and  maintain  it  in  the  holy 
energy  of  virtue.  Thus  in  the  thir- 
teenth century,  the  Third  Order  of 
St.  Francis  had  a  large  share  in 
the  re-awakening  of  the  Christian 
spirit,  which  always  has  been,  and 
always  will  be,  synonymous  with 

What  the  Third  Order  accom- 
plished in  the  Middle  Ages,  it  is 
still  able  to  do.  Ours  is  admittedly 
an  age  of  naturalism  and  mater- 
ialism. Society  has  become  self- 
indulgent,  material,  and  corrupt. 
To  cure  it  of  these  evils,  it  must 
be  brought  back  to  the  practice 
of  penance.  And  whom  does  the 
Church  expect  to  bring  about  this 
happy  consummation?  The  Bro- 
thers of  Penance.  "My  reform," 
Pope  Leo  XIII,  of  holy  memory, 
used  to  say,  "is  the  Third  Order 
of  St.  Francis."  Let  Tertiaries, 
therefore,  remember  that  they  have 
a  mission  to  convey,  namely,  to 
teach   a  pleasure-loving  world   that 



its  only  hope  of  salvation  lies  in 
the  love  of  the  Cross,  that  only 
by  conforming  to  the  precepts  of 
the  Heavenly  Physician  can  it 
hope  to  be  cured  of  its  deep- 
seated  maladies.  The  mission  of 
the  Third  Order,  therefore,  is 
identical  with  that  of  St.  Francis, 
and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  the 
Sovereign  Pontiff,  quoting  the  words 
of  his  predecessor,  says,  "Our 
chief  recommendation  is  that  those 
who  wear  the  badge  of  penance 
fix  their  eyes  on  the  person  of  the 
most  holy  Founder  and  strive  to 
become  like  him,  for  otherwise  the 
.good  to  be  hoped  from  them  will 
be   nil." 

We  earnestly  commend  these 
words  to  the  consideration  of  all 
our    Tertiary    readers. 

A  Novel  Suggestion. 

At  a  banquet  recently  given  to 
the  international  committee,  ar- 
ranging a  celebration  of  the  Anglo- 
American  peace  centenary,  John 
D.  Long,  ex-Secretary  of  the  Navy, 
proposed  that  a  statue  of  our 
Savior  be  erected  on  a  mountain 
overlooking  the  Panama  Canal. 
He  said  it  would  be  a  challenge 
to  peace,  whereas  fortifications 
are  a  challenge  to  war.  The  sug- 
gestion is  both  novel  and  good,  and 
deserves  to  be  brought  to  the 
knowledge  of  all  the  Christians  in 
the  country,  no  matter  of  what 
shade  they  may  be. 

If,  in  spite  of  separation  of 
Church  and  state  and  of  godless 
education,  we  call  ourselves  a 
Christian  nation,  then  it  is  high 
time  that  we  do  something  to  make 
our  vaunting  true.  For,  we  have 
not  as  yet  given  any  national  proof 
of  the  faith  that  is  within  us. 
Aside  from  the  conscientious  prac- 
tice of  the  Christian  faith  in 
private   and  in  public   life,   we   can 

think  of  nothing  better  suited  to 
convince  the  world  that  this  nation 
still  believes  in  the  teachings  of 
the  Prince  of  Peace  than  to  have 
a  statue  erected  in  his  honor 
either  by  popular  subscription  or 
by    governmental     appropriation. 

A  Fling  at  Reformers. 

We  heartily  subscribe  to  the 
following  statement  of  W.  J.  Boet- 
ker  of  Toledo  in  the  New  York 
Evening  Post: 

"We  are  blessed,  if  not  cursed, 
with  too  many  so-called  reformers. 
I  am  convinced  that  the  majority 
of  our  reformers  make  the  disease 
worse,  for  they  only  deal  with 
the    surface. 

"There  are  millions  of  con- 
sumers joining  in  the  world-wide 
cry  about  the  high  cost  of  living. 
You  will  never  solve  that  pro- 
blem unless  you  go  to  the  inside 
and  solve  the  problem  of  'high 
living.'  It  is  the  cost  of  'wrong 
living'  that  confronts  our  coun- 
try. The  amount  of  time,  energy, 
and  money  that  we  waste  through 
'wrong  living'  would  build  and 
pay  12,341,000  homes  at  $25,00 
each  in  one  year.  This  thirty  billion 
dollars  represents  the  entire  liquor 
bill  and  its  appalling  expense  and 
money  spent  for  superficial  amuse- 

Audacities   of  Fashion. 

We  may  be  "ultra-conservative" 
in  our  views,  but  it  does  seem  to 
us  that  the  styles  of  women's 
garments  as  fashioned  at  the  pre- 
sent time  are,  in  some  cases,  of 
an  indecent  character,  and  in 
other  cases,  absolutely  lewd  and 
lascivious.  Whatever  women  them- 
selves may  think  or  say  regarding 
the  beauty  or  propriety  of  such 
garments  as  are  commonly  called 
the    "tight    draped    skirt"    or    the 



"slashed  skirt,"  we  are  old-fash- 
ioned enough  to  believe  that  these 
styles  tend  to  lower  the  public 
morality,  and  are  a  menace  to  good 
order  and  decorum.  We  can  well 
understand  why  some  women  like 
to  make  a  spectacle  of  themselves 
in  public  places,  but  why  they 
should  find  it  necessary  to  yield 
to  such  extremes  of  fashion  for 
the  sake  of  attracting  a  little 
attention,  is  altogether  beyond  our 

The  women  and  girls  of  Spain 
have  started  a  "crusade"  in  behalf 
of  Christian  modesty.  The  purpose 
of  the  movement  is  to  make  war 
on  excessive  display  and  shameless 
fashion  in  dress.  It  is  reported 
that  the  women  of  the  Third  Order 
are  taking  a  very  active  part  in 
the  campaign.  Is  it  not  high  time 
that  the  Catholic  women  of  this 
country  set  themselves  against  the 
brazen  and  offensive  modes  of  the 

Socialistic  Plays. 

The  value  of  the  theatre  as  an 
educational  factor  has  long  been 
recognized.  It  is,  therefore,  not 
surprising  that  the  leaders  of 
modern  thought  should  make  use 
of  the  theatre  as  a  means  of  prop- 
aganda. There  are  scores  of 
playwrights  who  are  actually  using 
the  stage  as  a  vehicle  for  trans- 
mitting the  so-called  "radical" 
ideas  of  the  day,  and  their  plays 
are  nothing  more  than  deliberately 
planned  assaults  on  ideas  which 
they  regard  as  "ultra-conserva- 
tive." Their  shafts  of  ridicule  are 
aimed  at  such  sacred  and  venerable 
institutions  as  the  Church,  the 
home,  and  marriage,  and  the  un- 
suspecting spectator  learns  to  scoff 
at  ideas  that  from  his  infancy  he 
has  been  taught  to  regard  as  the 
very  essentials  of  the  Christian 

"The  latest  announcement,"  says 

Peter  W.  Collins  in  the  Common 
Cause,  "is  to  the  effect  that  we 
are  to  have  Socialist  plays,  written 
by  Socialists  and  produced  by 
Socialist  actors.  Already  a  per- 
manent stock  company  is  being 
formed  in  Los  Angeles,  and  there 
is  every  prospect  that  simon-pure 
Marxist  plays  will  shortly  find  a 
place  on  the  boards  and  without 
any  attempt  being  made  to  con- 
ceal their  true  character.  More- 
over, we  are  assured  that  the  ex- 
periment is  being  watched  with 
greatest  interest,  and  that  its 
success  will  lead  to  the  establish- 
ment of  similar  playhouses  in  other, 

Whatever  else  they  may  be, 
Socialists  are  without  doubt  wide- 
awake and  devoted  to  their  cause. 
They  are  ever  on  the  alert  to 
seize  upon  any  and  every  oppor- 
tunity to  propagate  and  popu- 
larize their  pernicious  doctrines. 
It  is  very  significant  that  they 
are  so  certain  of  the  success  of 
this  their  latest  propaganda  move- 
ment that  no  attempt  will  be  made 
by  them  to  conceal  the  Socialistic 
tendencies  of  their  dramatic  pro- 
ductions. Undoubtedly,  they  ex- 
pect to  reap  a  rich  harvest,  not  only 
of  campaign  funds  but  also  of 
converts  to  the  Socialistic  creed. 
Would  they  feel  so  sure  of  the 
success  of  this  enterprise,  if  they 
were  not  aware  that  the  modern 
theatre  has  long  since  paved  the 
way  for  "simon-pure  Marxist  plays" 
by  undermining  '  the  moral  and 
religious  convictions  of  the  play- 
goers? Indeed,  what  is  more 
common  in  a  modern  playhouse 
than  to  see  vice  glorified,  virtue 
ridiculed,  and  Christian  truths  and 
institutions    held    up    to    contempt. 

Time  was  when  the  drama  was 
in  the  service  of  the  Church  and 
its  function  was  to  present  the 
most  elevating  mysteries  of  religion 
and  to  inculcate  the  sublimest 
lessons    of    morality.      Those    days 



have  passed,  nor  are  we  so  sanguine 
as  to  expect  them  ever  to  return. 
What  we  deplore,  however,  is  the 
fact  that  even  on  some  of  our 
Catholic  amateur  stages  plays  are 
presented  which,  even  by  a  wide 
stretch  of  the  imagination,  could 
not  be  characterized  as  harmless. 
There  may  be  a  dearth  of  good 
Catholic  dramas,  but  is  this  an 
excuse  for  presenting  what  is  friv- 
olous and  exceptionable? 

Religion  in  the  Schools. 

It  is  noteworthy  as  well  as 
symptomatic  that  right-minded  Prot- 
estants' throughout  the  country 
are  realizing  more  and  more  the 
necessity  of  ethical  teaching  and 
moral  training  in  the  public  schools. 
It  has  taken  them  a  long  time  to 
come  to  the  realization.  Now  that 
their  churches  are  becoming  de- 
pleted and  the  prisons  overcrowded, 
they  have  learnt  from  bitter  ex- 
perience that  it  was  a  poor,  if 
not  suicidal,  policy  to  lend  their 
support  to  a  system  of  education 
which  in  principle  as  well  as  in 
fact  is  unchristian  and  godless. 
They  are  fully  aware  that  irre- 
ligious education  is  the  cancer 
that  is  gnawing  at  the  heart- 
strings of  our  civilization,  yet  they 
are  helpless  to  apply  the  remedy. 
Preaching  in  Park  Manor  Congre- 
gational Church,  Chicago,  some 
time  ago,  the  Rev.  Frederick  E. 
Hopkins  had  this  to  say  on  the 
subject  of  teaching  religion  in  the 

"An  important  reason  why  we 
have  so  many  bandits  is  that  in 
moral  and  religious  instruction  our 
public  schools  are  pretty  nearly 
down  to  zero.  It  does  seem  as 
though  teachers  worth  from  $3,000 
to  $10,000  a  year  could  somewhere 
in  seven  years  get  into  the  child's 
mind  the  ten  commandments.  We 
believe  our  teachers  know  how,  and 

most  of  them  are  willing,  but  they 
are  slaves  of  a  system.  They  are 
browbeaten  by  the  fellow  with 
the  big,  rough  throat  shouting  for 
what  he  calls  personal  liberty,  and 
who  would  risk  the  virtue  and 
honor  of  millions  of  boys  and 
girls  rather  than  give  them  the 
Christian  religion  five  minutes  a 
day.  One  does  not  need  to  be  a 
teacher  nor  a  psychologist  to  know 
that  we  need  a  foundation  under  a 
character  as  well  as  under  a  house. 
And  some  of  our  Avorst  criminals 
today  have  education  enough,  but 
nothing  else." 

We  echo  a  fervent  Amen.  But, 
if  Protestant  denominations  are  so 
anxious  to  safeguard  the  faith  and 
morals  of  their  children,  why  do 
they  not  follow  the  example  of 
the  Catholic  Church?  She  alone, 
with  the  possible  exception  of 
the  one  or  the  other  of  the  smaller 
sects,  has  had  the  courage  to  raise 
her  voice  in  protest  against  di- 
vorcing education  from  religion, 
and  the  foresight  to  erect  parochial 
schools  in  which  her  children  are 
imbued  with  the  principles  of  re- 
ligion in  the  formative  period  of 
life.  Experience  has  taught  that 
hers  is  the  only  practical  solution 
of  this  vexing  problem,  and  it  must 
be  a  source  of  gratification  to  her 
that  her  position  is  being  vindi- 
cated and  the  results  of  her  educa- 
tional system  are  beginning  to  be 
properly  appreciated  in  our  genera- 
tion, even  by  those  outside  of  the 

"Train  yourselves  to  serve  our 
Lord  with  a  strong  and  fervent 
gentleness;  it  is  the  true  way  of  serv- 
ing Him. " — St.  Francis  de  Sales. 

"Being  a  good  servant  of  God  is 
not  always  having  consolation  and 
sweetness,  not  being  always  free 
from  aversion  and  repugnance  to 
good.  " — St.  Francis  de  Sales. 




By  Fr.  Roger  Middendorf,  0.  F.  M. 

Many  are  the  ways  that  here 
Lead  unto  a  higher  sphere. 
One  thy  God  has  traced  for  thee; 
Best  and  safest  that  will  be. 

DID  you  ever  on  a  clear  night 
sit  and  gaze  at  the  starry 
heavens?  It  appears  as  if 
some  sower  with  lavish  hand  had 
scattered  golden  seed  all  over  the 
vast  azure  field  above  our  heads. 
Yet  each  tiny,  flickering  light  is 
an  immense  world,  turning  .round 
on  its  axis,  circling  round  some 
central  body,  and  with  it  rushing 
onward  to  some  distant  point  in 
wide  realms  of  space.  And  all 
these  flaming  orbs,  each  for  itself 
and  all  together,  going  at  unabating 
speed,  never  clash,  never  leave  their 
course,  are  ever  on  time  and  more 
exact  in  reaching  their  destination 
than  any  limited  express  from 
Chicago  to  New  York.  How  all 
this?  Because  he  who  is  wisdom 
and  power  itself,  has  minutely 
mapped  out  the  course  which  each 
star  in  dizzying  speed  must  finish 
till    the    universal    end    is    reached. 

That  same  great  God  created 
you.  He  claims  you  and  loves  you 
more  than  he  loves  these  lifeless 
worlds.  It  would  be  absurd  then 
to  think  that  God  has  thought 
less  of  the  life's  course  of  those 
who  are  created  according  to  his 
own  image  and  likeness.  God  has 
destined  all  men  for  an  end, — 
for  his  eternal  glory,  and  with  that 
end  has  linked  man's  own  ever- 
lasting happiness.  But  many  are 
the  roads  leading  to  this  end,  just 
as  the  stars,  which  all  proclaim 
God's  wisdom  and  power,  still 
travel    quite    different    courses. 

We  commonly  distinguish  three 
states  of  life  which  by  God's 
will  lead  man  to  his  final  goal. 
These  states  of  life  are  the  secular 

or  lay  state,  the  priesthood  or 
clerical  state,  and  the  religious 

For  these  different  states,  or 
vocations,  God  fits  out  chosen 
individuals  with  special  aptitudes 
and  capabilities;  in  other  words, 
God  gives  them  the  calling  or  vo- 
cation to  one  of  these  states.  Some 
hear  the  call  of  God  from  their 
very  infancy;  others  hear  it  later 
in  life,  when  the  years  of  discre- 
tion have  arrived.  To  some  it 
comes  suddenly,  in  an  extraordinary 
event;  to  others,  and  that  to  most 
men,  it  comes  as  the  result  of 
environment.  Some  have  no  diffi- 
culty in  hearing  and  heeding  it; 
others  receive  it  amid  great  interior 
and  exterior  difficulties.  Blessed 
Antony  of  Stronconio  sought  ad- 
mission into  the  Franciscan  Order 
when  only  twelve  years  old;  Bless- 
ed Sebastian  of  Apparicio  gained 
the  same  favor  when  seventy  years 
of  age.  St.  Andrew  Corsini  was 
converted  from  the  life  of  a  pro- 
fligate youth  by  the  prayers  of  a 
pious  mother,  and  then  entered 
the  Order  of  Carmelites.  St. 
Thomas  Aquinas  had  to  overcome 
the  violent  opposition  of  his  mo- 
ther and  brothers,  who  even  tried 
to  wreck  his  virtue,  before  he  could 
join    the    ranks    of    St.    Dominic. 

It  is  evidently  of  paramount 
importance  to  recognize  and  to 
follow  the  call  of  God.  Let  us, 
therefore,  consider  the  three  prin- 
cipal states  of  life,  and  seek  to 
know  how  we  can  tell  to  what 
state  we  are  called. 

1.     THE     SECULAR     STATE. 

The  secular  state  is  the  vocation 
of  the  greater  part  of  men.  It 
embraces  the  trades,  the  arts,  the 
professions,     and     all     other     occu- 



pations  outside  of  the  sanctuary 
of  the  Church.  It  is  they  of  the 
secular  state  who  fill  .  the  various 
offices  of  public  and  private  life 
as  farmers,  artisans,  merchants, 
lawyers,  physicians,  and  teachers. 
The  greater  portion  of  people  who 
follow  these  vocations,  also  enter 
the  married  state  and  takes  upon 
itself  the  grave  responsibility  of 
married   life. 

Also,  over  this  state  God  watches 
with  paternal  care,  accompanies 
it  with  his  grace,  and  gives  those 
who  are  called  to  it  abundant 
means  to  reach  their  eternal  goal. 
These  means  are  the  observance 
of  the  commandments  of  God  and 
of  the  Church,  the  use  of  the  holy 
sacraments,  and  frequent  and  fer- 
vent prayer.  Accordingly,  we  find 
saints  in  all  the  paths  of  secular 
life.  St.  Benedict  Labre  was  a 
mendicant;  St.  Nicholas  of  the 
Flue,  was  the  father  of  a  numerous 
family;  St.  Maurice  was  a  soldier; 
St.  Cosmas  was  a  physician;  St. 
Monica  was  a  widow;  St.  Eliza- 
beth was  a  model  of  perfection  in 
the  most  trying  circumstances; 
St.  Louis  was  a  pious  king  amid 
the  luxuries  of  court  life.  At 
times,  men  of  the  various  walks  of 
life  have  wrought  great  things  in 
the  interests  of  God,  his  Church, 
and  mankind  at  large,  which  in  the 
sanctuary  or  sacristy  they  could 
not  have  performed.  We  all  know 
of  the  heroic  deeds  of  the  Crusa- 
ders, such  as  Godfrey  of  Bouillon; 
of  mariners,  such  as  Christopher 
Columbus;  of  statesmen,  such  as 
Daniel  O'Connell,  Mallinckrodt,  and 

The  happiness  of  the  secular 
state  is  best  described  in  Psalm 
127;  "Blessed  are  all  they  that 
fear  the  Lord:  that  walk  in  his 
ways:  For  thou  shalt  eat  the  labors 
of  thy  hands:  blessed  art  thou  and 
it  shall  be  well  with  thee.  Thy 
wife  as  a  fruitful  vine  on  the  sides 
of    thy    house.      Thy    children    as 

olive  plants  round  about  thy  table. 
Behold  thus  shall  he  be  blessed 
that   feareth   the   Lord." 

The  secular  state,  however,  is 
charged  with  grave  obligations, 
painful  trials,  and  numerous  dan- 
gers for  a  man's  welfare,  temporal 
and  eternal.  The  duties  of  life 
must  be  fulfilled,  charity  must  be 
rendered  your  neighbor,  your  child- 
ren must  be  reared  in  the  fear  of 
God,  and,  above  all,  your  immortal 
soul  must  be  saved.  Severe  trials 
beset  seculars  in  times  of  want, 
of  sickness,  and  death.  The  vexa- 
tions and  injuries  of  enemies  may 
worry  their  private  and  public 
peace.  Disappointments  and  fail- 
ures in  business  and  in  the  family 
circle  bring  many  a  one  to  the 
very  edge  of  despair.  Many  are 
the  dangers  for  faith  and  morals 
amid  a  luxury-mad  and  evil  world, 
where  faith  and  virtue  are  scorned 
and  persecuted. 

It  is  therefore  no  matter  of  sur- 
prise to  see  unhappiness,  regret, 
and  despair  in  those  who  plunge 
into  this  state  without  reflection, 
attracted  only  by  the  brightly  col- 
ored prospects  springing  from  a 
heated  imagination,  by  the  empty 
promise  of  wealth,  by  the  dazzling 
dance  of  pleasure,  by  the  allure- 
ments of  false  friends.  Young 
people  should  use  their  reason,  and 
in  the  light  of  faith  consider  earn- 
estly whether  or  not  God  calls 
them  to  a  secular  position,  where 
they  can  and  will  serve  God,  help 
their  neighbor,  and  save  their  soul. 

This  serious  lesson  St.  Philip 
Neri  gave  to  Francis  Zagarra  in  a 
very  few  words.  The  latter  had 
just  finished  his  studies  as  a  stu- 
dent of  law,  and  was  telling  St. 
Philip  of  his  great  success  in  his 
studies:  He  soon  would  be  an 
attorney,  obtain  large  fees,  reap 
honors  and  dignities,  and  shed 
luster  upon  his  name  and  family. 
And   as  he  paused   after  each  new 



step  in  his  imaginary  ladder  of 
glory,  the  Saint  merely  said:  "And 
after  that?"  The  young  man 
finally  dropped  his  head  as  it  struck 
him  with  great  force  that  death 
and  eternity  must  follow  after 
that.  Francis  Zagarra  did  not  be- 
come a  famous  lawyer,  but  he 
became  a  priest  of  the  Oratory  of 
St.  Philip,  and  after  a  few  years 
entered  into  the  joys  of    heaven. 


The  holy  priesthood  stands  as 
high  above  the  secular  state  as 
the  stars  of  heaven  stand  above 
the  earth.  Of  it  St.  Paul  says: 
"Neither  doth  any  man  take  the 
honor  to  himself  but  he  that  is 
called  by  God  as  Aaron  was." 
Hebr.  v,  6.  Priests  are  God's 
representatives  on  earth.  Holy 
Scripture  says  of  them:  The  Lord 
is  their  portion.  (Ps.  xv,  5.)  They 
are  a  chosen  generation  to  the 
Most  High.  (I  Pet,  ii,  9).  They  are 
God's  coadjutors  (I  Cor.  iii,  9). 
They  are  embassadors  of  Christ 
(II  Cor.  v,  20).  They  are  the  dis- 
pensers of  the  mysteries  of  Christ 
(I  Cor.  iv,   1). 

The  duties  of  a  priest  are  to 
sacrifice,  to  preach,  to  administer 
the  sacraments,  and  oftentimes  to 
govern  a  spiritual  flock; — offices 
and  duties,  dignities,  and  powers 
not  even  entrusted  to  the  charge 
of  angels.  What  can  equal  in  dig- 
nity and  power  those  sacred  func- 
tions exercised  by  a  priest?  He 
daily  offers  the  Immaculate  Lamb, 
giving  to  God  such  honor  and 
glory,  that  the  very  realms  of 
heaven  peal  with  joy  and  exulta- 
tion over  it.  In  his  daily  prayers 
the  priest  stands  as  mediator  be- 
tween God  and  mankind,  appeasing 
the  dreadful  wrath  provoked  by 
so  many  sins  which  like  a  dark 
mist  ascend  to  heaven  every  hour 
of  the  day.  The  priest  breaks  the 
fetters  of  sin  that  chain  the  poor 
sinner    to    his    eternal    ruin.      The 

priest  shows  the  ignorant  child, 
the  faltering  soul,  the  rude  bar- 
barian, the-  one  road  to  bliss 
eternal.  The  priest  stands  at  the 
bed  of  the  dying,  in  that  dreadful 
hour  when  all  vanities  vanish, 
when  friends  and  relatives  stand 
helpless,  when  the  soul  itself  is  in 
agony;  he  alone  can  bring  conso- 
lation, courage,  strength,  help  for 
the  last  great  struggle  between 
heaven  and  hell.  O,  life  of  a 
zealous  priest!  Vast  as  the  uni- 
verse, high  as  the  heavens,  .restless 
as  fire,  glowing  with  love  for  souls 
immortal, — who  will  conceive  thy 
desire  and  hopes,  thy  joys  and 
sufferings,  thy  struggles  and  tri- 

The  dignity  of  the  priesthood  is 
so  exalted,  that  St.  Ignatius  Martyr 
says:  "The  priesthood  is  the  most 
sublime  of  all  dignities."  St.  Ber- 
nard specializes  this  saying:  "The 
Son  of  God,  calling  man  to  that 
eminent  dignity,  places  him  above 
the  kings  and  emperors  of  the 
earth;  he  exalts  him  even  above 
the  Angels  and  Archangels,  Thrones 
and  Dominations."  Hence  St. 
Francis,  who,  though  a  deacon, 
would  of  his  humility  not  approach 
the  dignity  of  the  priesthood,  says: 
"If  I  should  happen  to  meet  an 
angel  and  a  priest,  I  would  first 
pay  my  respect  to  the  priest  and 
then    salute    the    angel." 

But  as  lofty  as  the  dignity  so 
grave  is  the  responsibility  of  the 
holy  priesthood.  The  priest  is  the 
salt  of  the  earth;  this  salt  must 
not  lose  its  savor.  He  is  a  light; 
this  light  must  not  be  hidden  under 
the  bushel.  He  is  a  good  shep- 
herd; this  shepherd  must  not  be- 
come a  ravishing  wolf.  He  is  a 
good  Samaritan;  he  must  not 
change  roles  with  a  robber.  In 
the  midst  of  an  impure  world,  he 
must  keep  his  soul  unsullied;  in  the 
midst  of  unworldliness,  he  must  be 
dead  to  vanity  and  pleasures;  in 
the     midst     of     dangers,     he     must 



stand  unflinchingly  for  the  cause 
of  God.  In  continuous  prayer  he 
must  seek  the  strength  he  needs. 
At  all  hours  he  must  be  ready  to 
satisfy  the  spiritual  wants  of  his 
flock,  giving  over  his  own  comfort. 
Ever  and  anon  he  must  make  sac- 
.rifices  for  God  and  his  holy  Church. 
We  can,  therefore,  readily  under- 
stand how  sadly  out  of  place,  how 
wretchedly  remiss  of  these  duties 
they  must  be,  who  enter  the  sanc- 
tuary from  motives  of  sordid  in- 
terest, from  a  love  of  honor  and 
preferment,  from  a  craving  for 
ease  and  for  the  pleasures  of  this 
world.  They  will  in  most  cases 
disgrace  the  priesthood,  cause  havoc 
among  immortal  souls,   and  plunge 

themselves  into  the  deepest  pit 
of  hell,  verifying  the  words  of 
Cardinal  Manning:  "Since  the  fall 
of  the  angels  there  was  nothing 
ever  so  hideous  as  the  fall  of  Judas, 
and  since  the  fall  of  Judas  nothing 
so  full  of  dread  as  the  fall  of  a 

Quite  different,  however,  is  the 
lot  of  those  noble  priests  who, 
called  by  God,  live  up  to  the  dig- 
nity of  their  state.  Innumerable 
are  the  blessings  they  bring  to 
their  fellow-men,  immeasurable  is 
the  harvest  they  garner  for  heaven. 
Thy  are  the  favorites  of  God,  whom 
he  has  written  in  his  hand,  whom 
he  will  protect  as  the  apple  of  his 

(To  be  continued.) 

The  Hero  of  Belgrade. 

By  Fr.  Ferdinand,  O.  F.  M. 

14.     Hunyady's  Efforts  Futile. 

John  Hunyady,  not  to  be  out- 
done in  generosity,  emulated  the 
example  of  the  heroic  Franciscan. 
No  sooner  had  he  entered  the  city, 
when  he  devoted  himself  with  all 
haste  and  energy  to  the  reparation 
of  the  badly  battered  walls.  Day 
after  day  he  could  be  seen  either 
on  the  ramparts  or  in  the  breaches 
of  the  walls,  watching  the  move- 
ments of  the  enemy,  giving  orders 
to  the  troops  and  workmen,  and 
exhorting  them  to  courage  and 
perseverance.  Indeed,  so  quickly 
did  his  vigilance  carry  him  where 
ever  danger  threatened  that  his 
person  seemed  to  be  multiplied. 
But  he  soon  realized  that  the  work 
of  reparation   was   a   hopeless  task 

they  were,  with  the  most  deadly 
hatred  against  the  Christians,  and 
smarting  under  the  discomfiture 
of  their  fleet,  were  anxious  to  wreck 
their  vengeance  on  the  besieged, 
and  redoubled  their  efforts  to  take 
the  city.  Their  cannons,  ballistae, 
catapults  and  battering-rams  car- 
ried on  the  work  of  destruction 
with  telling  effect.  At  last,  after 
three  weeks  of  incessant  and  furious 
bombardment,  they  had  the  satis- 
faction of  seeing  the  outer  wall 
crumble  beneath  the  heavy  blows 
of  their  gigantic  engines  of  war,  the 
ruins  helping  to  fill  up  the  moat 
beyond,  and  so  making  the  ap- 
proach less  difficult  for  the  be- 
siegers. The  inner  walls  showed 
numberless      breaches.      while      the 

His  keen  foresight  taught  him  that,  freat   tower   of   the  citadel,  fissured 

though      his      superhuman      efforts  from    top    to     bottom,     threatened 

might   delay,   they   could  not  avert  to  fall   at  any  moment,      The  Sul- 

the   impending    catastrophe.  tan,   seeing  his  acfvantage,  resolved 

For     the     Turks,     animated,     as  on   a   general   attack. 



15.  Hunyady   in   Despair. 

At  the  sight  of  the  preparations 
for  the  assault,  Hunyady  went  to 
the  blessed  father  and  said,  "My 
father,  we  are  defeated;  we  shall 
infallibly  perish.  I  have  done  what 
I  could,  and  I  now  see  no  further 
means  of  defence.  The  citadel 
cannot  be  repaired;  the  towers  are 
thrown  down,  the  walls  are  de- 
stroyed. True,  we  are  numerous, 
but  our  men  are  unarmed  and 
wholly  ignorant  of  the  science  of 
war.  The  barons  are  not  coming. 
What    more    can    we    do?" 

It  was  the  despair  of  a  brave 
but  honest  soldier,  himself  ready 
to  fight  till  death,  but  unwilling 
to  encourage  in  others  hopes  which 
his  experience  assured  him  were 
vain.  Capistran's  trust  in  God  was 
still  unshaken.  "Fear  not,"  he 
said,  "God  is  abie  with  a  few  weak 
men  to  overthrow  the  Turkish 
power,  to  defend  the  city,  and  to 
put  the  enemy  to  shame."  But 
Hunyady  was  not  so  sanguine. 
"To-morrow,"  he  said,  "the  fortress 
will  no  longer  be  ours."  The  Saint 
replied,  "Noble  lord,  we  are  de- 
fending the  cause  of  God,  and  I 
am  certain  he  will  give  us  the 
victory."  Hunyady,  however,  re- 
mained unconvinced. 

Then  Capistran,  seeing  that  the 
work  of  defence  must  depend  more 
than  ever  on  himself,  chose  4,000 
of  the  strongest,  bravest,  and  most 
faithful  crusaders,  and  having  ad- 
dressed them  in  a  moving  speech, 
he  stationed  them  near  the  citadel, 
the  point  of  greatest  danger.  The 
remaining  crusaders  were  assigned 
to  the  defence  of  the  walls,  with 
orders  to  hold  themselves  prepared 
for  a  general  attack. 

16.  The    Second    Battle. 

Suddenly   the   clarions   resounded ' 
in    the    Turkish    camp,    and    in    an 
instant  it   was  seen  to   belch  forth 
a    roaring,    seathing    mass    of    fan- 
atical  warriors.     Impelled  not  only 

by  the  desire  for  plunder  but  also 
by  the  thirst  for  revenge,  the 
Turks  swept  down  upon  the  plain 
in  such  numbers  and  with  such 
fury  as  if  bent  on  capturing  the 
city  with  one  fell  swoop.  Passing 
the  outer  walls  which  had  been 
completely  demolished,  they  began 
to  cast  fagots,  stones,  and  straw 
into  the  broad  trench  which  sep- 
arated them  from  the  main  wall. 
To  retard  their  progress,  the  Christ- 
ians sent  down  on  them  showers  of 
stones,  darts,  javelins,  and  other 
projectiles,  but  to  no  avail.  In 
a  short  time,  the  Turks  had 
effected  a  passage  across  the  moat, 
and  with  their  wonted  fury  they 
made  for  th©  wall,  some  attempting 
to  force  their  way  through  the 
gaps,  others  applying  scaling  lad- 
ders, while  the  huge  engines  in  the 
rear  hurled  myriads  of  destructive 

The  attack  was  most  .  furious, 
but  the  resistance  which  the  as- 
sailants met,  was  not  less  ob- 
stinate and  resolute.  On  the  ram- 
parts and  in  the  breaches  of  the 
wall  the  besieged  valiantly  held 
their  own  against  the  ever  increas- 
ing hordes  of  infidels,  until,  urged 
on  by  the  intrepid  Capistran,  the 
Christian  soldiers  threw  themselves 
with  irresistible  force  on  the  as- 
sailants and  effectually  repulsed 
them.  The  Turks  retreated  in  con- 
fusion, leaving  behind  them  thou- 
sands of  slain  and  wounded. 

17.     Turks  Renew  the  Attack. 

These  checks  might  irritate  the 
Sultan;  they  could  not,  however, 
divert  him  from  his  purpose.  To- 
wards midnight,  he  ordered  another 
general  attack.  Evidently  his  in- 
tention was  to  strike  an  effective 
blow  before  the  besieged  were 
ready  to  parry  it.  Exasperated  at 
their  repeated  reverses,  the  Mo- 
hammedans, now  altogether  reck- 
less of  their  lives,  sought  only  to 
reach    their    opponents    with    their 



swords.  But  the  crusaders  again 
offered  heroic  resistance,  and,  ow- 
ing to  their  more  advantageous 
position,  had  little  difficulty  in 
holding  the  besiegers  at  bay.  Even 
the  women  mounted  the  ramparts, 
and  poured  boiling  pitch  or  hurled 
huge  stones  on  the  heads  of  the 
assailants.  Thus  the  Christians 
for  some  time  successfully  kept  up 
the  combat,  and  gallantly  with- 
stood every  onslaught  of  the  Turks. 
At  length,  however,  a  number  of 
crusaders,  overcome  by  fatigue  and 
loss  of  blood,  were  forced  to 
retire  from  the  fray,  while  the 
blows  of  the  remaining  defenders 
were  losing  much  of  their  vigor 
and  effect. 

At  this  juncture,  the  Turks  by 
a  supreme  effort  gained  possession 
of  a  part  of  the  wall  and  planted 
their  standards  upon  it.  This 
sight  spread  terror  through  the 
Christian  army,  while  a  shout  of 
exultation  arose  from  the  ranks  of 
the  Turk.  A  panic  ensued  among 
the  Christian  soldiers,  but,  through 
the  timely  intervention  of  Capis- 
tran,  they  rallied  and  returned  to 
the    defence    of    the    walls. 

18.     Desperate     Conflict     on     the 

The  Turks,  however,  realized 
that,  in  spite  of  the  advantage 
they  had  gained,  their  efforts  to 
scale  the  walls  had  thus  far  met 
with  little  success.  They,  therefore, 
determined  to  press  home  the  at- 
tack by  gaining  possession  of  the 
drawbridge  which  had  been  let 
down  to  enable  the  retreating 
crusaders  to  regain  the  city.  But 
here  they  were  met  by  the  picked 
troops  which  St.  Capistran  had 
stationed  there  for  just  such  an 
emergency.  In  an  instant,  this 
bridge  became  the  scene  of  a  most 
obstinate  and  bloody  conflict.  The 
besiegers,  knowing  that  this  was 
the  sole  means  of  access  to  the 
inner    works,     made    desperate    ef- 

forts to  become  masters  thereof, 
while  the  besieged,  fully  aware 
that  their  last  hope  lay  in  the 
defence  of  this  bridge,  fought  with 
the  strength  of  despair  to  retain  it. 
The  engagement  soon  became  so 
sanguinary  that  it  was  no  longer 
a  battle  but  a  carnage.  The 
Christians  performed  prodigies  of 
valor  and  slew  thousands  of  the 
enemy.  But  for  the  thousands  that 
were  slain,  there  were  tens  of 
thousands  eager  to  take  their 
places.  At  length,  however,  the 
slaughter  so  exhausted  the  crusaders 
that  they  were  on  the  point  of 
wavering,  when  the  dawn  of  day 
revealed  their  perilous  situation  to 
their    brethren    on    the    wall. 

19.     The  Victory. 

These  no  sooner  realized  the 
plight  of  their  comrades,  when 
seizing  a  large  number  of  fagots 
and  other  combustibles  they  set 
fire  to  them  and  hurled  them  into 
the  trench  which  the  Turks  had 
filled  with  brushwood  and  straw. 
The  fire  spread  rapidly  along  the 
whole  length  of  the  trench,  and 
soon  the  besiegers  found  them- 
selves surrounded  on  all  sides  by 
devouring  flames.  It  was  a  fearful 
spectacle.  Nearly  all  the  Turks 
below  the  walls  were  consumed  by 
the  raging  fire  or  fell  unresisting 
victims  to  the  swords  of  the 
crusaders.  Of  the  whole  besieging 
army  only  the  rearguard  reached 
the  Turkish  camp  in  safety. 

(To  be  continued.) 

"To  be  a  good  servant  of  God  is  to 
be  charitable  to  our  neighbor,  main- 
taing  in  the  superior  will  an  invincible 
resolution  to  do  God's  will;  to 
possess  great  humility  and  simplicity 
in  confiding  oneself  to  God;  to  rise 
as  frequently  as  one  falls;  to  enure 
oneself  to  humiliations,  and  to  tran- 
quilly bear  with  others  and  their 
defects.  " — St    Francis  de  Sales. 

Franciscan  News. 

Rome  (  Correspondence  ).  —  The 
Holy  Father  continues  to  receive 
■ — unofficially.  He  has  given  au- 
diences to  nearly  all  the  Cardinals 
resident  in  Rome.  None  of  these 
audiences  are  recorded  in  the 
Osservatore  Romano,  doubtless  be- 
cause if  they  were  it  would  al- 
most be  impossible  to  refuse  the 
numerous  requests  which  pour  in 
every  day  on  the  Maestro  di 
Camera.  Two  American  priests 
standing  under  the  obelisk  in  the 
liazza  of  St.  Peter's  the  other  day 
looking  up  to  the  Pope's  apart- 
ments, were  rewarded  by  a  glimpse 
of  His  Holiness — they  saw  a  white 
figure,  a  little  bowed,  pause  for 
a  minute  at  one  of  the  windows 
and  then  disappear.  One  of  those 
who  was  privileged  to  speak  with 
the  Holy  Father  during  the  week 
informs  us  that  he  found  His 
Holiness  very  bright,  with  all  his 
old  interest  in  affairs,  but  much 
thinner  than  before  his  illness 
and  not  so  brisk  in  his  movements. 
There  is  at  present  only  one  reason 
why  he  should  not  receive  pilgrims, 
and  that  is:  if  he  once  began  he 
would  be  obliged  to  give  audience 
every  day,  for  since  the  beginning 
of  the  Constantinian  Centenary  an 
unbroken  chain  of  pilgrimages  has 
kept  pouring  into  the  Eternal 
City,  and  the  Holy  Father  can 
make  no  distinction  between  his 

There  is  no  improvement  in  the 
condition  of  Cardinal  Vives  y 
Tuto,  O.  M.  Cap.,  who  suffered 
a  severe  nervous  collapse  some 
weeks  ago. 

During  the  month  of  May,  ser- 
mons were  preached  every  evening 
in  more  than  20  churches  of  Rome 
by  the  Franciscan  Fathers,  the 
"favorite  preachers"  of  Mary  with 
the  Italian  people.  Pentecost  Sun- 
day, Cardinal  Agliardi  consecrated 
the  new  bishop  of  Imola,  P. 
Paolino  Tribioli,  0.  M.  Cap.,  in 
the  Capuchin  church  on  Via  Vene- 
to.  Assistant  Consecrators  were 
Msgr.  Dominic  Jacquet,  Titular 
Archbishop  of  Salamina,  and  Msgr, 
Paolo  Tei,  O.  M.  Cap.,  Bishop  of 
Pesaro. — P.  Pier  Battista  has  set 
to  music  a  splendid  Jubilee  Hymn 
for  the  Constantinian  celebrations, 
" Cantata  alia  Croce"  in  the  Ora- 
torio style,  for  mixed  choir,  soli, 
and  orchestra.  It  was  performed 
for  the  first  time  at  the  Sala  Pis, 
May  15,  and  many  were  the  flatter- 
ing encomiums  bestowed  by  the 
audience  on  the  Rev.  composer, 
who  is  for  several  years  a  jubilarian 
in  the  Order. 

May  25,  the  Corpus  Christi 
procession  was  held  through  the 
streets  of  Rome  in  about  eight  or 
nine  parishes  (a  notable  improve- 
ment on  the  last  thirty  or  forty 
years),  conspicuous  among  which 
were  the  two  Franciscan  parishes 
of  San  Sebastiano  and  of  San 
Francesco  in  Ripa. 

The  joint  commission  consisting 
of  Austrian  and  Montenegrin  dep- 
uties, instituted  at  the  demand  of 
the  Austrian  government,  to  in- 
vestigate the  cause  of  Fr.  Palic, 
0.  F.  M.,  who  was  put  to  death 
by  Montenegrin  soldiers  during 
the  late  war  with  Turkev,  has  not 



been  able  to  arrive  at  a  definite 
conclusion  as  to  the  precise  motive 
of  his  death.  It  has,  however,  been 
established  beyond  doubt,  that 
the  Rev.  Father  had  been  put  in 
chains  and  dragged  from  place  to 
place  like  a  vile  delinquent  by  the 
soldiery  and  seriously  maltreated 
in  prison.  The  Austrian  govern- 
ment, has,  therefore,  demanded, 
and  Montenegro  has  consented,  that 
a  memorial  cross  be  erected  on 
the  spot  where  Father  Palic  was 
killed  and  that  a  Catholic  church 
be  built  (by  Austrian  funds)  in 
expiation  of  the  crime.  Moreover, 
Austria  insisted  that  at  the -solemn 
dedication  of  these  two  monu- 
ments Montenegro  be  represented 
by  an  official  in  the  rank  of  Minis- 
ter or  General;  that  the  corpse  of 
Father  Palic  be  transferred  to 
Zumbi  and  that  at  this  ceremony, 
too,  Montenegro  have  a  represen- 
tative of  aforesaid  rank;  that  all 
those  Catholics  who  were  forced 
to  apostatize  be  given  complete 
liberty  to  return  to  the  practice 
of  the  Roman  Catholic  faith  and 
that  sufficient  guarantee  be  given 
for  the  safety  and  protection  of  the 
Catholic   subjects   for   the   future. 

After  the  Eucharistic  Congress 
on  the  Island  of  Malta  several 
remarkable  conversions  to  the 
Catholic  faith  have  taken  place 
on  this  historic  island.  Thus,  an 
entire  Protestant  family  became 
Catholic  at  the  close  of  the  Con- 
gress. The  director  of  the  street- 
car company,  a  Jew,  had  asked 
the  Bishop  for  permission  to  dis- 
play the  papal  colors  on  the  cars 
during  the  celebration.  Now  he 
has  renounced  Judaism  and  was 
baptized  in  the  Capuchin  church 
at  Floriana.  The  Protestant  minis- 
ter of  the  little  church  at  Sliema, 
who  had  applied  for  permission 
to  ring  his  bells  during  the  grand 
procession  with  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament, has  also  returned  to  the  true 
Church,     and     a     number     of     his 

former  parishioners  are  expected 
to  follow  his  example. 

Some  time  ago  the  parish  priest 
of-  San  Mauro  Castelverde,  Sicily, 
was  accused  of  breaking  the  seal 
of  confession,  and  of  abusing  and 
slaying  one  of  his  penitents.  The 
energetic  Bishop  of  the  diocese 
of  Cefalu,  Msgr.  Anselmo  Sansoni, 
O.  F.  M.,  thereupon  addressed  a 
vigorous  pastoral  letter  to  the 
p 'iests  and  people  of  his  diocese. 
in  unmistakable  terms  he  brands 
the  vile  practices  of  the  anti- 
clerical press  of  Italy,  which  had 
spread  this  calumny,  as  many 
others,  against  the  clergy,  broad- 
cast over  the  land,  in  glowing  head- 
lines, giving  the  minutest  details 
of  the  "crime  of  a  priest,"  and 
not  retracting  the  calumny,  even 
after  the  civil  and  ecclesiastical 
courts  had  declared  that  there 
was  not  a  word  of  truth  in  the 
report  and  that  not  the  slightest 
pretext  to  such  a  charge  had  been 
found.  In  conclusion  he  exhorts 
his  people  to  learn  three  important 
lessons  from  these  foul  reports  in 
the  anticlerical,  irreligious  press 
and  yellow  sheets  the  world  over: 
first,  not  to  read  these  papers, 
nor  to  permit  them  to  enter  their 
homes;  secondly,  to  make  frequent 
use  of  the  Sacrament  of  Penance, 
which  is  not  without  reason  a 
"pricking  thorn"  in  the  eyes  of 
the  enemies  of  Christian  faith  and 
morals;  to  revere,  obey,  love,  and 
defend  the  priest,  who  is  the  re- 
presentative of  Christ  on  earth 
in  the  salvation  of  immortal   souls 

The  official  statistics  of  the 
Capuchin  Friars  up  to  December 
31,  1912,  reveal  some  interesting 
details.  The  number  of  religious 
totals  10,141,  and  these  are  scat- 
tered over  all  parts  of  the  world 
in  771  friaries  or  hospices.  The 
Capuchins  in  the  foreign  mis- 
sions number  just  over  the  thou- 
sand. In  India,  the  Archbishop  of 
Simla    has    within    his    jurisdiction 



a  heathen  population  of  4,978,  845. 
The  Catholics  of  the  archdiocese 
number  but  2543  souls,  and  these 
are  gathered  around  eleven  churches 
or  chapels,  served  by  12  Capuchin 
and  four  secular  priests.  (Fran- 
ciscan Annals). 

During  the  year  1912,  a  large 
number  of  Franciscan  Sisters, 
known  as  the  Franciscan  Mis- 
sionaries of  Mary,  left  Europe  for 
the  foreign  missions;  36  left  for 
China;  18  for  India;  18  for  Ar- 
gentine;    12     for     the     Philippines; 

6  for    Morocco;    7  for  Madagascar; 

7  for  Belgian  Congo;  6  for  Ceylon; 
3  for  Mozambique;  3  for  Natal; 
and  3  for  Damascus;  in  all  121 
Sisters.  They  render  invaluable 
services  in  the  missions.  They 
have  charge  of  schools,  orphan 
asylums,  workshops,  homes  for  the 
aged  and  blind,  of  hospitals  and 
dispensaries;  besides,  they  visit  the 
sick  in  their  homes,  and  devote 
themselves  to  the  care  of  the  lepers. 
They  often  find  an  opportunity  to 
baptize  children  dangerously  ill, 
and  are  instrumental  in  saving 
girls  and  young  women. 

In  connection  with  the  commem- 
oration of  the  Peace  of  Constan- 
tine  there  will  be  a  congress  of 
Tertiary  pilgrims  at  Rome,  to- 
wards the  end  of  September.  The 
fraternities  of  Italy  are  urging 
their  members  to  avail  themselves 
of  the  occasion  to  show  their  de- 
votion to  the  Vicar  of  Christ,  the 
Catholic  Church,  and  the  Third 

Italy,  the  home  of  Francis,  is 
the  scene  of  a  very  lively  activity 
on  the  part  of  the  Third  Order. 
The  Third  Order  is  a  great  social 
factor  in  Italy.  Its  cause  is  kept 
before  the  eye  by  frequent  re- 
unions of  Tertiaries,  and  the  sys- 
tematic work  of  conventions,  to- 
gether with  the  well-directed  words 
of  the  speakers  of  the  day,  is 
stirring  an  ever-growing  enthusiasm 
for     the     Third     Order.      April     17 

was  the  occasion  for  a  great  Fran- 
ciscan demonstration  at  San  Cas- 
siano  del  Meschio  (Ceneda).  About 
2500  Tertiaries  convened  at  that 
place,  including  delegates  from  the 
neighboring  towns;  among  them 
were  some  thirty  priests.  Over  a 
thousand  members,  mostly  men, 
approached  the  Sacred  Table. 
After  a  solemn  High  Mass,  the 
sessions  of  the  convention  were 
opened  by  the  pastor  of  the  con- 
vention parish,  Msgr.  Pozzobon. 
In  a  hearty  address  of  welcome  to 
the  convention,  he  expressed  his 
pleasure  that  his  parish  had  been 
chosen  •  as  the  scene  of  so  glorious 
an  event.  The  speaker  of  the 
day  then  took  the  floor.  The 
Franciscan  Father  Alfonso  began 
his  discourse  with  the  words  that 
Brother  Masseo  once  addressed 
to  St.  Francis:  "Why  does  every 
body  flock  to  you?  You  are  not  noble, 
you  are  not  comely;  why  does  every 
body  follow  you?"  Following  up 
these  words,  he  continued:  "As 
at  that  time,  so  for  the  past 
seven  centuries,  artists,  scholars, 
statesmen,  and  the  people  at  large 
have  flocked  to  St.  Francis."  Why? 
Because  he  is  a  great  saint.  Then 
he  spoke  of  the  great  work  of  St. 
Francis,  known  as  the  Third  Order. 
Its  essence  is  the  application  of 
the  spirit  of  the  Gospel  in  us  and 
around  us.  As  such  it  is  the  soul 
of  every  institution,  said  he,  quot- 
ing Pius  X.  Its  purpose  is  to 
sanctify  the  world  by  binding 
the  soul  closer  to  God,  converting 
the  family  into  a  haven  of  peace, 
and  imbuing  society  with  the 
spirit  of  Christ.  Another  speaker, 
Msgr.  Fasetta,  enlarged  on  the 
"Evils  of  Today  and  the  Tertiary." 
He  pointed  out  that  the  source  of 
our  ailments  is  the  ousting  of 
religion  from  the  schools,  from  the 
family,  and  from  public  life.  To 
restore  religion  to  its  place,  that 
is  the  mission  of  the  Third  Order. 
The   Cross  was  the   sign   by   which 



Constantine  overcame  Maxentius, 
— Christianity,  heathendom ;  and 
in  the  scapular  of  the  Third  Order, 
St.  Francis  marks  the  Tertiary  with 
the  sign  of  the  Cross,  as  a  reminder 
that  in  him  Christ  shall  conquer, 
rule,  and  triumph.  A  professor  of 
the  Seminary  of  Treviso,  Dr. 
Schiavone,  spoke  in  soul-stirring 
tones  of  the  Holy  Father  and  of 
our  duty  of  homage  to  him. 
A  telegram  expressing  the  loyal 
sentiments  of  the  convention  was 
sent  to  the  Holy  Father.  The 
convention  closed  with  the  papal 
benediction  and  benediction  of  the 
Blessed  Sacrament. 

Spain. —  Preparations  are  well 
under  way  to  celebrate  the  second 
centenary  of  the  birth  of  Fr. 
Junipero  Serra,  O.  F.  M.,  the 
Apostle  of  California,  on  Novem- 
ber 24,  1913.  While  of  a  national 
character,  the  celebrations  will  be 
held  with  special  splendor  in  the 
village  of  Petra,  Serra's  birthplace 
in   the   island   of    Majorca. 

Already  the  city  council  of 
Patra  has  changed  the  name  of 
the  Main  Plaza  to  that  of  Juni- 
pero Serra  Plaza,  and  at  present 
subscriptions  are  being  collected 
for  a  fitting  monument  to  be  erect- 
ed on  the  Plaza.  From  a  local  pro- 
ject it  grew  into  a  provincial  and 
national  enterprise,  and  now  the 
list  of  subscribers  and  supporters 
is  headed  by  King  Alfonso,  Ex- 
Premier  Don  Antonio  Maura,  The 
Disputacion  Provincial  of  Majorca, 
and  a  number  of  city  councils. 
Ground  was  broken  for  the  monu- 
ment on  January  12,  in  presence 
of  the  ecclesiastical,  civil,  and  mili- 
tary authorities,  and  a  vast  con- 
course of  enthusiastic  people.  The 
soul  and  ardent  promoter  of  these 
centennial  celebrations  is  the  pious 
and  scholarly  priest,  Very  Rev. 
Francis  Torrens  Y  Nicolan,  the 
great  grand  nephew  of  Fr.  Juni- 
pero   Serra. 

Germany.  —  The     annual     mass 

meeting  of  the  Tertiaries  of  Breslau, 
Silesia,  was  recently  held  amid 
very  favorable  circumstances.  It 
was  an  event  of  a  kind  which  is 
becoming  more  and  more  frequent 
in  Europe,  but  which  we  in  Amer- 
ica seldom  witness, — a  convention 
of  Tertiaries.  The  meeting  was 
opened  by  the  Rev.  Director  of 
the  Breslau  fraternities,  Fr.  Zephy- 
rin  Cyron.  Following  an  address 
by  Fr.  Cyron,  Count  Clarion 
d'  Haussoville  read  the  report 
of  the  treasury  for  the  year. 
The  status  was  an  eloquent  witness 
to  the  liberality  of  the  members. 
Among  other  items  some  900 
marks  had  been  disbursed  to  the 
sick  and  the  needy  during  the 
year.  Then  the  meeting  was  ad- 
dressed on  the  subject  of  prayer 
and  frequent  holy  Communion, 
which  should  be  distinguishing- 
marks  of  the  Tertiary.  There- 
upon the  Rev.  Director  published 
the  statistics  of  membership.  The 
past  year  shows  191  new  members, 
and  263  professions.  Among  the 
novices  and  newly  professed  are 
eight  priests  and  169  laymen. 
Within  the  limits  of  Breslau  there 
are  1738  Tertiaries;  among  them 
fifteen  priests  and  346  laymen 
To  this  number  must  be  added  a 
considerable  number  from  outlying 
towns,  which  brings  the  total 
membership  of  the  Breslau  fra- 
ternity to  2131,  including  23  priests. 
Following  the  reading  of  the  statis- 
tics was  an  address  read  by  the 
Rev.  Baron  von  Kelist.  The 
speaker  first  recommended  that  in 
the  families  of  Tertiaries,  prayers 
be  said  in  common,  especially  even- 
ing prayers.  He  emphasized  this  prac- 
tice especially,  as  a  means  to  keep  the 
boys  in  the  practice  of  prayer.  Another 
point  of  his  address  was  the  crusade 
against  bad  literature.  A  third 
point  was  the  field  of  charity  open 
to  the  Tertiaries  in  the  great  city 
of  Breslau  with  its  450,000  inhabi- 
tants.     He    pointed    out    that    the 



field  was  more  open  to  the  laity; 
for  the  clergy  are  often  regarded 
with  suspicion  in  quarters  where 
charity  is  most  needed.  A  second 
address  by  the  Rev.  Director 
brought  out  the  fact  that  the 
Tertiary  novices  regularly  attend 
instructions  on  the  spirit  of  the 
Third  Order  lasting  from  8:30 
to  10:30  evenings.  The  convention 
was  closed  with  the  usual  prayers 
of  Tertiary  meetings. 

Canada. — The  Cathedral  frater- 
nity at  Halifax,  under  the  patron- 
age of  St.  Antony  of  Padua,  is 
progressing  magnificently.  Though 
it  is  only  of  recent  organization, 
it  counts  already  150  members. 
On  Tuesday  evening,  April  22, 
Rev.  Fr.  Ethelbert,  0.  F.  M.,  gave 
the  holy  habit  to  twenty  postu- 
lants and  received  the  profession 
of  thirty  novices.  It  is  very  grati- 
fying to  see  the  enthusiasm  that 
breathes  through  the  whole  fra- 
ternity. The  members  seem  so 
enthusiastic  about  the  blessings 
and  the  spiritual  helps  the  Third  Order 
brings  to  them  that  they  are 
anxious  to  have  also  others  partake 
of  their  joys  by  joining  their  ranks. 

South  America. — The  Capuchins 
are  laboring  with  great  success 
among  the  Indians  of  South  Amer- 
ica. Thirty  priests  and  18  lay- 
brothers  have  charge  of  19  churches 
and  17  chapels.  The  schools  connected 
with  the  missions  are  attended  by 
nearly  1000  children. 

Cuba. — The  Friars  Minor  landed 
on  the  island  of  Cuba  at  the  be- 
ginning of  the  sixteenth  century, 
and  built  a  number  of  convents 
which,  together  with  those  in 
Florida,  formed,  since  1612,  the 
province  of  St.  Helen.  In  1842, 
when  convents  were  suppressed 
throughout  the  Spanish  realm, 
there  were  Franciscan  convents 
at  Havana,  Guanabacoa,  Bayamo, 
Trinidad,  Santiago,  Sancti  Spiritus, 
and  Santa  Clara.  These  convents 
were  also   "secularized."     Their   in- 

mates were  permitted  to  use  the 
convents  at  Guanabacoa  and  Trin- 
idad, where  they  led  a  community 
life  until  the  year  1860. 

Towards  the  end  of  the  year 
1887,  the  convent  of  Guanabacoa 
was  restored  by  Spanish  friars. 
In  1896,  the  convent  at  Havana 
was  re-occupied.  In  1904,  the 
communities  in  Cuba  were  joined 
to  the  Province  of  Cantabria  in 
Spain.  The  arrival  of  7  priests 
and  two  lay-brothers  made  possi- 
ble the  foundation  of  a  new  house 
at    Remedios. 

At  present  there  are  in  Cuba 
22  Franciscan  priests  and  17  lay- 
brothers.  The  Fathers  have  charge 
of  3  parishes,  with  about  40,000 
souls.  There  are  six  schools  with 
960  pupils.  The  Tertiaries  under 
jurisdiction  number  738. 

Chicago,  111. — At  the  meeting 
of  the  English  branch  of  the  Third 
Order  on  Sunday,  May  18,  thirty- 
seven  novices  made  their  pro- 
fession. After  the  sermon  the 
papal  blessing  was  given  by  the 
Rev.    Director. 

The  novena  in  honor  of  St. 
Antony  was  well  attended.  Every 
Tuesday  large  crowds  came  to  St. 
Peter's  Church  to  pray  at  the 
shrine  of  St.  Antony  and  to  re- 
ceive the  holy  sacraments.  On 
Friday,  June  13,  the  feast  of  St. 
Antony  was  celebrated.  Rev.  Fr. 
Liboriiis,  O.  F.  M.,  of  Joliet,  111., 
who  had  assisted  in  the  confessional 
on  the  nine  Tuesdays,  sang  the 
solemn  High  Mass,  Rev.  Fr.  Alexius 
and  Rev.  Fr.  Aemilian  assisting 
as  deacon  and  subdeacon  respect- 
ively. After  the  gospel  Rev.  Fr. 
Christopher,  O.  F.  M.,  preached  in 
English  and  German.  In  eloquent 
words  he  spoke  of  the  power  and 
sanctity  of  St.  Antony,  and  of  the 
wide-spread  devotion  to  this  most 
popular  of  all  saints.  He  urged 
all  present  to  continue  in  their 
devotion  to  St.  Antony,  and  to 
invoke     him     with      the     greatest 



confidence  in  all  their  spiritual 
and  temporal  necessities.  Finally, 
he  exhorted  all  to  imitate  the 
virtues  of  St.  Antony,  and  thus 
render  themselves  worthy  of  the 
intercession  of  this  wonderworker 
of   Padua. 

After  the  solemn  High  Mass, 
Benediction  of  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament was  given.  Prayers  were 
offered  up  to  St.  Antony,  and  the 
faithful  received  a  special  blessing 
with  the  relic  of   the   Saint. 

San  Francisco,  Cal. — During  the 
past  month  the  following  good 
works  have  been  performed  by  the 
members  of  the  Third  Order  of 
St.  Francis: 

Visits  of  Charity 41 

Visits  to  the  Sick 95 

Visits  to  the  Poor 12 

Literature  Distributed 53 

Clothing  Distributed 195 

Adults  Baptized 4 

Conversions 3 

Injured  Assisted 3 

Distributed  in  Charity   __ $56.70 

The  Tertiaries  Monthly  Bulletin 
is  distributed  to  the  members  at 
the  meeting  on  the  -first  Sunday 
of  the  month.  The  information 
it  contains  is  of  value  to  the  Ter- 
tiaries, and  is  a  means  of  spreading 
a  knowledge  of  the  Third  Order 
amongst  Catholic  people  every- 
where. At  the  last  meeting  Rev. 
Father  Juniper,  beloved  Director 
of  the  Third  Order,  announced  that 
a  collection  would  be  taken  up  for 
a  young  man  who  is  studying  for 
the  priesthood,  in  order  to  help 
defray  his  expenses.  A  goodly 
sum  was  the  result  of  the  collec- 
tion, which  has  been  turned  over 
to  the  young  man.  At  the  May 
meeting,  12  new  members  were 
received  into  the  Order  and  9 
novices   made   their   profession. 

St.  Louis,  Mo. — Sunday.  June  8, 
was    a    festive    day    for    the    people 

of  St.  Antony's  parish,  St.  Louis, 
Mo.  It  marked  the  fiftieth  anni- 
versary of  the  founding  of  the 
parish,  and  also  the  golden  jubilee 
of  the  Rev.  Francis  Albers,  O. 
F.  M.,  who  was  for  twelve  years 
pastor  of  the  parish. 

A  parade  of  all  the  men  of  the 
parish  with  bands  and  banners 
preceded     the       church      ceremony. 

When  the  parade  arrived  at  the 
church  it  was  joined  by  a  proces- 
sion of  the  clergy,  with  Archbishop 
Glennon  at  the  rear,  who  came 
from    the    monastery    entrance. 

The  parade  started  at  8:45, 
returning  .to  the  church  for  the. 
solemn  High  Mass,  which  was 
celebrated  at  10  a.  m.  by  the 
jubilarian,  Father  Albers.  Arch- 
bishop Glennon  assisted  in  cappa 
magna,  attended  by  Revs.  F.  J. 
Vilasza,  S.  J.,  and  J.  Hennelly, 
C.   M.,  as  deacons  of  honor. 

Right  Rev.  Mgr.  J.  A.  Connolly, 
V.  G.,  was  archpriest  and  Revs. 
Alardus  Andreschek,  0.  F.  M.,  and 
Bernard  Wewer,  0.  F.  M.,  were 
deacon  and  subdeacon  respectively, 
of  the  mass.  Revs.  Martin  Strub 
0.  F.  M.,  and  Timothy  Magnien, 
O.  F.  M.,  were  masters  of  cere- 

Archbishop  Glennon,  who  gave 
a  short  ten  minutes'  sermon  in 
English,  at  the  close  of  the  mass, 
extolled  the  virtue  of  sacrifice, 
which  quality  is  most  essential  to  a 
missionary  vocation,  declaring  that 
the  Franciscans,  in  a  very  special 
manner  exemplified  this  sacrifice. 
He  referred  to  their  achievements 
in  the  string  of  missions  maintained 
by  them  throughout  the  country 
and   particularly   in   the   Southwest. 

He  declared  that  the  jubilarian 
in  leaving  friends,  home  and  coun- 
try to  come  to  America  to  give 
himself  to  the  service  of  the  Lord, 
was    an   example    of   such   sacrifice. 

Very  Rev.  Provincial,  Benedict 
Schmidt,  O.  F.  M.,  who  preached 
in  German,  spoke  on  the  power  of 



the  priesthood.  He  praised  Father 
Albers,  who,  he  said,  has  so  faith- 
fully  carried   out   his   duties. 

Following  the  celebration  in  the 
church,  a  banquet  was  served  at 
2  o'clock  at  which  about  twenty- 
five  visiting  clergy,  the  Archbishop 
and  the  charter  members  of  the 
parish  were  guests  of  honor. 

The  speakers  at  the  banquet 
were  Martin  Rust,  toastmaster, 
and  Rev.  H.  Hussman,  pastor  of 
St.  Henry's  and  John  Rehme  and 
Emil  Frei. 

His  Eminence,  Card.  Falconio  had 
graciously  obtained  from  the  Holy 
Father,  a  special  blessing  for  the  Rev. 
Jubilarian  and  the  parishioners.  This 
Papal  Blessing  was  solemnly  imparted 
to  the  people  by  the  Very  Rev.  Fr. 
Provincial  at  the  evening  service,  after 
which  a  reception  was  held  in  the  new 
Tertiaries'  Hall. 

May  25,  the  feast  of  the  Trans- 
lation of  the  Body  of  St.  Francis, 
was  a  festive  day  for  the  Tertiaries 
of  St.  Louis.  At  3  o'clock  a  solemn 
meeting  was  held,  during  which  25 
new  members  were  received  and 
12  novices  admitted  to  holy  pro- 
fession. The  Rev.  Director,  Fr. 
Vincent,  also  blessed  a  new  statue 
of  the  Seraphic  Father,  which  was 
then  carried  in  procession  through 
the  church.  The  statue  represents 
St.  Francis  in  the  act  of  blessing. 
It  is  therefore  very  appropriate 
for  processions.  After  Benediction 
with  the  Blessed  Sacrament  the 
Tertiaries  took  possession  of  their 
new  hall.  All  were  delighted  with 
the  transformation  of  the  venerable 
old  church  into  a  religious  hall,  and 
with  their  spacious  quarters.  The 
office  of  the  Third  Order  is  ideal, 
and  the  hall  affords  the  Tertiaries 
an  appropriate  place  for  the  in- 
struction of  the  novices.  The 
Rev.  Director  announced  that  the 
St.  Louis  fraternity  of  the  Third 
Order  had  completed  the  fiftieth 
year  of  its  foundation,  and  that 
the     jubilee     would     be     celebrated 

some  time  next  autumn,  in  pre- 
paration of  which  a  retreat  will 
be  given  to  the  Tertiaries. 

Owing  to  the  ever-increasing 
number  of  Tertiaries  of  the  Fra- 
ternity, Rev.  Vitus  Braun,  O.  F. 
M.,  has  been  appointed  to  assist  in 
its  direction. 

Quincy,  111.— The  people  of  St. 
Francis  Solanus  Church  surely  de- 
serve the  greatest  credit  for  the 
lively  interest  they  are  beginning 
to  manifest  in  the  Third  Order 
of  St.  Francis.  On  Sunday,  May 
18,  at  3  o'clock,  a  mass  meeting 
of  the  English  and  German  speaking 
branches  was  held,  to  which  meet- 
ing the  entire  congregation  had 
been  invited,  since  it  supplanted 
the  regular  vespers.  The  attend- 
ance was  large.  At  this  meeting 
101  new  members  were  received, 
35  *  of  these  being  men  in  the  full 
vigor  of  manhood,  among  them  the 
four  trustees  of  the  parish.  The 
postulants  were  received  by  the 
Very  Rev.  Benedict  Schmidt,  O. 
F.  M.,  Provincial  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province.  He  was  assisted 
by  Fathers  Damian  Koziolek  and 
Didacus  Gruenholz,  whilst  the 
local  director,  Fr.  Hilarion  Duerk, 
acted  as  Master  of  Ceremonies. 
Father  Timothy  Magnien,  pro- 
fessor of  St.  Francis  College,  a 
very  able  speaker,  preached  a 
powerful  sermon  on  the  occasion. 
In  answer  to  the  question,  "Is 
the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis 
opportune  at  the  present  time" 
he  depicted  the  lukewarmness, 
the  religious  indifference,  the  ever- 
growing desire  for  luxury  and  plea- 
sure, the  great  social  unrest,  which 
permeate  all  classes  of  society. 
Against  these  rampant  evils  he 
held  up  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis  as  one  of  the  best  and 
the  most  radical  remedies.  Then 
passing  over  to  the  battle  of  life, 
with  its  din  and  roar,  .  its  subtle- 
ness,   strategy,    and    deception,    he 



reminded  all  that  each  and  every- 
one must  take  part  in  this  fight, 
and  must  fight  the  good  fight 
if  he  wishes  to  be  crowned  as 
victor,  and  again  the  Third  Order 
was  recommended  to  all.  The 
meeting  closed  with  the  solemn 
Benediction  with  the  Blessed  Sac- 
rament after  which  the  Te  Deum 
was  sung  by  all. 

During  the  solemn  Corpus  Christi 
procession  the  members  of  the 
Third  Order  used  their  new  banner 
for  the  first  time.  This  banner 
was  solemnly  blessed  a  few  Sun- 
days ago  by  Father  Fortunatus 
Hausser,  O.  F.  M.,  Rector  of 
St.  Francis  College,  on  which  oc- 
casion a  very  practical  sermon  on 
the  origin,  nature,  and  obliga- 
tions of  the  Third  Order  was 
preached  by  the  Rev.  Pastor  Di- 
dacus  Gruenholz.  To  meet  the 
expenses  incurred  by  the  purchase 
of  the  new  banner,  an  envelope 
collection  was  held,  which  proved 
so  successful,  that  besides  paying 
for  the  banner,  a  great  and  goodly 
number  of  books  could  be  secure:! 
for  the  library  of  the  Third  Order. 
The  library  was  transferred  from 
the  monastery  to  the  basement  of 
the  school.  At  present  the  books 
are  being  arranged  and  the  card- 
system  is  to  be  introduced. 

Both  branches  of  the  Third 
Order  have  organized  their  own 
choir  to  furnish  the  singing  at 
the   regular   monthly   meetings. 

Indianapolis,  Ind. — Patrick  Hag- 
gerty,  a  faithful  member  of  the 
Third  Order,  died  May  31.  He 
was  a  daily  communicant,  fre- 
o^ently  visited  the  church  and 
prayed  before  the  Blessed  Sacra- 
ment. At  the  meeting  of  the 
Third  Order  in  May,  he  procured 
a  new  chord  and  scapular,  remark- 
ing that  he  would  soon  need  them. 
Ten  days  after  he  died.  May  he 
rest  in  peace. 

Cleveland,  Ohio. — At  the  meet- 
ing  of   the    English    branch    of   the 

Third  Order,  June  1,  thirtyfive  new 
members  were  received,  and  four 
novices  made  their  profession.  A 
special  collection  amounting  to 
S50.00  was  taken  up  for  the  orphan 
asylum  at  Watsonville,  Cal.,  which 
is  in  charge  of  the  Franciscan 
Fathers.  Besides  this,  a  special 
donation  of  .$100.00  was  made  to 
the  Holy  Land. 

On  May  17,  Rev.  Fr.  Pancratius 
Schulte,  0.  F.  M.,  died  after  a 
short  illness.  Nearly  a  year  ago 
he  took  sick  very  seriously,  so  that 
no  hope  was  entertained  for  his 
recovery,  but  he  then  rallied  and 
regained  sufficient  strength  to  again 
join  in  the  community  exercises. 
Father  Pancratius  was  in  his  77th 
year,  having  been  born  April  5, 
1837  at  Oedingen,  Westphalia;  he 
entered  the  Order  November  25, 
1860,  and  was  ordained  priest 
March  27,  1868.  Expelled  from 
Germany  by  the  "Kulturkampf," 
in  1875  he  came  to  the  hospitable 
shores  of  America  with  many  of 
his  brethren.  Most  of  his  time 
was  spent  in  giving  missions  and 
retreats  in  all  parts  of  the  coun- 
try.    R.  I.  P. 

Chaska;  Minn.— On  May  26, 
Brother  Silvanus  Hoffmann,  O. 
F.  M.,  died  of  heart  disease,  having 
been  found  dead  in.  his  bed;  he 
had  been  ailing  for  some  time, 
but  even  on  the  day  before  .  his 
death  he  was  up  and  around  and 
seemed  to  be  in  good  spirits. 
Brother  Silvanus  was  57  years  old, 
of  which  he  had  spent  25  in  the 
religious  life. 

Omaha,  Neb. — From  May  4  to 
18,  a  very  successful  mission  was 
given  by  Fathers  Francis  Haase 
and  John  Joseph  Brogger.  The 
attendance  was  very  satisfactory. 
About  1650  received  the  Sacra- 
ment of  Penance,  and  3000  holy 
Communion.  At  the  close  of  the 
mission  thirty-nine  members  re- 
ceived into  the  Third  Order. 



Our  Colleges. 

St.  Joseph's    Seraphic 

THE  feast  of  Corpus  Christ! 
was  fittingly  celebrated  at 
the  college  by  a  beautiful 
procession  on  the  profusely  dec- 
orated college-grounds.  It  was 
a  singular  spectacle  to  behold  the 
long  line  of  students  and  pro- 
fessors who,  amid  pious  prayers 
and  devout  songs  accompanied-  by 
the  strains  of  the  college  bancl, 
conducted  the  Sacred  Host  to  the 
four  altars  which  had  been  pre- 
viously erected  by  the  members  of 
the  four  senior   classes. 

On  the  evening  of  the  same  day 
the  results  of  the  recent  contest 
in  Latin  composition-writing  were 
published.  The  predicates  were 
as  follows: 

II  Collegiate  Class:  S.  Bajfus. 
97.05;  C.  Wickes,  94.22;  A.  Sloch, 

I  Collegiate  Class:  J.  Kola  and 
A.  Leciejewski,  88.30;  A.  Skorupa, 
87.58;   L.   Vonder  Haar,   87.00. 

IV  Acaelemic  Class:  J.  Micek, 
88.66;  A.  Brumleve,  84.33;  A. 
Klotzbucher,   79.66. 

III  Academic  Class:  J.  Schmidt, 
92.00;  H.  Pinger,  90.33;  R.  Duling, 

II  Academic  Class:  M.  Nosal, 
94.33;  H.  Bene,  93.00;  E.  Gissy, 

I  Academic  Class:  J.  Breyer, 
98.00;  W.  Cyr,  86.00;  H.  Harms, 

In  a  short  congratulatory  ad- 
dress, the  Rev.  Rector  told  the  stu- 
dents how  the  study  of  the  classics 
affords  them  a  mental  drill,  vainly 
sought  in  any  substitute,  how  the 
study  of  Latin  and  Greek  secured 
them  a  thorough  knowledge  of 
their  mother  tongue,  how  the 
classical    course    opens    to    them    a 

most    prolific    and    interesting    field 
of   literature   and   history. 

The  month  of  June  ushered  in 
the  examinations.  On  June  11 
and  12  the  final  examinations  were 
made  by  the  students  of  the  II 
Collegiate  Class  to  show  their 
fitness  for  their  reception  into  the 
novitiate.  Of  the  six  members  of 
the  class,  J.  Sailer  and  C.  Wickes 
received  the  degree  of  Bachelor  of 
Arts  at  the  graduating  exercises 
on  June  13.  The  following  program 
was  rendered  on  the   occasion: 

Lustspiel    (Overture) Keler   Bela 

College  Orchestra. 

Salutatory John  Sailer 

Latin  Address:     "Ante  mortem  neir.inem  beatum 

dicendum  esse  Croesi  I.ydorum  regis  exemplo 

comprobatur  " Sigismucd    Bajfus 

Horn    Solo Antony    Sloch 

Class  Poem   Frank  Pazdzierski 

German    Address:       "Vorzuege    der    Roemer    vor 

den   Griechen" A.    Faehnrich 

Valedictory Clement     Wickes 

Address    to    the    Ciraduates    and    Conferring    of 

Degrees The   Rev    Hector 

Don   Caesar    March Wohanka 

College  Orchestra. 

The  graduating  class  left  their 
Alma  Mater  June  14.  They  at 
once  entered  upon  their  retreat 
under  the  direction  of  Rev.  Mat- 
thew Schmitz,  O.  F.  M.,  and  will 
receive  the  habit  of  St.  Francis 
on   June   23. 

June  17  and  18  were  the  days 
set  apart  for  the  written,  and  June 
20  and  21,  for  the  oral,  examinations 
of  the  other  students. 

The  closing  exercises  of  the 
college  will  take  place  on  June  23. 
R.  M.,  O.  F.  M. 

St.    Antony's   College. 

The  beautiful  month  of  May 
opened  at  St.  Antony's  amid  sun- 
shine and  gladness.  No  wonder, 
— is  not  May  the  darling  of  ver- 
dant nature,  and  better  still,  the 
month  of  Mary?  Bright  and  lovely 
spirits,  therefore,  and  the  lovely 
May    Devotions    are    notable    fea- 



tures  of  the  month,  that  sped  away 
all  too  fast. 

Two  weeks  ago  the  St.  Antony's 
Literary  Circle  had  the  pleasure  of 
witnessing  an  animated  debate  in 
their  society  room.  The  question 
debated  concerned  the  religion  of 
Shakespeare — "Resolved  that  Shake- 
speare was  a  Catholic."  Frank 
Oblasser  and  James  Goggin  de- 
fended the  affirmative,  Walter  Wol- 
lenschlager  and  George  Lombard 
the  negative.  Whilst  telling  argu- 
ments were  brought  forth  by  both 
sides,  the  judges  voted  a  victory 
for  the  negative. 

On  May  17,  the  feast  of  St. 
Paschal  Baylon.  the  college  kept 
its  annual  Thirteen  Hours  Devo- 

The  feast  of  Corpus  Christi  was 
duly  celebrated  in  our  little  chapel. 
The  following  Sunday,  set  apart 
for  the  fuller  solemnization  of  the 
feast,  was  celebrated  with  mag- 
nificent splendor  in  the  Old  Mis- 
sion church.  The  students  took 
part  as  well  in  the  preparations  as 
in  the  impressive  services  them- 

The  boys'  chief  out -door  sport 
during  May  was  surf  bathing. 
The  ocean  was  visited  on  almost 
every  free  afternoon.  Judging  from 
the  joyful  shouts  that  came  from 
the  swimmers,  one  on  shore  could 
not  help  concluding  that  there 
must  be  pleasures  as  well  as  perils 
of  the  "vasty  deep." 

The  final  college  picnic  of  the 
year,  on  Pentecost  Monday,  was 
enjoyed  by  all  without  exception. 
The  place  chosen  was  Hope  Ranch, 
a  grand  spot,  encircled  by  im- 
memorial oaks,  and  within  a  few 
hundred   yards  of  the   sea-beach. 

The  last  month  of  the  school 
year  is  now  upon  us — June,  with  its 
sunny  days  and  hopeful  prospects, 
but  toilsome  hours,  too,  and  sad 
forebodings.  Before  it  will  be 
over,  another  year  of  college  life 
will   be   gone,    and   for   some   of   us 

it   will  mean  a  last   and  final  fare- 
well to  our  cherished  Alma  Mater. 
John  McXamara. 


Chicago,  111.,  St.   Peter's  Church: 

Rose  E.  Kelley,  Sister  Catherine: 
Catherine    Jones,    Sister    Mary. 

St.  Augustine's  Church: 
John  Masquelet,  Brother  An- 
tony: Anna  M.  Xoll,  Sister  Coleta: 
Elizabeth  Schikowski,  Sister  Bap- 
tista;  Anton}-  Klappauf,  Brother 
Rochus;   Mary   Bauer. 

St.  Louis,  Mo.,  St. Antony's  Church: 
Elizabeth  Reber:  Rose  Boyer: 
Catherine  Carberry;  Elizabeth  Gil- 
bert; Mary  Schmale;  Catherine 

Indianapolis,     Ind.,     Sacred     Heart 
Patrick  Haggerty. 

Chillicothe,  Mo.: 

James  Francis  Knott;  Anna  Clara 

Cleveland.  O.,  St.  Joseph's  Church: 
Margareth  Wehner. 
R,  I.  P. 



Franciscan  Calendar. 

JULY,  1913. 

Dedicated  to  the 
Most  Precious  Blood. 







St.  Theobald,  C. 

Visitation  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.   (G.  A.) 

St.  Juliana,  V. 

St.  Theodore,  Bp.  C- St.  Bertha,  W.  Abbess. 

St.  Antony  Zaccaria,  C. 



8th   Sunday   after  Pentecost. — Feast  of  the   Most   Precious  Blood. 
Gospel:     The  parable  of  the  unjust   steward.     Luke  xvi,   1-9. 











St.  Lawrence  of  Brindisi,  0.   M.  Cap.,  C.   (P.  I.) 

St.  Elizabeth  of  Portugal,  3d  Order,   W.     (P.  I.) 

St.  Nicholas  and  Companions,  0.  F.   M.,   MM.     (P.  I.) 

The  Seven  Brothers  and  Felicitas,  their  Mother,   MM. 

St.  Veronica,  2d  Order,  V.      (P.  I.)— St.  Pius  I,  P.   M. 

St.  John  Walbert,   Ab.  C— SS.  Nabor  and  Felix^  MM. 



9th  Sunday  after  Pentecost.— St.  Anaclete,  P.  M. 

Gospel:     Jesus  weeps  over  Jerusalem.     Luke  xix,  41-47. 






St.  Bonaventure,  the  Seraphic  Doctor.     (P.  I.) 

B.   Angelina,   3d   Order,    W. — St.   Henry,   Emperor   of   Germany. 

Our  Lady  of  Mount  Carmel. 

St.  Alexius,  C. 

Bl.  Simon  of  Lypnica,   0.  F.   M.,  C. 

Bl.  John,  0.  F.'  M.,  C. 



10th   Sunday  after  Pentecost. — St.   Jerome,   C. — St.    Margaret,   V.M- 
Gospel:     The    Pharasee    and    the    Publican.     Luke    xviii,    9-14- 







Octave  of  St.  Bonaventure. — St.  Praxedis,  V. 

St.  Mary  Magdalene,  Penitent. 

St.  Apoflinaris,  Bp.   M. 

St.  Francis  Solanus,    O.F.M.,    C,    Apostle   of   South    America.    (P.I.) 

St.  James  the  Greater,  Apostle. 

St.  Anne,   Mother  of  the  Blessed  Virgin.     (P.  I.) 



11th  Sunday  after  Pentecost. — Dedication  of  all  Franciscan  Churches. 
Gospel:     Jesus  cures  the  dumb  man.     Mark  vii,  31-37. 





SS.   Nazarius  and  Celsus,   MM. 

St.   Martha,  V.— St.  Felix  and  Comp.,   MM. 

St.  Camillus  de  Lellis,  C,  Patron  of  Hospitals. 

St.   Ignatius  of  Loyola,   C,   Founder  of  the  Society   of  Jesus. 

—Saint;    Bl. — Blessed;    Ap. — Apostle;    M. — Martyr;    C. — Con- 
Bishop;  D.— Doctor;    V.— Virgin;    W.— Widow;    O.    F.    M.— 
O.    M.    Cap. — Order    of    Minors    Capuchin;    P.    I. — Plenary 

Abbreviations. — St. 
fessor;  P. — Pope;  Bp.- 
Order  of  Friars  Minor; 

Tertiarfes  may  gain  a  Plenary  Indulgence:  1st,  every  Tuesday  after  confession, 
communion  and  visit  to  a  church  of  the  First,  Second  or  Third  Order  Regular  of 
St.  Francis;  2d,  once  during  the  month  on  any  suitable  day,  usual  conditions;  3d,  on 
day  of  monthly  meeting  for  those  who  attend,   usual  conditions. 

Confession  to  gain  the  Portiuncula  Indulgence  may  be  made  already  on  July 
30,   Holy  Communion  must  be  received  on  August   1st  or  2d. 


Jfratutgcan  ^eralb 

A  monthly  magazine  edited  and  published  by  the  Franciscan  Fathers  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  Province  in  the  interest  of  the  Third  Order  and  of  the  Franciscan  Missions 



Vol.  1.  AUGUST,  1913.  No.  8 

The  Assumption  of  Our  Lady. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald) 

Upborne  by  Grace  Divine, 
By  the  power  of  Infinite  Love, 
Mary,  triumphant  o'er  death, 
Is  wafted  to  realms  above. 

Christ's  temple  undefiled, 
The  Godhead's  holy  shrine, 
Unerring  faith  reveals, 
Could  never  know  decline. 

Then  pause,  ye  children  of  men, 
The  heavenly  vision  to  view. 
Oh,  the  strength  of  Jesus'  love 
For  the  Mother  He  gave  to  you. 

The  Virgin  he  tenderly  guides 
On,  on,  through  celestial  ways, 
Where  sainted  legions  give 
To  God  eternal  praise. 

Amidst  the  angelic  throng, 
They  rise  in  glorious  light; 
Dominations,  powers,  thrones, 
Behold  the  rapturous  sight. 

Past  cherubs,  and  seraph  choirs 
Unto  the  throne  supreme: 
Hark!     God,  the  Almighty  Father, 
Proclaims  her  Heaven's  Queen. 

Rose  M.  Cooper. 



St.   Louis  IX,   King   of   France,    Patron   of 

the  Third  Order. 

August  25th. 

THE  holy  King  Louis  IX  of 
France  was  born  at  Poissy, 
bear  Paris,  on  April  25,  1215. 
His  saintly  mother,  Blanche  of 
Castile,  gave  the  greatest  care  and 

love  you;  but  I  would  rather  see 
you  dead  at  my  feet,  that  than 
you  should  ever  commit  a  mortal 
sin."  The  earnest  words  and  the 
example  of  the  saintly  mother  did 

attention  to  his  education  in  all 
matters  pertaining  to  his  high 
office,  but  she  was,  above  all,  solici- 
tous for  the  welfare  of  his  im- 
mortal soul.  In  this  her  solicitude, 
she  sometimes  said  to  him:  "My 
son,  God  alone  knows  how  much  I 

not  fail  to  make  a  deep  impression 
on  the  tender  mind  of  her  son. 
At  an  early  age,  Louis  learned  to 
detach  his  heart  from  the  riches 
and  pleasures  of  the  world,  to  the 
dangers  of  which  persons  of  his 
state    are    especially    exposed,    and 



to  find  delight  in  prayer  and  in 
the  practice  of  virtue. 

Louis  succeeded  to  the  throne  in 
1226.  On  account  of  his  youth, 
his  mother  acted  as  regent,  govern- 
ing with  great  prudence  and  en- 
ergy, and  at  the  same  time  super- 
intending the  education  of  her  son 
in  the  duties  of  a  Christian  ruler. 
It  was  during  this  time  that  Louis 
joined  the  Third  Order  of  St. 
Francis.  After  assuming  the  reins 
of  government  in  1234,  he  ruled 
most  happily  for  about  ten  years, 
when  he  was  seized  with  a  serious 
illness,  which  soon  seemed  to  bring 
him  to  the  very  brink  of  the  grave. 
In  his  illness  he  vowed  to  under- 
take a  crusade  to  free  the  Holy 
Land  from  the  hands  of  the  Mo- 
hammedans, and  on  recovering  he 
at  once  set  about  to  fulfill  his  vow. 
He  captured  Damietta,  in  Egypt, 
but  was  taken  prisoner  with  his 
army,  that  had  been  decimated  by 
a  pestilence,  and  was  made  to 
undergo  the  privations  and  humili- 
ations of  captivity  for  several 

A  treaty  of  peace  was  at  length 
drawn  up  and  ratified.  The  in- 
fidels now  demanded  of  the  pious 
king  to  declare  that,  in  case  he 
would  violate  the  treaty,  he  would 
be  regarded  as  having  denied  God 
and  the  Christian  religion,  and  as 
having  spit  and  trampled  upon  the 
cross.  Shocked  at  so  impious  a 
proposal,  Louis  answered:  "Such  a 
blasphemy  shall  never  pass  my 
lips."  The  infidels  then  threatened 
him  with  a  most  painful  death;  but 
the  saintly  king  courageously  an- 
swered their  threats  with  the  words : 
"You  can  kill  my  body,  but  you 
cannot  take  the  life  of  my  soul." 
Full  of  admiration  for  his  courage 
and  constancy,  the  Mohammedans 
set  him  free  on  the  accepted  condi- 

In  the  government  of  his  king- 
dom, Louis  had  no  other  end  in 
view   than   the   honor   of    God,    the 

good  of  religion,  and  the  welfare 
of  his  subjects.  Hence,  he  was 
most  exact  in  performing  the  many 
and  laborious  duties  of  his  exalted 
position.  His  dealings  with  foreign 
princes,  as  well  as  with  his  sub- 
jects, were  characterized  by  the 
greatest  charity,  patience,  and  jus- 
tice. In  the  midst  of  the  distrac- 
tions of  court  life  and  of  his  many 
duties,  he  lived  the  life  of  an  as- 
cetic, scrupulously  regulating  his 
conduct  according  to  the  com- 
mandments of  God.  He  delighted 
in  attending  divine  service,  and 
spent  several  hours  of  the  day, — 
sometimes  whole  nights — in  prayer, 
and  when  certain  persons  expressed 
their  dissatisfaction  at  this,  he 
quietly  answered  that,  if  he  em- 
ployed his  time  in  hunting,  in 
tournaments  or  games,  these  per- 
sons would  not  take  so  exact  an 
account  of  the  time  which  he  lost 
at  them.  Though,  as  his  bio- 
graphers assure  us,  he  preserved 
his  baptismal  innocence  to  the  end 
of  his  life,  he  was  wont  to  go  to 
confession  several  times  a  week. 
He  esteemed  the  grace  of  baptism 
so  highly,  that  he  loved  to  sign 
himself  in  letters  to  his  friends  as 
Louis  of  Poissy.  because  he  had 
been  baptized  in  the  church  of  that 
place.  The  pious  king  would  not 
tolerate  cursing  or  sinful  language 
among  his  servants  and  courtiers; 
he  himself  was  never  heard  to 
speak  an  uncharitable  or  impatient 
word.  In  order  to  be  able  to 
satisfy  his  charity  towards  the  poor, 
hundreds  of  whom  he  often  fed  and 
served  in  his  palace,  he  forbade  all 
excessive  display  at  his  court.  He 
himself  practiced  the  greatest  mod- 
eration in  dress,  and  always  wore 
the  scapular  and  cord  of  the  Third 
Order;  on  special  occasions  he  ap- 
peared clothed  in  the  habit  of  the 
Tertiaries.  To  mortify  sensuality, 
he  often  wore  a  hair  cloth,  used 
disciplines,  and  not  only  strictly 
observed    the    fasts,    but    was    very 



ingenious  in  mortifying  his  appetite 
in  various  ways.  Yet  his  piety  and 
severity  towards  himself  did  not 
make  him  morose.  On  the  con- 
trary, it  enhanced  the  natural 
liveliness  and  cheerfulness  of  his 
temper;  he  delighted  in  cheerful 
conversations,  and  was  kind  and 
affable  towards  all.  He  was  most 
solicitous  for  the  welfare  of  the 
eleven  children  which  God  had 
given  him.  He  prayed  with  them 
daily,  watched  over  their  progress 
in  their  studies,  taught  them  to 
perform  works  of  mercy,  and  left 
to  them  in  his  testament  the  most 
beautiful  and  wholesome  instruc- 

The  failure  of  his  first  crusade, 
and  complaints  of  oppressions  and 
sacrileges  on  the  part  of  the  in- 
fidels in  the  Holy  Land,  induced 
the  saintly  King  to  undertake  a 
second  crusade.  He  landed  with 
his  army  at  Tunis.  A  pestilence 
broke  out,  and  Louis  was  himself 
seized  with  the  dreadful  malady 
while  visiting  his  stricken  soldiers. 
Lying  on  his  bed  of  pain,  he  prais- 
ed and  thanked  God  for  the  afflic- 
tion which  he  had  sent  him,  and 
begged  him  to  enlighten  and  show 
mercy  to  infidels  and  sinners,  and 
to  lead  his  soldiers  back  into  their 
native  land.  The  holiness  of  his 
life  became  more  manifest  than  ever 
to  all  and  his  humility,  patience, 
resignation,  and  charity  edified  and 
softened  the  hearts  of  even  the 
most  hardened.  When  the  end  ap- 
proached, the  holy  King,  after  re- 
ceiving the  last  sacraments,  lifted 
up  his  eyes  towards  heaven,  and 
repeated  aloud  the  words  of  the 
Psalmist:  "Lord,  I  will  enter  into 
thine  house;  I  will  adore  in  thy 
holy  temple,  and  I  will  give  glory 
to  thy  name." — "Lord,  into  thy 
hands  I  commend  my  spirit."  And 
with  these  sentiments  of  longing 
for  heaven  and  of  confidence  in 
God,  he  breathed  forth  his  soul  on 
August    25,    1270.       His    body    was 

transferred  to  Paris  and  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Denys.  Many 
miracles  were  wrought  at  his  tomb, 
and  he  was  canonized  by  Pope 
Boniface   VIII   on   August   6,    1297. 


Mindful  of  the  words  of  his  pious 
mother,  St.  Louis  was  filled  with  a 
hatred  of  mortal  sin,  and  would 
rather  have  lost  his  kingdom,  yea, 
even  his  life,  than  offend  God 
grievously.  And  these  ought  to  be 
the  sentiments  of  every  Christian. 
For  mortal  sin  is  the  greatest  of 
evils.  Other  evils,  such  as  sickness, 
poverty,  humiliations,  persecution, 
and  even  death,  deprive  us  of  a 
temporal  good;  but  they  are  some- 
times blessings  in  disguise,  soon 
pass  away,  and  bring  us  a  great 
reward,  if  they  are  borne  in  the 
right  manner.  But  mortal  sin  de- 
prives the  sinner  of  the  very  life  of 
the  soul:  sanctifying  grace,  with  all 
it  implies:  the  love  and  friendship 
of  God,  the  right  to  heaven, — God 
himself.  A  terrible  loss;  but  it  is 
in  proportion  to  the  crime.  For 
"mortal  sin  is  an  act  of  rebellion; 
the  sinner  deliberately  turns  away 
from  God,  refuses  to  obey  him.  It 
is  an  insult  offered  the  almighty 
and  most  holy  God;  the  sinner 
despises  God's  commandments,  his 
love  and  friendship,  and  chooses 
rather  to  follow  his  own  inclina- 
tions and  desires,  though  he  is  con- 
scious of  his  dependence  on  God  in 
all  things  and  of  the  punishments 
which  the  justice  of  God  must  in- 
flict upon  him.  And  this  insult  is 
offered  the  infinite  God,  the  kind- 
est Father  for — riches,  honors,  and 
pleasures  that  pass  away,  leaving 
behind  disappointment  and  un- 
happiness.  Let  us  ask  St.  Louis  to 
obtain  for  us  a  great  hatred  of  sin, 
so  that  we  may  always  resist  the 
temptations  of  the  world,  the  flesh, 
and  the  devil,  and  thus  remain  firm 
in  the  love  and  friendship  of  God. 


c^fgr5^^  ^ 

Glories  of  the  Third  Order  of  St.  Francis. 

(For  the  Franciscan  Herald,  from  the  German  of  P.  Camillus  Broell,  0.  M.  Cap.) 

7.     Consummation. 

"1  bear  the  marks  of  the  Lord  Jesus  in  mv 
body"— Gal.  VI.  17. 

OUR  mettlesome  champion  now 
had  an  encounter  which  veri- 
fied the  poet's  words: 
Valiant   he  who  braves  the  lion, 
Valiant  he  who  fears  no  foeman, — 
Valiant,    more    than    all,    who    con- 
quers self. 

Our  hero  was  successful  in  gain- 
ing such  a  victory,  though  it  cost 
him  many  a  painful  effort. 

The  son  of  Bernardone  had  an 
intense  and  very  natural  abhor- 
rence of  leprosy  and  of  those  in- 
fected with  it.  It  chanced  that  he 
came  upon  one  of  these  unfortun- 
ates. A  feeling  of  aversion  arose 
in  Francis,  and  a  dire  struggle  fol- 
lowed. What  does  he  do?  He 
springs  at  once  from  the  saddle, 
gives  the  wretched  creature  an 
alms,  and  embraces  him.  Nay, 
more.  He  submits  to  the  nauseat- 
ing embrace  and  kiss  of  the  hide- 
ous leper.  Overcome  is  the  fear  of 
infection.  Overcome  is  the  natural 
feeling  of  disgust.  Verily  a  glori- 
ous victory  over  his  own  nature. 

On  another  occasion  it  was  his 
own  father  who  caused  the  son  a 
bitter     struggle.  This     worldly- 

minded  man  could  not  understand 
the  conduct  of  his  son  and  looked 
upon  it  as  a  piece  of  foolishness. 
In  consequence,  he  considered  it  his 
duty  as  a  father  to  put  an  end  to 
such   a   course. 

At  first  Bernardone  assailed  his 
son  with  vehement  reproaches  for 
his  mode  of  life.  Francis  was  in 
no  way  disturbed  thereby.  Then 
the  father  had  recourse  to  im- 
prisonment, from  which  a  tender- 
hearted mother  liberated  the  son. 
Thereupon,  as  is  well  known, 
Francis  gave  back  to  his  father 
even  the  clothing  and  the  money 
which  he  still  possessed,  on  which 
occasion  he  uttered  the  ever  mem- 
orable words:  "Hear  ye  all,  and 
understand  it  well.  Up  to  this 
hour  I  have  ever  acknowledged 
Peter  Bernardone  as  my  father. 
Since,  however,  I  have  determined 
to  serve  God  alone,  I  now  return 
to  him  the  money  which  causes  him 
such  worry  and  the  clothes  I  have 
received  from  him,  so  that  from 
this  moment  I  can  say,  'Our  Father 
who  art  in  Heaven,'  and  no  longer, 
'Father   Peter  Bernardone.'  " 

Thus  had  Francis  conquered  self 
and  freed  himself  entirely  from  the 

We  often  read  about  the  conver- 
sion of  St.  Francis.  How  is  this  to 
be  understood?  A  conversion  simi- 
lar to  that  which  we  find  in  the 
lives  of  other  saints,  e.  g.,  St. 
Camillus,  did  not  take  place^in  the 
case  of  our  Seraphic  Father.  f' Fran- 
cis was,  indeed,  as  we  ha\e  sesn,  a 
jovial  youth,  who  kept  himself, 
however,  free  from  any  serious 
aberration.       Of   conversion,    there- 



fore,  in  his  case  we  can  speak  only 
in  as  far  as  it  denotes  complete  re- 
nunciation of  the  world  with  entire 
submission  to  the   Lord. 

The  human  heart  is  so  consti- 
tuted that  it  must  love.  The  more 
the  love  of  creatures  is  banished 
from  it,  the  more  the  love  of  God 
takes  possession.  Francis  had  torn 
his  heart  from  creatures  and  de- 
voted it  to  the  love  of  the  Cruci- 
fied. Henceforth,  this  love  of  his 
would  recognize  no  limit.  All  his 
thoughts  and  aspirations  had  but 
one  end  in  view,  to  become  like 
unto  the  Crucified.  He  served  the 
Lord  as  did  the  Apostle  of  the 
Gentiles  "in  labor  and  painfulness, 
in  much  watchings,  in  hunger  and 
thirst,  in  fastings  often,  in  cold  and 
nakedness."  (II  Cor.  XI,  27.) 
Francis,  the  zealous  follower  of  the 
Crucified,  was  destined  to  receive 
his  reward  in  this  world.  It  was, 
indeed,  a  reward  which  the  world 
could  not  appreciate  or  understand. 
It  was,  furthermore,  a  distinction 
which,  in  its  kind,  has  been  con- 
ferred upon  our  Saint  alone— the 

"Now  then,"  exclaims  St.  Bona- 
venture,  "go  forth,  0  thou  valiant 
champion  of  the  Lord.  Put  on  the 
armor  of  thy  invincible  commander. 
Thus  equipped  and  armed,  thou 
wilt  conquer  every  foe.  Bear  the 
banner  of  the  Highest  King,  at 
sight  of  which  the  soldiers  of  the 
heavenly  host  will  again  take  cour- 

We  all  should  have  a  place 
amongst  these  soldiers  of  the  heav- 
enly host.  We  all  should  follow  in 
the  footsteps  of  the  Crucified.  "If 
any  man  will  come  after  me,  let 
him  deny  himself,  and  take  up  his 
cross,  and  follow  me."  (Mat.  XVI, 
24.)  With  these  words  Jesus  in- 
vites us  to  follow  Him.  May  we 
bravely  follow  whither  He  leads. 
Then  to  us  will  likewise  be  revealed 
the  sweet  mystery  of  the  Cross,  as 
it  was  to  Francis.     Hear  what  our 

authority,  St.  Bonaventure,  says  on 
this  point:  "The  great  and  won- 
derful mystery  of  the  Cross,  in 
which  the  gifts  of  grace,  the  treas- 
ures of  knowledge  and  of  wisdom 
are  so  closely  enveloped  that  it  was 
hidden  from  the  wise  and  prudent 
of  this  world  (Mat.  XI,  25),  was 
so  completely  revealed  to  the  hum- 
ble servant  of  Christ  that  his  life 
followed  only  the  way  of  the  Cross, 
knew  only  the  sweetness  of  the 
Cross,  announced  only  the  glory  of 
the  Cross.  In  the  beginning  of  his 
conversion  he  could  exclaim  with 
the  Apostle,  'God  forbid  that  I 
should  glory,  save  in  the  Cross  of 
our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.'  (Gal.  VI, 
14.)  During  the  course  of  it  he 
could  also  say,  'Whosoever  shall 
follow  this  rule,  peace  on  them,  and 
mercy.'  (lb.  16.)  And  at  its  con- 
summation he  could  add,  'I  bear 
the  marks  of  the  Lord  Jesus  in  my 
body.'  (lb.  17.)  We,  hoAvever, 
long  to  hear  from  his  lips  these 
words,  'The  grace  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  be  with  your  spirit, 
brethren.      Amen.'    (lb.    18.)" 

"The  Most  High  has  humbled 
Himself;  the  Almighty  has  trembled 
with  fear,  and  He  Who  is  happiness 
itself  has  been  overwhelmed  with 
sadness.  What  a  drama  to  see  the 
great  and  mighty  Lord  to  Whom 
the  stars  sing  honor  and  praise, 
Who  is  seated  on  the  Cherubim  and 
holds  in  His  hands  the  whole  uni- 
verse. He  has  humbled  Himself 
beneath  the  foot  of  man  and  offered 

His    Divine    face     to     be and 

insulted  by  sinful  scoffers."   —  St. 
Francis  Solanus. 

"He  truly  loves  his  enemy  who 
does  not  grieve  because  of  the  wrong 
done  to  himself,  but  who  is  afflicted 
for  love  of  God  because  of  the  sin 
on  his  (brother's)  soul  and  who 
shows  his  love  by  his  works." — 
St.  Francis  of  Assisi. 



Little   Catechism   of  the  Third   Order. 

Chapter  IV.     Reception  of  Novices. 

49.  Is  it  necessary  to  have  a 
religious  vocation  in  order  to  enter 
the   Third  Order? 

No;  it  is  not  necessary  to  have  a 
religious  vocation,  in  order  to  be- 
come a  member  of  the  Third  Order; 
it  is  sufficient  to  have  the  qualities 
demanded  by  the  Eule  and  a  desire 
for  Christian  perfection. 

50.  To  become  a  Tertiary,  is  it 
necessary  to  join  a  confraternity 
of  the   Third  Order? 

No;  if  necessity  demands,  one 
may  be  admitted  as  an  isolated  Ter- 
tiary. After  being  received  however, 
such  a  Tertiary  must  make  a  year's 
novitiate,  and  then  pronounce  his 
profession  as  soon  as  possible. 

51.  How  must  an  isolated  Ter- 
tiary  conduct  himself? 

A  Tertiary  who  for  some  cogent 
reason  can  not  enter  a  confraternity 
of  the  Third  Order,  must  strive  con- 
scientiously to  learn  and  fulfill  the 
precepts  of  the  Rule,  and,  as  much 
as  possible,  to  keep  in  touch  with 
the  Order;  for  to  be  an  isolated 
Tertiary  does  not  mean  to  be  a 
negligent  and  independent  member. 

52.  Is  it  advantageous  to  belong 
to  a  confraternity  of  the  Third  Order? 

Yes;  it  is  of  great  advantage  to 
belong  to  a  regular  confraternity, 
both  on  account  of  the  spiritual 
instruction  and  advancement,  and 
on  account  of  the  privileges  and 
indulgences,  to  be  gained  by  the 

53.  What  must  one  do  to  become 
a  member  of  the  Third  Order? 

A    person    desiring    to    become    a 

member,  must  make  formal  appli- 
cation to  the  local  Director  of  the 
Third  Order,  and  if  it  is  agreeable, 
the  applicant  at  once  enters  upon 
the  postulate,  which  lasts  till  the 
day  fixed  by  the  Director  for  the 
reception  or  investment. 

54.  How  does  the  reception  take 

The  reception  into  the  Third 
Order  takes  place  in  the  following 
manner:  On  the  appointed  day  the 
postulant  presents  himself  to  a 
priest  having  the  necessary  faculties 
and  says,  "Reverend  Father,  I 
humbly  ask  of  you  the  habit  of  the 
Third  Order  of  Penance,  in  order 
that  with  it  I  may  more  easily  ob- 
tain eternal  salvation."  Thereupon 
the  postulant  receives  from  the  priest 
the  habit,  the  cord,  and  the  lighted 

55.  What  does   the   habit  signify? 

The  habit  of  penance  with  which 
the  Tertiary  is  clothed,  signifies 
that  he  must  divest  himself  of  the 
old  man  with  his  acts  and  clothe 
himself  with  the  new  man  "who  is 
created  according  to  God  in  justice 
and  holiness  of  truth.'' 

56.  What  does  the  cord  symbolize? 

The  cord  symbolizes  hoi}*  purity, 
which  the  Tertiary  must  preserve 
"by  extinguishing  in  himself  the 
passion  of  lust,  that  the  virtue  of 
continency  and  chastity  may  dwell 
in  him." 

57.  What   does   the   lighted   candle 


It  signifies  the  light  of  Christ, 
communicated   to    the    Tertiary   by 



the  seraphic  form  of  life,  "that, 
being  dead  to  the  world,  he  may  live 
for  God,  shunning  the  works  of 

58.  What  does  the  Rule  prescribe 
regarding  the  habit? 

The  Rule  says,  "The  members 
of  the  Third  Order  must  wear  the 
customary  small  scapular  and  the 
cord,  else  they  will  be  deprived  of 
granted  rights  and  privileges." 

59.  What  is  to  be  noted  regarding 
this  precept? 

It  is  to  be  noted,  first,  that  the 
Tertiary  must  never  be  without  his 
scapular  and  cord;  and,  second, 
that  he  who,  without  sufficient  rea- 
son, fails  to  wear  them,  deprives 
himself  of  the  privileges  of  the  Order. 

60.  What  is  to  be  said  regarding 
the  wearing  of  the  large  habit  of  the 
Third  Order? 

The  large  habit  or  tunic  of  brown 
wool  may  be  worn  wherever  custo- 
mary at  the  reunions  of  the  members 
and  on  other  occasions  provided 
for  by  the  law  of  the  Church. 

61.  What  does  the  Rule  say  re- 
garding the  novitiate? 

The  Rule  simply  says  that  "all 
who  enter  the  Third  Order,  whether 
men  or  women,  shall  make  a  year's 
novitiate."  In  order  that  the  pro- 
fession may  be  valid,  the  year  of  the 
novitiate  must  be  complete  to  the 
day;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  the 
term  of  the  novitiate  should  not  be 
prolonged  indefinitely. 

62.  Do  the  novices  enjoy  any 
privileges  of  the  Order? 

Yes;  the  novices  participate  in 
the  privileges  of  the  Order,  notably 
in  the  indulgences,  provided  they 
fulfill  the  obligations,  especially  in 
regard  to  the  wearing  of  the  habit. 

63.  How  should  the  novice  con- 
duct himself? 

The  novice  must  strive  conscien- 
tiously to  learn  and  observe  the 
Rule,  faithfully  to  attend  the  meet- 
ings, and  to  show  respect  and  charity 
to  his  superiors  and  to  his  con- 

64.  What  should  a  novice  do  when 
tempted  to  leave  the  Order? 

He  should  ask  of  God  the  grace  of 
perseverance,  and,  if  necessary,  he 
should  disclose  the  temptation  to 
the  Director. 

65.  Should  the  novice  ardently 
desire  the  grace  of  profession? 

Yes;  the  novice  should  have  an 
ardent  desire  to  give  himself  to  God 
by  making  profession  in  the  Third 
Order;  accordingly,  he  should  en- 
deavor to  render  himself  worthy  of 
this  grace  by  devout  prayer  and  earn- 
est preparation  and  by  fidelity  in 
the  observance  of  the  Rule. 

Brothers  and  Sisters  in  St.  Fran- 
cis! A  struggle  is  preparing  between 
the  classes,  and  it  threatens  to  be 
terrible.  Hence,  let  us  precipitate 
ourselves  between  the  hostile  ranks, 
so  as  to  deaden  the  shock,  if  we 
cannot  prevent  it.  The  question 
which  agitates  the  world  today,  is 
not  a  question  of  political  form,  but 
a  social  question,  the  struggle  of 
those  who  have  nothing,  with  those 
who  have  plenty,  the  violent  at- 
tack of  poverty  and  opulence,  which 
makes  the  ground  tremble  under  our 
feet.  Our  duty  is  to  throw  our- 
selves between  these  enemies  and 
induce  the  one  side  to  give  in  order 
to  fulfill  the  law,  and  the  other  to 
receive  our  mediation  as  a  benefit; 
to  render  equality  as  general  as 
possible  among  men,  and  to  see 
justice  done  all  around,  to  make 
peace  between  our  neighbor  and 
God. — Franciscan   Annals   of   India. 

Missionary  Labors  of  the  Franciscans  among 
the  Indians  of  the  Early  Days. 


By  Fr.  Zephyrin  Engelhardt,  0.  F.  M. 

INASMUCH  as  it  pertains  to  our 
duty  as  pastor,  and  to  the 
apostolic  office  which  we  oc- 
cupy, to  endeavor  in  every  manner 
and  by  all  means  within  our  power 
to  spread  the  Faith  of  Christ,  our 
Redeemer,  so  that  all  nations  may 
come  to  the  knowledge  of  God  and 
save  their  souls,  we  beseech  Your 
Majesty  to  be  pleased  to  provide 
and  command  by  means  that  seem 
just,  that  Florida  and  its  inhabi- 
tants may  come  to  the  knowledge 
of  their  Creator;  for  that  country 
is  close  by,  and  we  know  that  its 
countless  people  will  perish,  not 
having  any  one  who  might  preach 
the  Gospel  to  them."  Such  was 
the  petition  which  the  Rt.  Rev. 
Juan  de  Urango,  Bishop  of  Santi- 
ago de  Cuba,  in  1555,  addressed  to 
the  King  of  Spain  in  order  to  con- 
vince him  of  the  necessity  of  plant- 
ing colonies  on  that  peninsula. 

Philip  II,  who  had  succeeded 
Charles  V  in  1557,  approved  of  the 
proposition,  especially,  as  it  became 
imperative  from  a  political  point 
of  view  to  subjugate  the  territory 
bordering  on  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 
The  king  confided  the  execution  of 
the  project  to  Viceroy  Luis  de 
Velasco  of  New  Spain,  as  Mexico 
was  then  called,  who  in  turn  ap- 
pointed Don  Tristan  de  Luna  gov- 
ernor   of    Florida    and    commander 

of  the  expedition  to  be  sent  out 
for  its  conquest.  Tristan's  force, 
consisting  of  about  1500  soldiers 
and  prospective  settlers,  besides 
Indian  aids,  embarked  at  Vera 
Cruz  on  June  11,  1559,  in  thirteen 
ships.  Before  setting  sail  Don 
Tristan  and  his  men  listened  to  a 
fervent  address  of  the  viceroy,  who 
reminded  all  that  they  were  engaged 
in  a  glorious  enterprise  for  God  and 
the  king,  and  that  therefore  they 
should  treat  the  natives  with  gen- 

The  ecclesiastics  who  went  along 
were  the  Dominicans  Fr.  Pedro  de 
Feria,  as  Superior,  Fr.  Domingo  de 
la  Annunciacion,  Fr.  Domingo  de 
Salazar,  Fr.  Juan  Mazuelas,  Fr. 
Domingo  de  Santo  Domingo,  and 
Fr.  Bartolome  Matheos,  apparently 
a  lay-brother. 

The  fleet  crossed  the  gulf  and 
reached  Pensacola  Bay  Unfor- 
tunately, Don  Tristan  proved  unfit 
for  such  an  undertaking,  and  there- 
fore failed  to  employ  the  means 
which  might  have  resulted  in  suc- 
cess. The  consequence  was  dissen- 
sions and  failure.  Angel  de  Villa- 
fane  was  sent  by  the  viceroy  to 
take  Tristan's  place,  and  with  him 
came  Fr.  Gregorio  de  Beteta  and 
Fr.  Juan  de  Contreras,  Domini- 
cans; but  at  a  general  council  it 
was  resolved  to  abandon  the  coun- 



try  which  appeared  utterly  un- 
suitecl  for  colonization. 

Pedro  Menendez  cle  Aviles,  a  fam- 
ous naval  commander,  whose  son 
had  perished  in  a  shipwreck  on  the 
Florida  coast,  was  next  authorized 
by  King  Philip  II  to  establish  a 
colony  on  the  peninsula,  but  at  his 
own  expense.  While  fitting  out  the 
expedition  in  Andalusia,  the  news 
reached  Spain  that  French  Hugue- 
nots or  Calvinists  had  planted  a 
settlement  in  Florida.  Philip  gave 
Menendez  orders  to  drive  them 
away,  and  converted  the  private 
expedition  into  one  of  national 
import  by  contributing  one  ship 
and  two  hundred  and  ninety-nine 
soldiers  at  the  cost  of  the  royal 
treasury.  The  whole  fleet  con- 
sisted of  2646  persons  in  twenty 
ships.  The  commander  himself  had 
expended  as  much  as  1,000,000 
ducats  in  less  than  fourteen  months. 
He  sailed  from  Cadiz  on  June  29, 
1565.  The  expedition  before  reach- 
ing the  open  sea^counted1  among  its 
members  five  seculars,  one  Friar 
of  the  Order  of  our  Lady  of  Ran- 
som, eight  Jesuits,  and  twelve 
Franciscans.  A  great  storm  soon 
scattered  the  vessels,  so  that  Men- 
endez when  he  reached  Porto  Rico 
could  muster  only  one-third  of  his 
force  of  men  and  ships. 

On  the  island  the  commander 
learned  that  a  French  expedition 
under  Jean  Ribaut  had  preceded 
him  and  captured  a  Spanish  vessel. 
He  decided  therefore  not  to  await 
the  arrival  of  the  other  ships,  but 
to  attack  the  French  settlement 
without  delay.  Accordingly,  he 
reached  the  eastern  coast  of  Florida 
on  August  28,  1565,  the  feast  of 
St.  Augustine.  Some  of  the  Span- 
iards were  landed  and  went  to 
work  to  fortify  a  large  Indian  struc- 
ture which  a  friendly  Indian  chief 
had  ceded  for  that  purpose.  On 
Frid  (y,  September  7,  Menendez 
sent  his  three  smaller  ships  into 
the     harbor,     and     three     hundred 

more  colonists  went  ashore,  to- 
gether with  the  married  men,  their 
Avives  and  their  children.  On  the 
following  day,  (the  feast  of  the 
Nativity  of  our  Lady,)  the  rest  of 
the  colonists,  one  hundred  in  num- 
ber, and  supplies  were  put  ashore, 
after  which  the  commander  himself 
landed  amidst  the  waving  of  flags, 
the  sounding  of  trumpets,  and  the 
salutes  of  the  artillery.  The  chap- 
lain, Rev.  Francisco  de  Mendoza, 
who  had  landed  the  previous  day, 
advanced  in  procession  with  the 
soldiers  carrying  the  cross  and 
chanting  the  Te  Deum.  Menendez 
on  bended  knee  kissed  the  cross,  as 
did  all  who  followed  him.  High 
Mass  was  offered  up  in  honor  of 
the  Blessed  Virgin  on  a  spot  which 
thereafter  was  known  as  Nombre 
de  Dios,  because  there  the  Holy 
Name  of  God  was  first  solemnly  in- 
voked. The  commander  then  took 
formal  possession  of  the  country  in 
the  name  of  the  king.  This  was  the 
beginning  of  St.  Augustine,  without 
doubt  the  oldest  city  or  white 
settlement   in  the   United  States. 

The  Spanish  commander  next 
proceeded-  to  carry  out  the  royal 
order  regarding  the  French  fort, 
which  had  been  erected  by  French 
Huguenots  on  territory  claimed  by 
Spain,  about  five  leagues  north  of 
St.  Augustine.  After  incredible 
hardships,  suffered  in  pushing  on- 
ward through  swamps  and  unceas- 
ing rain,  Menendez  surprised  the 
unsuspecting  Frenchmen  at  day- 
break of  September  21,  and  put  all 
to  the  sword,  sparing  only  the 
women  and  children  and  the  males 
under  fifteen  years  of  age.  Next 
day  holy  Mass  was  celebrated  in 
thanksgiving  in  the  fort,  which  the 
commander  on  account  of  the  feast 
on  the  day  of  victory  christened 
San  Mateo.  Leaving  a  strong  gar- 
rison there,  Menendez  made  his 
way  back  through  the  swamps  to 
St.  Augustine.  Soon  after  he  also 
captured    the    shipwrecked    French 



general,  Jean  Ribaut, '  with  all  his 
sailors  and  soldiers  and,  although 
they  had  surrendered,  put  them  to 
death,  save  those  who  confessed 
themselves  Catholics.  Menendez 
justified  this  wholesale  slaughter  by 
the  statement  that  he  would  have 
had  nothing  to  eat  for  them,  and 
that  even  so  the  prisoners  who  were 
more  numerous  than  his  own  men 
menaced  the  lives  of  the  Spaniards. 
Moreover,  the  captured  men  de- 
served no  mercy  because  they  were 
pirates.  Two  years  later  the  French 
under  Dominique  Gorgues  retali- 
ated, when  they  in  like  manner 
and  out  of  revenge  massacred  the 
entire  garrison  of  Fort.  San  Mateo. 

As  no  religious  had  come  along 
to  Florida,  no  effort  was  made  to 
reach  the  Indians.  For  the  present 
the  two  or  three  secular  priests 
were  obliged  to  confine  themselves 
to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  set- 
tlers and  soldiers  at  St.  Augustine 
and  San  Mateo.  Although  no 
Indian  mission  was  established  at 
this  time,  Menendez  effected  what 
no  other  Spanish  official  before  him 
succeeded  in  bringing  about,  he  se- 
cured a  firm  foothold  for  Spanish 
missionary  activity,  which,  please 
God,  will  be  described  in  subse- 
quent issues  of  the  Franciscan 

Corpus  Christi  among  the  Menominee 


By  Fr.  Nicholas  Christ  off  el,  0.  F.  M. 

At  early  dawn  the  firing  is  re- 
sumed, stirring  the  sleepers  from 
their  short  slumber.  A  number  of  the 
reverend  clergy  of  the  diocese  always 
come  to  take  part  in  the  celebration. 
Holy  Masses  are,  therefore,  begun 
soon  after  five  o'clock.  At  nine 
o'clock,  solemn  High  mass  is  cele- 
brated in  the  presence  of  the  Bishop, 
followed  by  a  sermon  appropriate 
to  the  occasion;  and  then  the  grand 
procession  is  formed,  and  starts  out 
amid  the  joyful  pealings  of  the  bells 
and  the  reverberating  echo  of  the 
cannon.  Slowly  and  solemnly  it 
wends  its  way  along  the  usual  line. 
It  is  headed  by  the  United  States 
flag  and  the  Menominee  Brass  Band. 
Then  follow  in  order  the  cross- 
bearer  with  two  acolytes;  the  boys 
and  girls  from  both  the  Mission  and 
the  Government  schools  accom- 
panied respectively  by  the  Brothers 
and  Sisters;  then,  twenty-four  little 

girls  dressed  in  white  , strewing  greens 
and  flowers  on  the  way.  After  these 
come  the  reverend  clergy,  the  server- 
boys  and  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  carry- 
ing the  Blessed  Sacrament  under  a 
canopy,  which  is  borne  by  four  prom- 
inent men,  who  are  selected  from 
the  respective  congregations  and 
change  at  each  chapel.  Next  follow 
the  members  of  the  three  branches 
of  the  Temperance  Society,  of  the 
Society  of  Christian  Mothers,  and  of 
the  Altar-society,  all,  as  well  as  the 
school-children  with  their  banner. 
Finally,  come  all  the  Catholic  men 
and  women,  Meno  minees  and  whites, 
from  outside,  who  wish  to  take  part 
in  the  procession  and  pay  their  trib- 
ute of  honor  and  adoration  to  their 
Eucharistic  God.  From  the  various 
divisions  of  the  long  procession 
prayers  and  hymns  ^of  praise  and 
thanksgiving  in  divers  languages  are 
heard    resounding    in    the    air:    the 



reverend  clergy  pray  and  sing  in 
Latin,  the  school-children  in  English, 
the  Menominees  in  their  vernacular 
or  in  Chippewa,  and  a  good  number 
of  German  and  Irish,  from  the  settle- 
ments adjoining  the  Reservation, 
in  their  own  languages.  Three  times 
the  procession  makes  a  short  halt 
at  the  several  chapels,  the  multi- 
tudes kneel  down  to  pay  their  homage 
to  their  good  God  and  Savior  and  to 
receive    His    Sacramental    Blessing. 

of  praise  and  thanksgiving.  This 
closes  the  celebration  of  the  morning. 

The  people,  however,  linger  for 
some  time  on  the  Mission  grounds 
to  listen  to  the  merry  airs  played  by 
the  brass  band,  which  is  posted  in 
front  of  the  Fathers'  residence  to 
entertain  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  and 
the  visiting  clergy. 

In  the  afternoon  the  Sacrament  of 
Confirmation  is  administered  and 
Benediction  with  the  Blessed  Sacra- 

The  whole  is  a  grand  demonstration 
of  faith,  of  Catholic  belief  in  the  Real 
Presence  of  Jesus  in  the  Blessed 
Sacrament,  and  cannot  fail  to  make 
a  salutary  and  lasting  impression  on 
all  the  spectators,  hundreds  of  whom 
flock  to  Keshena  from  far  and  near 
to  view  the  procession.  It  is  close  to 
twelve  o'clock  when  the  procession 
returns  to  the  church,  which  is  far 
too  small  to  contain  the  crowd.  After 
Sacramental  Benediction  is  given 
for  the  last  time,  the  Te  Deum  is  sol- 
emnly intoned  and  the  vast  mul- 
titudes once  more  give  vent  to  their 
feelings  of  joy  and  gratitude  by 
joining    in    the    well-known    hymn 

ment  once  more  imparted.  After 
the  services  the  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop, 
accompanied  by  the  clergy  proceeds 
to  the  school,  where  he  is  briefly 
entertained  by  the  children  with 
appropriate  songs  and  speeches.  To- 
wards evening,  His  Lordship  and  all 
the  Rev.  Fathers,  who  have  honored 
the  Mission  with  their  presence,  bid 
farewell  and  leave  with  the  "God- 
speed" and  sincere  thanks  of  the 
inmates  of  the  Mission. 

Thus  ends  the  imposing  celebra- 
tion of  the  feast  of  Corpus  Christi  at 
Keshena.  It  is  a  powerful  means 
to  keep  faith  and  Catholic  feeling- 
alive  and  strong  in  the  hearts  of  the 



Menoininees,  who  thereby  not  only 
give  undisguised  expression  to  their 
religious  belief,  but  at  the  same  time 
make  a  solemn  and  public  act  of 
reparation  for  the  many  failings  of 

the  past,  and  for  the  many  outrages 
perpetrated  nowadays  all  over  the 
world  against  the  most  adorable 
Sacrament  of  the  Altar. 

An   Old    Franciscan    Mission    in    Arizona, 

By  Fr.  Tiburtius  Wand,  O.  F.  M.,  Missionary  among  the  Papagos. 

The  pictures  of  the  Old  Missions 
of  California  and  Texas  are  spread 
far  and  wide  over  the  country,  al- 
though of  some  of  the  buildings 
but  a  few  tottering  walls  remain. 
Of  the  Missions  in  Arizona,  San 
Xavier  del  Bac,  the  most  beautiful 

word  tschiama  Kakolk,  i.  e.,  where 
the  clay  makes. a  curve  (brickarch). 
After  Guevavi  and  San  Ignacio 
de  Sonoita  were  given  up  in  1784, 
Tumacacori  received  its  own  resi- 
dent priest  and  from  that  time  the 
place    prospered.       In    1791,  a   new 

of  all,  is  the  only  one  known. 
About  forty  miles  south  from  the 
last  named  mission  we  find  the  well 
preserved  ruins  of  the  Mission  of 
Tumacacori,  which  only  last  year 
was  declared  a  government  reserva- 
tion. This  Mission  was  built  dur- 
ing the  mission-period  of  the  Fran- 
ciscans, and  therefore  well  deserves 
a  little  notice. 

The    name    Tumacacori    is    most 
probably   derived  from  the   Indian 

roof  was  put  on  the  church,  but 
soon  after  they  seem  to  have  start- 
ed work  at  the  new  church,  which 
is  known  to  have  been  completed 
in  1822.  In  this  year  the  Padre 
wrote:  "I,  Roman  Liberos,  priest 
of  San  Jose  de  Tumacacori,  have 
on  the  13th  day  of  December,  1822, 
removed  the  remains  of  Fathers 
Baltazar  Carillo  and  Narciso  Guti- 
erres  from  the  old  church  and  in- 
terred them  in  the  sanctuary  on  the 



gospel  side."  The  two  padres  of 
whom  mention  is  made,  were  the 
succeeding  superiors  and  builders 
of  the  large  Mission  of  San  Xavier 
del  Bac. 

But     Tumacacori     was     not     to 
nourish   long.       The    cruel    Apaches 
extended    their    murderous    expedi- 
tions   even    to    here,    and    in    1849, 
after  the  Padres  had  been  expelled 
for    some    time    already,    they    suc- 
ceeded in  setting  fire  to  the  church. 
Since    then    Tumacocori    has    been 
in  ruins.    The  Indians  to-day  speak 
of   an   old   woman,    who   saved   the 
large  wooden  statue  of  St.  Gaetan, 
which  was  held  in  great  esteem  by 
these   Mission   Indians,   by   putting 
it    into    her    Kioho    (the    carrying- 
basket  of  the  Indian  women),   and 
carrying     it     forty     miles     to     San 
Xavier  del  Bac,  where  it  is  still  to 
be  seen.      The  statue  is  somewhat 
charred  and  the  Indians  have  there- 
fore clothed  it  with  a  surplice  and 
a  black  collar.      The  sacred  vessels 
seem  also  to  have  been  saved.     At 
least  a  Mexican  told  me  that   six- 
teen years  ago  a  priest  from  Sonora 
visited  the  place  and  examined  the 
walls.     Whilst  tapping  the  walls  he 
heard  a  hollow  report  on  the  gospel 
side.      During  the  night   he  is  said 
to    have    returned    and   opened   the 
place,  and  on  the  following  morning 
he  disappeared.      What  truth  there 
is  in  the  story  is  hard  to  tell,  but 
at    any    rate    ever    since    then    the 
heads   of   the    Mexicans   have   been 
filled     with     vague     dreamings     of 
hidden  treasures  and  treasure-seek- 
ers have  unearthed  every  nook  and 
corner  of  the  building,  and  have  not 
even     hesitated     to     desecrate     the 
graves  of  the  dead.     WThiist  digging 
in   the    sanctuary,    they    found    the 
grave  of  the  above  named  padres. 
The    Mission    of    Tumacacori    is 
exactly    forty    miles    south    of    San 
Xavier     del     Bac     and     3^     miles 
from    the    presidio    of    Tubac.       It 
lies  in  the  fertile  valley  watered  by 
the   Santa   Cruz   river.      It   was   in 

the  evening  when  I  arrived  at  the 
place  after  a  tiresome  journey,  and 
I  found  the  ruins  lit  up  by  the 
mild,  mellow  light  of  the  setting 
sun.  Hidden  from  view  by  the 
overtowering  mesquito  trees,  it  was 
impossible  at  the  first  glance  to 
see  the  devastation  that  time  and 
vandalism  had  wrought. 

The   cupola  above  the  sanctuary 
is   still   intact.    In  contrast  to  other 
Mission   churches    of   the   territory, 
this  one  has  only  one  tower.     The 
walls    are    from    six    to    eight    feet 
thick,    and    within    the    walls    is    a 
small  stair  case  leading  to  the  top. 
The  facade  of  the  building  is  very 
beautiful;  broken  by  small,  slender 
pillars,    it    has    almost    the    appear- 
ance of  an  Egyptian  temple.     The 
church  had  but  one  nave,  and  the 
whole  roof  up  to  the  sanctuary,  has 
caved    in.       There    seems    to    have 
been   very   little    decoration   in   the 
church,  as  only  in  the  sanctuary  a 
few  traces  of  painting  can  be  found. 
The  adobe  slabs  of  the  altar  table 
are  still  preserved  and  so  I  had  the 
happiness     of    reading    holy     Mass 
above  the  graves  of  the  old  padres. 
Behind   the    sanctuary   we   found 
the    cemetery,     about    an    acre    in 
extent,  enclosed  within  a  high  wall, 
in   which   many   small   niches   were 
noticed.    In  the  center  of  the  grave- 
yard parts  of  the  walls  of  the  round 
vault  in  which  the  dead  were  pre- 
served    before     burial,     were     still 
standing.    To  the  right  of  the  ceme- 
tery  we   saw  the   walls   of   a   large 
building,    presumably   the   residence 
of  the   padres,    as   it   surely   served 
to   shelter   some  two   or  three  per- 
sons.   It  is  really  wonderful  how  the 
old   padres    could   build   such   large 
places    with    the    small    means    at 
their  disposal.     On  the  other  hand 
we  can  easily  understand  why  the 
Mexicans    and    the    Americans,    at 
the    sight    of    these    large    buildings 
thought   that   the   old   padres   must 
have  worked  some  secret  gold  mines 
to    procure    the    necessary    means. 



Even  Protestants,  e.  g.,  the  traveler 
K.  Bumholz,  who  certainly  does  not 
favor  Catholics,  in  his  work  "New 
Trails  in  Mexico,"  cannot  refrain 
from  praising  the  work  of  the  old 
Franciscan  pione